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Business Strategy

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Sleep Disorder

Gangguan tidur merupakan hal yang dapat dialamai oleh semua manusia di usia berapapun juga khususnya pada usia tua gangguan tidur semakin sering terjadi , tentunya gangguan tidur ini sangat mengganggu dan dapat mempengaruhi aktifitas sehari-hari, jika gangguan tidur hanya sebatas tidak dapat tidur dalam semalam saja mungkin tidak akan menjadi masalah, tetapi jika gangguan tidur sampai mempengaruhi aktifitas sehari-hari serta kondisi tubuh maka pasti akan menimbulkan kegelisahan dan ketidak nyamanan, seperti yang diketahui sebagai makhluk hidup tentunya seseorang membutuhkan tidur yang cukup dan berkualitas, tetapi lain halnya dengan orang-orang yang mengalami gangguan tidur, gangguan tidur tidak hanya seperti yang sering kita dengan yaitu “insomnia” tetapi bervariasi. Hampir semua orang pernah mengalami gangguan tidur selama masa kehidupannya. Diperkirakan tiap tahun 20%-40% orang dewasa mengalami kesukaran tidur dan 17% diantaranya mengalami masalah serius.
Prevalensi gangguan tidur setiap tahun cendrung meningkat, hal ini juga sesuai dengan peningkatan usia dan berbagai penyebabnya. Kaplan dan Sadock melaporkan kurang lebih 40-50% dari populasi usia lanjut menderita gangguan tidur. Gangguan tidur kronik (10-15%) disebabkan oleh gangguan psikiatri, ketergantungan obat dan alkohol. Menurut data internasional of sleep disorder, prevalensi penyebab-penyebab gangguan tidur adalah sebagai berikut: Penyakit asma (61-74%), gangguan pusat pernafasan (40-50%), kram kaki malam hari (16%), psychophysiological (15%), sindroma kaki gelisah (5-15%), ketergantungan alkohol (10%), sindroma terlambat tidur (5-10%), depresi (65). Demensia (5%), gangguan perubahan jadwal kerja (2-5%), gangguan obstruksi sesak saluran nafas (1-2%), penyakit ulkus peptikus (<1%), narcolepsy (mendadak tidur) (0,03%-0,16%)

Etiologi Sleep Disorder

A. Pada tahun 1984, The International Institute of Health membuat suatu konsensus pengelompokan gangguan tidur berdasarkan lamanya gangguan yang terdiri dari:
1. Transient yaitu jika gangguan tidurnya kurang dari 7 hari
2. Short term yaitu jika gangguan tidurnya menetap lebih dari 7 hari dan kurang dari 3 minggu. Kedua gangguan tersebut biasanya berhubungan dengan stress yang akut seperti perubahan kehidupan sosial, peningkatan emosional, faktor lingkungan, faktor sistemik, kelainan gangguan kesehatan, desinkronisaso irama sirkadian
3. Long term yaitu jika gangguan tidur menetap lebih dari 3 minggu. Biasanya berhubungan dengan gangguan tidur primer, gangguan psikiatri, gangguan kesehatan, gangguan psikologi.

B. Pada tahun 1990, American Sleep Disorders Association membuat reklasifikasi untuk mencari kemungkinan penyebab gangguan tidur menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu:
1. Dissomnia, misalnya: ganguan intrisik, gangguan ekstrisik, gangguan irama sirkadian
2. Parasomnia, misalnya: Gangguan aurosal, gangguan bangun-tidur, berhubungan fase REM 2002 digitized by USU digital library 10
3. Gangguan kesehatan/psikiatri, misalnya: gangguan mental, gangguan neurologi, gangguan kesehatan
4. Gangguan yang tidak terklasifikasi

Sleep Walking/Somnabulisme

Sleep Walking termasuk dalam Parasomnia yaitu merupakan kelompok heterogen yang terdiri dari kejadian-kejadian episode yang berlangsung pada malam hari pada saat tidur atau pada waktu antara bangun dan tidur. Kasus ini sering berhubungan dengan gangguan perubahan tingkah laku danaksi motorik potensial, sehingga sangat potensial menimbulkan angka kesakitan dan kematian, Insidensi ini sering ditemukan pada usia anak berumur 3-5 tahun (15%) dan mengalami perbaikan atau penurunan insidensi pada usia dewasa (3%).
Sleep Walking merupakan gangguan tingkah laku yang sangat komplek termasuk adanya automatis dan semipurposeful aksi motorik, seperti membuka pintu, menutup pintu, duduk ditempat tidur, menabrak kursi, berjalan kaki, berbicara. Tingkah laku berjalan dalam beberapa menit dan kembali tidur. Gambaran tipikal gangguan tingkah laku ini didapat dengan gelombang tidur yang rendah, berlangsung 1/3 bagian pertama malam selama tidur NREM pada stadium 3 dan 4. Selama serangan, relatif tidak memberikan respon terhadap usaha orang lain untuk berkomunikasi dengannya dan dapat dibangunkan susah payah.

Tipe NREM dibagi dalam 4 stadium yaitu:

1. Tidur stadium Satu.
Fase ini merupakan antara fase terjaga dan fase awal tidur. Fase ini didapatkan kelopak mata tertutup, tonus otot berkurang dan tampak gerakan bola mata kekanan dan kekiri. Fase ini hanya berlangsung 3-5 menit dan mudah sekali dibangunkan. Gambaran EEG biasanya terdiri dari gelombang campuran alfa, betha dan kadang gelombang theta dengan amplitudo yang rendah. Tidak didapatkan adanya gelombang sleep spindle dan kompleks K
2. Tidur stadium dua
Pada fase ini didapatkan bola mata berhenti bergerak, tonus otot masih berkurang, tidur lebih dalam dari pada fase pertama. Gambaran EEG terdiri dari gelombang theta simetris. Terlihat adanya gelombang sleep spindle, gelombang verteks dan komplek K
3. Tidur stadium tiga
Fase ini tidur lebih dalam dari fase sebelumnya. Gambaran EEG terdapat lebih banyak gelombang delta simetris antara 25%-50% serta tampak gelombang sleep spindle.
4. Tidur stadium empat
Merupakan tidur yang dalam serta sukar dibangunkan. Gambaran EEG didominasi oleh gelombang delta sampai 50% tampak gelombang sleep spindle.

Fase tidur NREM, ini biasanya berlangsung antara 70 menit sampai 100 menit, setelah itu akan masuk ke fase REM. Pada waktu REM jam pertama prosesnya berlangsung lebih cepat dan menjadi lebih insten dan panjang saat menjelang pagi atau bangun. Pola tidur REM ditandai adanya gerakan bola mata yang cepat, tonus otot yang sangat rendah, apabila dibangunkan hampir semua organ akan dapat menceritakan mimpinya, denyut nadi bertambah dan pada laki-laki terjadi eraksi penis, tonus otot menunjukkan relaksasi yang dalam. Pola tidur REM berubah sepanjang kehidupan seseorang seperti periode neonatal bahwa tidur REM mewakili 50% dari waktu total tidur. Periode neonatal ini pada EEG-nya masuk ke fase REM tanpa melalui stadium 1 sampai 4. Pada usia 4 bulan pola berubah sehingga persentasi total tidur REM berkurang sampai 40% hal ini sesuai dengan kematangan sel-sel otak, kemudian akan masuk keperiode awall tidur yang didahului oleh fase NREM kemudian fase REM pada dewasa muda dengan distribusi fase tidur sebagai berikut:
- NREM (75%) yaitu stadium 1: 5%; stadium 2 : 45%; stadium 3 : 12%; stadium 4 : 13%
- REM; 25 %.

Penyebab: * Kelelahan * Stres * Gelisah * Sakit * Kurang tidur (sleep deprivation) * Stress psikososial * Konsumsi alkohol dan obat-obat tertentu seperti antibiotic, antihistamin, sedative dan pil tidur dapat memicu sleepwalking

Symptoms: * Seperti membuka pintu, * menutup pintu, * duduk ditempat tidur, * menabrak kursi, * berjalan kaki, * berbicara (semua ini dilakukan sambil tertidur)

Treatment :

Konseling dan Psikotherapi

Psikotherapi sangat membantu pada pasien dengan gangguan psikiatri seperti (depressi, obsessi, kompulsi), gangguan tidur kronik. Dengan psikoterapi ini kita dapat membantu mengatasi masalah-masalah gangguan tidur yang dihadapi oleh penderita tanpa penggunaan obat hipnotik.

Sleep hygiene terdiri dari:
a. Tidur dan bangunlah secara reguler/kebiasaan
b. Hindari tidur pada siang hari/sambilan
c. Jangan mengkonsumsi kafein pada malam hari
d. Jangan menggunakan obat-obat stimulan seperti decongestan
e. Lakukan latihan/olahraga yang ringan sebelum tidur
f. Hindari makan pada saat mau tidur, tapi jangan tidur dengan perut kosong g. Segera bangun dari tempat bila tidak dapat tidur (15-30 menit)
h. Hindari rasa cemas atau frustasi
i. Buat suasana ruang tidur yang sejuk, sepi, aman dan enak

Pendekatan farmakologi

Dalam mengobati gejala gangguan tidur, selain dilakukan pengobatan secara kausal, juga dapat diberikan obat golongan sedatif hipnotik. Pada dsarnya semua obat yang mempunyai kemampuan hipnotik merupakan penekanan aktifitas dari reticular activating system (ARAS) diotak. Hal tersebut didapatkan pada berbagai obat yang menekan susunan saraf pusat, mulai dari obat anti anxietas dan beberapa obat anti depres. Obat hipnotik selain penekanan aktivitas susunan saraf pusat yang dipaksakan dari proses fisiologis, juga mempunyai efek kelemahan yang dirasakan efeknya pada hari berikutnya(longacting) sehingga mengganggu aktifitas sehari hari.Begitu pula bila pemakain obat jangka panjang dapat menimbulkan over dosis dan ketergantungan obat. Sebelum mempergunakan obat hipnotik, harus terlebih dahulu ditentukan jenis gangguan tidur misalnya, apakah gangguan pada fase latensi panjang (NREM) gangguan pendek, bangun terlalu dini, cemas sepanjang hari, kurang tidur pada malam hari, adanya perubahan jadwal kerja/kegiatan atau akibat gangguan penyakit primernya. Walaupun oba thipnotik tidak ditunjukkan dalam penggunaan gangguan tidur kronik, tapi dapat dipergunakan hanya untuk sementara, sambil dicari penyebab yang mendasari. Dengan pemakaian obat yang rasional, obat hipnotik hanya untuk mengkoreksi dari problema gangguan tidur sedini mungkin tanpa menilai kondisi primernya dan harus berhati-hati pada pemakaian obat hipnotik untuk jangka panjang karena akan menyebabkan 2002 digitized by USU digital library 11 terselubungnya kondisi yang mendasarinya serta akan berlanjut tanpa penyelesaian yang memuaskan.
Jadi yang terpenting dalam penggunaan obat hipnotik adalah mengidentifikasi dari problem gangguan tidur sedini mungkin tanpa menilai kondisi primernya danharus berhati-hati pada pemakain obat hipnotik untuk jangka panjang karena akan menyebabkan terselubungnya kondisi yang mendasarinya serta akan berlanjut tanpa penyelesaian yang memuaskan. Jadi yang terpenting dalam penggunaan obat hipnotik adalah mengidentifikasi penyebab yang mendasarinya atau obat hipnotik adalah sebagai pengobatan tambahan. Pemilihan obat hipnotik sebaiknya diberikan jenis obat yang bereaksi cepat (short action) dgnmembatasi penggunaannya sependek mungkin yang dapat mengembalikan pola tidur yang normal. Lamanya pengobatan harus dibatasi 1-3 hari untuk transient insomnia, dan tidak lebih dari 2 minggu untuk short term insomnia. Untuk long term insomnia dapat dilakukan evaluasi kembali untuk mencari latar belakang penyebab gangguan tidur yang sebenarnya. Bila penggunaan jangka panjang sebaiknya obat tersebut dihentikan secara berlahan-lahan untuk menghindarkan withdraw terapi.

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Business Strategy Lululemon

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