Free Essay

Development Communication

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Dill
Words 2555
Pages 11
Name | | Student Number | | Unique Assignment Number | 759220 | Semester | Semester 2 | Assignment Number | Assignment 2 | Name of Assignment | Development Communication (COM2603) |

Declaration | I, the undersigned, hereby declare that this is my own and personal work, except where the work(s) or publications of others have been acknowledged by means of reference techniques.I have read and understood Tutorial Letter CMNALLE/301 regarding technical and presentation requirements, referencing techniques and plagiarism.Your signature: (Digital Signature)Your name: Your student number: Date: 09 September 2012Witness: |

Table of contents | Page | 1. INTRODUCTION2. QUESTION 1 – Modernisation Approach3. QUESTION 2 – Dependency Theory4. QUESTION 3 – Participatory Research5. QUESTION 4 – Information and Communication Technology6. CONCLUSION7. SOURCES CONSULTED | 1124578 |

INTRODUCTION
While development will mean different things to different stakeholders, it broadly refers to social changes that aim to improve living conditions in Third World communities by helping those communities to manage and improve their environment. Development communication refers to communication that promotes development. A variety of communication methods and media are designed and implemented in order to promote education, literacy, improved health care, better agricultural or industrial production practices – all of which contribute to development of Third World countries.

QUESTION 1 - The modernisation approach assumes that development is a progress from tradition to modernity. • Define the concepts “tradition” and “modernity” “Tradition” describes simple, primitive societies that are close knit and likely to live in self-contained groups or villages, which are regulated by means of a kinship system. The societies are oriented to the past and averse to change in the individual or the communal status quo. These communities have also been described as superstitious, fatalistic and emotional in their outlook. “Modernity” refers to how traditional societies have changed and progressed to resemble more complex, Western, industrialised societies. A modern society is one that has discarded traditional beliefs and customs in order to progress and where an individual’s social, economic or political standing is dictated by their own efforts rather than their position or status in a tribe, clan or family. Modern societies value innovation and progress and have abandoned superstition and fatalism. • Explain why tradition was considered as an obstacle for development Tradition was judged to be an obstacle for development as the character, values, attitudes and psychological orientation of traditional people (peasants) were deemed to be inconsistent with progress. Some of the peasants’ characteristics identified as obstacles included their suspicion and distrustfulness, beliefs in fatalism and pre-determination, limited aspirations and personal motivation and an extremely limited view of the world. The peasants found it difficult to even imagine new situations and places, which also accounted for their lack of innovativeness and negative attitude to change. While peasants were dependent on government authorities, they were also hostile and distrustful towards them and clung to their families who played the most important and dominant roles in their limited social, economic and political lives. • Explain the characteristics of a modern society Modern society is deemed to be Westernised in that the lifestyle, consumer goods, media programmes and infrastructure reflect first world standards of quality and availability. A modern society is also industrialised society where workers are employed in the production of raw material, consumer goods and the technology sector, rather than engaging in subsistence farming. Another characteristic of modern society is that economic activities and industries usually develop around big cities, so it can be described as urbanised rather than ruralised. The economic system in a modern society is based on capitalism and free market principles, which encourage competitiveness and consistent economic growth. From a political point of view, modernisation theory asserts that a modern society has a democratically elected government in a multi-party state. Other characteristics of a modern westernized state include effective healthcare and education systems, which are accessible to the entire population as well as well-developed infrastructure in respect of transport and telecommunications. As the mass media would have contributed to the modernisation of a society, one would also expect to see a thriving, free press and well developed mass media. The personal characteristics of the population in a modern society would also be deemed to have advanced from those attributed to “traditional people”. In this respect, individuals would display higher levels of motivation, innovativeness and mutual trust and would be less superstitious, fatalistic and family-oriented than their predecessors. Individuals in a modern society would also have a more sophisticated worldview along with higher aspirations and a greater capacity for empathy in respect of being able to imagine themselves in new places and situations.

QUESTION 2 - As against the Modernisation approach that blamed underdevelopment on internal condition, the Dependency Theory argued that underdevelopment is the result of external condition.
• Explain why Marx’s and Lenin’s consider capitalist expansion, imperialism and western domination as factors that kept the Third World underdeveloped. It is interesting to note that Marx was optimistic about capitalism and viewed it as part of a progressive process that would bring about transformation, modernisation and industrialisation in traditional societies. However, while the capitalist system was able to bring about a measure of modernisation in non-Western, traditional societies, it was by nature profit seeking and expansionist, which led to domination and exploitation of the very societies that it was intended to transform. Capitalism had a dual role of destroying traditional societies and then regenerating or developing them by means of education, political unification, establishment of a free, modern press and building infrastructure. Over time it became clear that Western, capitalist societies achieved and maintained their “development” by means of conquest and exploitation of the less developed societies. The initial rapid improvements in production and communications that were initiated and driven by Western societies left Third World countries with no choice but to capitulate and adopt unfamiliar methods and processes and they faced ruin if they did not conform to the Western model. These imperialistic practices also resulted in manipulation of Third World economies and exploitation of natural resources in order to feed the Western nations’ capitalist expansion processes. Although the capitalist system expanded on a global basis and generated growth and development in several parts of the world, it led to underdevelopment in Third World societies which had not yet fully modernised and were not in a position to compete with dominant Western nations. This imbalance caused by Western domination also led to dependency in Third World societies, which has also resulted in them remaining underdeveloped.
• Explain how cultural and media imperialism contributed to underdevelopment of the Third World. Cultural imperialism refers to the imposition of modern, Western standards, principles and values on underdeveloped Third World countries. First World countries arrogantly expected developing countries to adopt their own ways; naively thinking that simply transferring a civilized cultural model would modernize and develop traditional societies. By ignoring the needs, circumstances, characteristics and indigenous knowledge of traditional communities, the West failed to implement a successful development model and contributed to underdevelopment of the Third World.
Media imperialism was a product of cultural imperialism and came about as a result of media content, ownership and distribution originating in Western countries and the perpetuation of Western notions of culture and education through the Western owned media.
While a few countries in the west dominated the flow of media (news, television, books, magazines film etc.) to the Third World, there was a limited flow (or export) of media from developing countries to the West. This imbalance contributed to continued inequality and resulted in the Third world being dependent on expensive, imported media technology and content. This money could have been better spent on developing other aspects of these countries, or even their own media, which would have been more relevant, beneficial and potentially more profitable. The content of western media is designed for and generally reflects a far more affluent market than exists in the developing world. This can stimulate aspirations that are beyond the means of Third World communities and may result in people spending beyond their means at the expense of basic necessities and family commitments, resulting in debt and continued impoverishment in Third World societies.

QUESTION 3 - Participatory research. • Explain how participatory research differs from traditional research in development The main difference between participatory research and traditional research is that (in participatory research) the participation and involvement of individuals and the community is considered to be more important and fruitful than the gathering of neutral, objective information. Under this model, the people being studied have the opportunity to research, identify and report on their condition or situation rather than being an object of research that will be described and interpreted by a remote researcher or agency. While traditional research provided data and information for researchers, participatory research provides information and learning for participants as well as researchers. Participatory research is dialogue-based rather than driven data-driven, as in the case of traditional research. • Briefly discuss the assumptions of participatory research As participatory communication emphasises the self-management of a communities’ development, it follows that participatory research is also conducted in a way that allows for communities to have a greater role in how they are researched. The focus is on the process being an interactive learning experience for the participants and the researcher, who is involved with the population being researched and tries to empathise and see situations and problems from their perspective. Participatory research is not neutral or unbiased as it is committed to direct social purpose and adds value in respect of findings and implementing those findings. It is assumed that research will follow a dialogical model with significant input from participants and that researchers will not control or manipulate either the process or the findings. Participatory research is assumed to be a problem-solving process, which not only identifies needs or problems but also provides a way to jointly investigate potential solutions and find creative ways to implement relevant solutions. There is also onus on the researchers to ensure that findings or solutions are shared with the entire community, as although people participate, it is not always possible to engage in dialogue with every single member of a community. The findings of participatory research are a valuable source of knowledge, both for and about a community. • Explain the process of participatory research The process of participatory research involves a group of people collectively identifying a problem, analyzing how the problem arose and acting as a group to formulate and implement a solution to the problem. As the process is cyclical and continuous, the people involved may reconvene several times and the individuals involved may be interchangeable in some instances. The process is also described as local and accessible in that it should occur in venues and locations that are convenient and comfortable for all parties concerned.

QUESTION 4 - New information and communication technologies can contribute to development.
• Explain the role of knowledge and information in development
Several reports and forums have emphasized the need for developing countries to increase their knowledge bases by means of investment in education and new information and communications technologies (ICTs) that allow for the easier acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and information. Access to new and less costly ICT has allowed for major advances in distance learning, online education (including healthcare and agricultural information) and commercial transactions, which have benefitted poorer communities, particularly those in rural areas. Besides the acquisition of knowledge and information, there is a need for reliable, up to date statistical data on the developing world so that planning and policymaking can be more effective. It is also vital to consider the sharing of existing indigenous knowledge and practices within communities so that investors and developers can integrate this information into their projects.
• Discuss and explain how the Internet contributes to development in the fields of education and telemedicine Although distance learning is not a new concept (for example, Unisa was established in 1873 as a correspondence learning organisation), the way it is conducted has advanced immeasurably with the introduction of the Internet. In the past, correspondence education was conducted through postal services and although the process was deemed to be satisfactory at the time, and is still used by many students, the Internet allows for instantaneous submission of assignments, access to online study groups or forums to support learning, video conferencing and access to downloadable study material. Education via the Internet means that rural communities have access to decent education without the expense and inconvenience of leaving their remote villages. Rural schools that have access to an Internet connection are also able to extend these benefits to younger children and allow schools to “partner” with schools in urban areas to share learning and offer more up to date information and material. Besides tertiary education and formal schooling, the Internet is a valuable platform for community education in areas such as literacy, basic childcare and healthcare, nutrition, sanitation and social or development projects. Telemedicine would not be possible without the Internet. While telephone lines, microwave and satellite technology are used for transmission of patient data, it is primarily the Internet that has facilitated a reliable, accessible and convenient process for sharing medical data and the remote diagnosis of patients. Rural clinics in developing areas do not have the same access to modern equipment, technology and trained professionals as those in urban developed areas but with access to a telemedicine website and network, primary healthcare is better supported. • Explain what is a telecentre is and what benefits can it have to promote development A telecentre can take several forms (such as a telephone shop, internet café or purpose built community centre) but generally consists of a location that provides affordable (or even free) access to essential ICT services such as e-mail, the Internet and electronic networking as well as telephones and fax machines, printers, scanners and photocopiers. In respect of promoting development, these centres offer access to online education and schooling in remote locations, access to books (for downloading and printing), access to information and support for agricultural, community or small business projects and the ability to send personal or business related messages. As governments and businesses become increasingly “e-focused”, these centres allow remote and impoverished communities the opportunity to conduct transactions electronically so that they can participate in the economy and avail of government services rather than be left behind in terms of development and progress. Telecentres also allow for obtaining urgent medical advice and information on community health care such as illness prevention, which is a vital factor in promoting development.

CONCLUSION This assignment has covered some of the main elements and history of development and development communication in a chronological fashion. The Modernisation approach to development consisted of importing and imposing Western assumptions, standards and technology but made no allowance for actual conditions and circumstances in developing countries. It was superseded by the Dependency Theory, which argued that underdevelopment is the result of external conditions and that cultural and media imperialism contributed to underdevelopment. The later, Participatory process ensured that communication and research were more interactive and inclusive of the community and its input. The final question of the assignment addressed the importance of new information and communication technology (ICT), and the benefits ITC offers in terms of development and development communication.

SOURCES CONSULTED
Sonderling, S. 2008. Intercultural development and health communication. Only study guide for COM2603. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Development Communication

...Development Communication-for whom and for what? In the context of development, communication media is used to support development initiatives by the distribution of messages that encourage the public to support development-orientated projects. Broadcasting is used for informing the population about projects, which promotes the advantage of these projects and also recommended that these projects should be used. This model sees communication process as a message going from sender to receiver whereby posters, radio and televisions are used to persuade people. This is whereby Modernization plays a very significant role, where people move from a traditional way of doing things to a different, more technological development and more rapid changing way of life. Mass media are important in spreading awareness of new possibilities and practices. Research has shown that even thou group of public can obtain information from impersonal sources such as radios and television; this information has little effect on behavioral changes. Self-management is seen as the most developed form of participation. This principle implies the right to participate in the planning and production of media context. In all of these, development played a very important part of the movement for a new world information and communication. Modernization Theory in the 1950s and 1960s and fall of the theory in America and Russia were booming economically and ideologically. This is after Stalin’s Five Year Plan......

Words: 535 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Development Communication

...Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) refers to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the fields of socioeconomic development, international development and human rights. The theory behind this is that more and better information and communication furthers the development of a society. Aside from its reliance on technology, ICT4D also requires an understanding of community development, poverty, agriculture, healthcare, and basic education.Richard Heeks suggests that the I in ICT4D is related with “library and information sciences”, the C is associated with “communication studies", the T is linked with “information systems", and the D for “development studies”.[1] It is aimed at bridging the digital divide and aid economic development by fostering equitable access to modern communications technologies. It is a powerful tool for economic and social development.[2] Other terms can also be used for "ICT4D" or "ICT4Dev" ("ICT for development") like ICTD ("ICT and development", which is used in a broader sense[3]) and development informatics. ICT4D can mean as dealing with disadvantaged populations anywhere in the world, but it is more seen with applications in developing countries. It concerns with directly applying information technology approaches to poverty reduction. ICTs can be applied directly, wherein its use directly benefits the disadvantaged population, or indirectly, wherein it can assist aid organisations......

Words: 1159 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Communication Development Skills

...Communication Between My Niece And I Federico Fonseca ORG300- Applying Leadership Principles Colorado State University – Global Campus Instructor-Clark, Robert September 15, 2014 Communication Development Skills Communication skills are vital to the manager’s success. A manager must be an effective communicator to lead people. Assessing your communication skills is the key to your success; nevertheless, most people fail to recognize the role communication plays. When assessing your communication abilities, it is essential to review your interpersonal communication skills. Interpersonal skills are the most crucial skill that is needed to be an effective manager. Interpersonal communication skills are a ‘type of supportive communication that is the key to empowering people and motivating others to become more effective and efficient employees” (South University Online, 2011, p. 1). Supportive communication is beneficial in communicating both “honestly and accurately, it can preserve or enhance your personal, and professional relationships while providing information and resolving issues with your counterparts” (South University Online, p.1). In this essay, I will us the eight principles of supportive communication (problem oriented, congruence, descriptive, validates, specific, conjunctive, owned, and supportive listening) to reflect how a conversation with my niece was impacted by my communication style. My 15-year-old niece was attending a friend birthday......

Words: 1198 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Developing Communication Skills as an Essential Pre-Requisite for Socioeconomic Development of a Country

...International Journal of Research Studies in Management Available online: 6 September 2012 Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh Sultana, Nahneen Eastern University, Bangladesh (urmee97@yahoo.com) Abdullah, Abu Md. Eastern University, Bangladesh (abdullah.du@gmail.com) ISSN: 2243-7770 Online ISSN: 2243-7789 Tabassum, Ayesha Eastern University, Bangladesh (tabassum105@yahoo.com) Received: 23 June 2012 Available Online: 6 September 2012 Revised: 15 August 2012 DOI: 10.5861/ijrsm.2012.140 Accepted: 1 September 2012 Abstract In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducted on 165 full-time employees of private commercial banks. The sample includes 15 private commercial banks. The Principal Component Analysis reveals three types of communication barriers; personal barriers, job barriers, and organizational barriers. Among these barriers, personal barriers are the most significant barriers according to the respondents of the study. Personal barriers include lack of English...

Words: 5461 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology

...International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2008, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 49-65. The Internet in developing countries: a medium of economic, cultural and political domination Abdulkafi Albirini University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA ABSTRACT The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented diffusion of network technologies into developing countries. The technological discourse attending this diffusion has presented the new media as a utopian, egalitarian and empowering tool with the potential of ushering in a new era of development, democracy, and positive cultural change. This paper examines the economic, cultural, and political effects of the Internet within the historical context of developing countries. The paper traces the politically-inspired evolution of the Internet, its transfer into developing countries, and the economic, cultural, and political consequences of this transfer. Existing data indicate that the implementation of the Internet in most developing countries has served as a drain to the local resources, thus exacerbating their economic dependency on foreign nations. On a cultural level, the Internet’s predominantly Western design, content, and language have facilitated the proliferation of alien cultural patterns at the expense of the social experiences of the local cultures. Lastly, the Internet’s build-in tracking capabilities and its current manipulation for political purposes on......

Words: 9084 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Development Communication

...ABSTRACT Corruption has been the bane of legitimacy, democratic stability and socio-economic and political development in Nigeria. Indeed, any attempt to understand the tragedy of development and the challenges to democracy in Nigeria must come to grips with the problem of corruption and stupendous wastage of scarce resources. All attempts by successive regimes to nip the problem in the bud have failed. With the benefit of hindsight, virtually all the Nigerian leaders who have come in as physicians have left office as patients. What factors precipitate political corruption and why has corruption become endemic and intractable in Nigeria? The paper interrogates corruption in Nigeria through the prisms of Clientelism, Prebendalism, Patrimonialism, Neopatrimonialism, Soft State thesis and the theory of Two Publics. The article contends that these theories for a very long time have not only provided credible theoretical frameworks for the understanding of the development tragedy in Africa in general but also of the pandemic and seemingly insoluble problem of political corruption in Nigeria in particular. However, as a point of departure, the paper argues that rather than fattening the primordial public, the ‘robberies’ that have taken place at the civic public have further pauperized the primordial public, if fattening in this sense is taken to mean social and economic development. The paper further provides some...

Words: 8603 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Radio Station Manager

...Community radio fosters good governance October 27, 2013 in Opinion While the technological advancement in this country is pointing to a new world order, where globalisation and simplification of life is happening fast, there remains a gap in our country which if harnessed and supported has the capacity to be the game changer. Sunday Opinion with Kudzai Kwangwari The cellphone came and with it text messages, WhatsApp facilities, as well as money-transfer mechanisms while the internet also brought with it major communication developments in Africa but more specifically in Zimbabwe. One area which remains unexploited and untapped is community broadcasting and we believe this is a critical sector. For many it may be just a communication issue, but it must be viewed from a development perspective because more than anything else that’s what it is. It is a development tool. Community radio has the capacity to positively affect the politics, social set up of a country, economy and even the culture of a people. In terms of politics of a country, community radio in this day and age where democracy has become the new political philosophy considered as ideal plays a very critical role in promoting debate and dialogue, which are critical components of a functioning democracy. Community radio promotes the enhancement of interaction between citizens and the state, which is a prerequisite for any functioning democracy again. This is particularly so, because it promotes good governance......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility

...Corporate Social Responsibility Role of Organization in the Community One of the core values of most organizations is community development. This is because most organizations are built around a certain community for the purpose of proximity to customers and marketing intentions. However, organizations are required to understand and recognize the type of surrounding community, its basic values, and principles and by what means they may correlate with the organization’s setting. Google, engages, empowers and benefits the community with the general aim of improving the quality of life and contributing to the community development. Below are the specific roles Google plays in the surrounding community. The organization enhances natural capacities and develops networks. A community may have a variety of sources of strength; for instance, social support systems, informal networks and talented and helpful individuals. Thus, the firm often works with such community’s assets towards acquiring mutual benefits. Correspondingly, the organization creates awareness on certain social issues and creates communication links among the people in the community. Another role the organization plays is providing jobs to the residents. The provision of employment to the citizens of the population results in building of partnerships with the society, which leads to conjoint support. Patil (2012) suggests that one of the objectives of community organizations is “to develop......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Roche Diagnostics Develops Global Managers

...Discuss who is responsible for producing global leaders. A leader is an individual that has made decision to succeed. This individual is not afraid to try new things and to master them. Leaders are creative and they excel at anything that they put their hands to do. Leaders help others by becoming trailblazers to create a path of success for his/her families, friends, or colleagues to follow. Leaders are not selfish individuals; they rise with the intentions to conquer the day. Leaders plan for the future not complaining about minor things that they can’t change, yet they remain unstoppable towards their goals. Leaders are able to humbly take criticisms and direction and to quickly correct those things that may have been challenged. Leaders are always seeking ways to improve every aspect of their lives. They are business woman and business men that are serious about creating new opportunities. Leaders influence others to become great and to have an assisting hand in helping others to become successful. A leader is admired by many; and attracts followers because of their confidence. Global leaders are created at home first. They are shaped and molded by their parents who never give them an option to give up or settle. These parents are not satisfied with just enough, or hear the words “I Can’t”. These children are future leaders, will bloom into adolescent and then adults; remembering the instructions. After this foundation has been......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

“Underdevelopment Is Primarily a Consequence of Cultural Rather Than Economic Factors”. to What Extent Do Sociological Evidence and Arguments Supports This View of Underdevelopment in the World Today?

...have their base in ascription. Parsons states that not only does there need to a political change but countries need to change socially and in order to do so cultural change is necessary. Through education a political elite could be created who would lead the country into social change through political policies and thus bring about modernisation. Nevertheless, It implies that traditional values and institutions have little or no value compared with their Western equivalents. However, there is evidence from Japan and the ‘Asian Tigers’ that the traditional (e.g. religion and extended family) can exist successfully alongside the modern. Bill Rostow, a modernisation sociologist suggested that development should be seen as an evolutionary process in which countries progress up a development ladder of five stages. Undeveloped societies are ‘traditional societies’ dominated by institutions such as families, tribes and clans, within which roles are ascribed (i.e. people are born into them) rather than achieved. Production is agricultural. The ‘pre-conditions for take-off’ stage involves the introduction of material factors such as capital and technology...

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Role of a Community Counselor

...Community counseling can be defined as “…a comprehensive helping framework that is grounded in multicultural competence and oriented toward social justice (Lewis, Lewis, Daniels, & D'Andrea, 2011). While this definition may serve as a starting point, any meaningful understanding of the role and function of a Community counselor requires more than a brief description or a cursory glance at a definition. The community counseling model is based on four fundamental assumptions and several concepts. The first assumption is: “1. Human development and behavior take place in environmental contexts that have the potential to be nurturing or limiting” (Lewis et al., 2011). This assumption refers to the connection between people and their environment and its potential to act as a source of support or as a limiting factor on their development. The community counseling model effectively deals with the environmental factors that have an influence on the development of problems that people encounter. “2. Even in the face of devastating stress, people who are treated respectfully can demonstrate surprising levels of strength and access resources that a pessimistic helper might not see” (Lewis et al., 2011). Traditional approaches to counseling have featured a narrowly focused scope with an emphasis on the negative aspects of client’s lives. This has resulted in less than effective outcomes with respect to client’s sense of self. The Community counseling perspective emphasizes the......

Words: 1719 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Bahrain Bay

...COMPANY Case Bahrain Bay: Building Customer Relations for the Future Bahrain Bay Development is a joint venture between Arcapita Bank and a Bahrain-based investment group. It is a $2.5 billion development off the northeast coast of Manama in the Kingdom of Bahrain that included creating a entire island. The project will be a mix of commercial, residential, and retail units. All of the construction will be set around the Manama waterfront. The centerpiece of the project will be Bahrain’s first Four Seasons hotel. Bahrain Bay got underway in 2006 with a land reclamation extending to 430,000m2. The global headquarters of Arcapita and the new hotel were due to be completed in 2008. Phase Three of the operation will involve the construction of residential, commercial, and retail units. The whole project, due for completion in 2010 will cover an area of some 1.1 million m2. The architectural and engineering firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill designed the ultra modern site. In 2005, when the project had been given final approval, Atif A. Abdulmalik, the CEO of Arcapita, sai, “Just five months from the initial announcement of this project, the preparatory stages for design and planning considerations have progressed very well and Bahrain Bay BSC is able to launch Bahrain Bay ahead of schedule. A month from now, site work will commence on what we believe will be an outstanding addition to the Kingdom of Bahrain, as befits its place as a regional center for banking and finance.......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Leadership

...agreed on three principles. First, there was agreement on the limitations of the private enterprise & thus mixed public-private economy was regarded as desirable. This implied nationalizing a wide range of strategic industries. Secondly, need for a coordinated macroeconomic policy was recognized because market alone failed to ensure macroeconomic stability that is that is needed for sustained growth of business. Finally, reliance entirely on market For the welfare of the people was a questionable proposition. In the three and a half decades between 1960 & 1995, government western economies assumed new role & expanded existing ones. By the mid-1990s the range of tasks performed by the government & its agencies included not only maintaince & development of infrastructure & utilities but also much more support for education, health care & social security. As a result, in the 35 year period from 1960 onwards the central government expenditure rose from less than 20% of GDP to over 30%. Between 1977 & 1991 the process of relaxing control started. However obth open & hidden subsidies went on increasing. In this period fiscal deficit become unsustainable and the country was in deep economic crisis in 1990-91, In response to...

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

World Investment Report 2013

...O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N T R A D E A N D D E V E L O P M E N T WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2013 GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: INVESTMENT AND TRADE FOR DEVELOPMENT New York and Geneva, 2013 ii World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development NOTE The Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD is a global centre of excellence, dealing with issues related to investment and enterprise development in the United Nations System. It builds on four decades of experience and international expertise in research and policy analysis, intergovernmental consensusbuilding, and provides technical assistance to over 150 countries. The terms country/economy as used in this Report also refer, as appropriate, to territories or areas; the designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In addition, the designations of country groups are intended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage of development reached by a particular country or area in the development process. The major country groupings used in this Report follow the classification of the United Nations Statistical Office. These are: Developed......

Words: 156671 - Pages: 627

Premium Essay

World Investment Report

...O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N T R A D E A N D D E V E L O P M E N T WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2013 GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS: INVESTMENT AND TRADE FOR DEVELOPMENT New York and Geneva, 2013 ii World Investment Report 2013: Global Value Chains: Investment and Trade for Development NOTE The Division on Investment and Enterprise of UNCTAD is a global centre of excellence, dealing with issues related to investment and enterprise development in the United Nations System. It builds on four decades of experience and international expertise in research and policy analysis, intergovernmental consensusbuilding, and provides technical assistance to over 150 countries. The terms country/economy as used in this Report also refer, as appropriate, to territories or areas; the designations employed and the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In addition, the designations of country groups are intended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage of development reached by a particular country or area in the development process. The major country groupings used in this Report follow the classification of the United Nations Statistical Office. These are: Developed......

Words: 156671 - Pages: 627