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Disadvantages Of Mangroves

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Mangroves are economically important coastal wetlands. These ecosystems provide multiple services to coastal communities including, provision of forestry and fishery products such as food, fuel wood, medicines, and wood products (Bandaranayake 1998, Sathirathai and Barbier 2001, Hussain and Badola 2010, Brander et al. 2012). Various types of mangrove resources extraction for both basic subsistence and commercial commodities have been practiced by local people for decades (Sathirathai and Barbier 2001, Glaser 2003). These practices had contributed significantly to the sustainability and resilience of local economies (Hussain and Badola 2010, Uddin et al. 2013). As an illustration, the natural mangroves of Bitharkanika Conservation Area, in East Coast of India, were contributed to nearly 15 % of the total surrounding household income with an estimated use of around US$ 107 households-1 year-1 (Hussain and Badola 2010). Furthermore the Buswang community led replanted mangrove in the Philippine supported local …show more content…
In some cases, mangrove rehabilitated areas are subjects to land tenure problem (Amri 2008, Meilasari-Sugiana 2012). Therefore, mangrove conversion into aquaculture are still taking place, particularly in the privately owned rehabilitated areas (Walters 2004, Walton et al. 2006, Amri 2008). Additionally, the harvesting pressure and unsustainable fishing activities have become potential threat for the ecosystem. (Walters 2004). Even if the CBMM initiative came directly from the community, for some people reconverting the rehabilitated areas into aquaculture was the ultimate motive of their participation in the management (Walters 2004, Amri 2008, Meilasari-Sugiana 2012). The argument that CBMM is the most viable approach for mangrove management especially to achieve the desired economic objective of securing local livelihood thus needs to be

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