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Child Study


Submitted By tihanymae01
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I. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHILD A. Developmental information.
This child named Tina was born naturally in a hospital. She started to crawl at the age of six months and began sitting at the age of a year. Her speaking skills started to show when she is a year and a half old. According to her parents she doesn't have any inborn illnesses. She is talkative when in front of the relatives or people known to her but she's shy when in front of other people. She is very playful whenever she’s at school or at home. She is maturing and developing upwards as we observe her. B. Physical description.
She has fair skin and long hair. Her eyes are brown. She is about 3 feet and a half in height. She is taller than her classmates. She has black hair. She has medium body built compared to her age.

C. Selection of child.
We selected this child based on her behavior and family background. Based on her behavior because we saw that her behavior towards school and her development in maturity is high. We also choose her because of family background due to the fact that family has a great factor in the child's development. D. Educational placement or setting.
When we accompany the child in school we have noticed the colorful room and lots of play things like puzzles and musical instruments. The room is decorated by posters giving information about different subjects like math and science. The room can accommodate all the children in a class. It is well lighted and ventilated.


A. Gross (large) motor skills.
She can walk, run, jump, climb, throw, catch, swing, hop, skip, and dance. She can walk in a slow or fast pace. She also run and do other skills specially when playing with her friends. She can dance as well but quite shy. As we observed, she is well developed with these skills and her performance is normal just like with the other children too. B. Fine (small) motor skills.
She is good in handling small objects and can use thumb and index finger to pick up objects. She can eat alone and can be able to do buttoning, zipping, tying shoelaces, dressing, and undressing alone. She’s also good in cutting, pasting, coloring, and in manipulating blocks. She can also express a song through her hand gestures and facial expressions. For a child like her, we can see that she is well taught on how to do small things by her own and she learned on how to be independent compared to other children with the same age like her.


A. Number concepts.
She is good in counting. She can count plates, blocks, utensils, money, sticks, pencils and a lot more. She can count up to two decimal places. She can also use pre-math words. For example, she requested to lessen the rice on her plate; she wanted a bigger fried chicken rather than the smaller one.

B. Attention and problem-solving style.
She has an ability to focus. Based on our observation, she can focus for 30 minutes on a certain activity. She seems to enjoy activities together with her classmates or schoolmates. She doesn’t enjoy working alone. When she is working, she’s being disturbed or distracted by the noises or other people who are noisy. When she faced something new, she somehow gets frustrated easily when the activity isn’t interesting. For example, if she’s not interested on a game she’s playing, she will look for another one which catches her attention and what she likes. C. Reasoning ability and learning.
If she figured out something, she’s curious why it happened. She could already turn on or operate a tablet without asking help from other people. However, she still asking for help for the things she doesn’t know on how to operate. And if she wanted something, she’s asking for it. As we observed her, she learned how to be independent in doing things she can do on her own. She can also be able to solve a problem. For example, the game she’s playing on her tablet is not working, so she restarts the tablet and run the game and the game works again.

D. Curiosity, creativity and imagination.
When she is curious she tends to ask her brothers and sisters in the house. For example, she is asking what does her father brought inside the box. She sometimes create new drawings with her crayons. This will further enhance her creativity in doing things. When she is playing with her dolls, she imagines that her dolls are talking with each other and at the same time talks to her.

E. Memory.

1. Short term.
She has the ability to retain memories that requires for the short period of time. For example, she is asked by the teacher to tell her parents that there will be a meeting then when she comes home, she immediately informed her parents.

2. Long term.
She has also the ability to retain memory at a long term basis. Like for example, she can recall almost everything she studied with her mother during the long exams that the teacher gave.

F. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.
Based on our observation with her, she is in preoperational stage. The best example we’ve observed is about the conservation. We tried to do the conservation experiment with her. Equal amounts of liquid are poured into two identical containers. The liquid in one container is then poured into a different shaped cup, such as a tall and thin cup. She then asked which cup holds the most liquid. Despite seeing that the liquid amounts were equal, she choose the cup that appears fuller. According to Jean Piaget, conservation is on the preoperational stage in which, few children showed any understanding of conservation.


A. Phonetics.
She pronounces some words correctly. Some of the miss pronounced words are three, free, and there. Usually words with the letter 'r' are the ones she has the difficulty.

B. Semantics.
She has a good vocabulary. 'Ma, when are we going to the mall', she sometime says ' don't go outside or else you'll get sick'. She has a lot more vocabulary than her fellow classmates. She still has a vivid understanding of the words being said. There was this time that the teacher asked her to add and subtract certain numbers and she was able to perform it well.

C. Syntax.
She sometimes has a good use of grammar. Some of her quotations are 'my name is,' 'the colors of grapes are violet.' Some of the grammatical errors are 'I is live in Rizal St.,' my brother's cook is fried fish.' The probable cause of the error is that the child tends to put the subject before the verb. The reason could be the misunderstanding of the child in the use of words.

D. Pragmatics.
She somehow understands when to speak and when not to speak. She usually speaks when someone is asking questions. But sometimes, she tends to speak inappropriately when she is drive by her emotions. Speaking softly or loudly depends on the person she is talking too. She speaks softly when she is facing persons who have not known to her and she speaks loudly when she is with her friends or family. She usually gives egocentric speeches if she wants something, or while she gives social speeches when she wants to make friends. She is very effective in communicating with her peers and her teachers. Like for some instances she pointed out some problems regarding the brooms inside the classroom that it is broken, then the teacher understands what she is trying to point out.

E. General complexity.
Here are the sentences she often said. 1. Let’s play. 2. Let’s go to the park. 3. I don’t like that. 4. When are you going to eat? 5. Can I borrow your pencil?

She can speak at least 2 to 3 words (the least) and at least 5 words (for the most) in a sentence. As we observed, her language is more complex compared to her classmates (same age).


A. Play. 1. Practice
Ex. Playing jumping rope; running; sliding; ball throwing. 2. Pretense/Symbolic
Ex. Making a large box as a house. 3. Social
Ex. Playing and having conversation with her friends and classmates. 4. Constructive
Ex. Solving puzzles; building a house through blocks or legos. 5. Games
Ex. Playing sack race and tug of war with children like her.

As we observed, she can be able to perform the types of play above. She can spend 10% of her time with group play and 5% alone. At her age, it is appropriate because her time is divided into school and home. In this case, she will have her time with her friends at school rather when she’s at home. Since she doesn’t have any playmates at home, she will play alone with her dolls and other toys. Based on our observation, she is also learning in playing. Like on how to follow rules, the steps in playing, being cooperative, being creative, developing self-esteem and confidence, gross and fine motor development and a lot more.
We also noticed some gender differences in play activities she had. Like, they tend to play more with same-gender peers and play less with opposite-gender peers. However, both genders can be involved in some activities such as playing blocks. Girls can play with their dolls and boys can play with their yoyo or top.

B. Interactions with peers.
She interacts with other children in a good and friendly way. She often times a leader. She influences others through her enthusiast in gaining or having a lot of playmates or friends and through her attitude which is being kind and helpful to others. She’s friendly, cooperative, hostile, outgoing, and withdrawn if she’s comfortable and with her playmates. If her playmates are friendly and cooperative, it is easy for her to get along with them. As we have observed, we haven’t seen her engage in aggressive behavior. She reacts to aggression expressed by others by adjusting herself or by being flexible. She spent more time with her mother. Other children found her friendly and approachable. She also expresses sympathy to others.

C. Interactions with adults. 6. Parents.
She interacts with her parents with respect and her behavior is somehow different because if she’s with her parents, the environment is quite serious. Her parents always understand her because she’s the youngest and somehow the center of attraction in the family.

7. Teachers.
At this time, she has only one teacher. She is attentive and she always participates in class. While other children are quite shy when in class. She’s independent and her teacher likes her so much because she is fast learner and easy to handle with. Her teacher doesn’t have any problems with her. Their teacher is quite strict that’s why the children are not that naughty. But, the teacher is still having a moderate tone of voice. Her teacher helped her to learn through class discussion and activities. She also has a tutorial time after class. She often got her teacher’s attention because she always participates in class.

D. Erikson’s theory of personality development (psychosocial stages).
Based on our observation, she is already in industry vs. inferiority or the latency stage.
For example, she is making a boat paper folding and she’s asking if she’s doing it right. She is also responsible in fixing her things and toys after playing it.
Children at this age are becoming more aware of themselves as individuals. They work hard at "being responsible, being good and doing it right." They are now more reasonable to share and cooperate.

E. Emotions.
She cries easily specially if she can’t get what she wanted. But, you’ll be able to know if she’s happy, mad, sad, or hurt. For example, her mother will go to a party but she can’t come with her mother. She cried because she really wanted to go with her mom.

F. Self-esteem.
We can see that she has an average self-esteem. For example, she was asked to join to a math contest but she refused at first. But her teacher and parents were able to encourage her to join by letting her know that she can do it.


A. Developmental Milestones.

8. Cognitive Development– understands right and left.
We can see that she can already identify right and left and she’s on target.
Ex. She was asked to throw the ball using her right hand and she indeed used her right hand to throw the ball.

9. Gross MotorDevelopment– can move in time with music or a beat.
We can see that she is in target because she is in timing when she’s singing.
Ex. They were taught a new song in class and she was able catch up the timing, rhythm and beat.

10. Fine Motor Development–copies and draws person with 6 parts.
We can see that she is in target because she was able to draw by copying it in a book.
Ex. Their teacher asked them to draw a person in a piece of paper during their class activity and she was able to make it.

11. Social and Emotional Development– grows more independent, yet feels less secure.
We can see that she is in target because she is learning to be independent but still needs assistance with elder people.
Ex. She wore her uniform by herself but she still asked her mom if she’s doing it correctly.

12. Language and Thinking Development– develops reasoning skills; define words.
We can see that she is in target because she can already state reasons and even defining words she’s using.
Ex. She was asked why she wanted join in a game and she answered that she wanted to enjoy and learn.

B. Developmental evaluation

1. Social– she is approachable and friendly. 2. Emotional– she cries easily but she has a strong personality. 3. Cognitive– she is smart and can learn fast. 4. Physical– she is physically fit and has a medium body built compared to her age. 5. Language Development– she sometimes has an incorrect grammar but can be corrected.

We can observe that this child is advanced in her social and physical areas. The ability which is least developed is her language. And the average is emotional and cognitive. This is because we can see that she excels with her social development and physical areas. She also needs to develop and have more practice with her language or grammar. Lastly, her emotional and cognitive areas are average because it is appropriate with her age.

C. Preschool or Educational program.
The educational program she has is meeting her needs, such as her social, emotional, cognitive, and language development. This is because her school is a child friendly school. It has good classrooms and other school facilities. The teachers and staff are also friendly and approachable. We can also see that she can develop her cognitive and language areas because she belongs to a special science class curriculum.
If we are her teacher, we’ll give her activities which can develop her cognitive and language skills such as problem solving and speech activities. For an activity, we can let her have a story telling or play activity. This is to develop her language skills because for us, this is her weakest area.


We have observed the child keenly as possible so that we could see her progress quickly. We have observed that the child is capable of applying what she sees and hear from an adult depending from the time she spent with them. Most of the traits and personality of the child was carved during this age. It will be greatly influence by the child’s environment and parenting capabilities of the parents.
We were surprised to see the big improvement and the development of the child from the time we observed her until the end of our case study. One of the factors that cause this development is good parenting. The parents of the child are very supportive and knowledgeable about what they were doing. The child’s surroundings also have an impact on the child’s development. The more cheerful and positive the environment, it enhances the learning capabilities of the child. Based in our case study, in order to be a good parent, one must know the capabilities of a child. Be more affectionate and understanding in what they really want. Parents should be involved with the child to fully see if the child is doing well or has a problem. This will greatly help in eliminating the problem as early as possible.
We could apply the findings in this case study when teaching students. This will greatly help us in understanding what will our students be doing and what we will do in order to take actions in a certain situation. This case study will give us the idea into what approach we will use to deal with problems involving our students in the future.

A Case Study

Presented to
Frank S. Emboltura, R.N., M. Ed. – SPED
Faculty, College of Education
University of San Agustin

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements in the Subject
Educ 141/F
Child and Adolescent Development

Presented by
Sr. Prescilla Magada SND
Tihany Mae Silla

October 10, 2014

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