Free Essay

Ecosystem

In: Science

Submitted By danyell767906
Words 716
Pages 3
Biotic
Pertaining to living organisms.

Carrying capacity
A maximum number of individuals or maximum population density that a habitat can support.

Community
All the organisms that live within a given area.

Consumer
An organism that obtains food from other living organisms.

Ecological succession
Changes in the species composition of an ecosystem following a disturbance.

Ecology
The study of how organisms interact with their environments.

Ecosystem
All the organisms that live within a given area and all the abiotic features of their environment.

Exponential growth
A model of population growth in which a population grows at a rate proportional to its size.

Life history strategy
The position a population of organisms occupies on the continuum between producing a large number of “inexpensive” offspring and a small number of “expensive” offspring.

Logistic growth
A model of population growth in which growth slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of its habitat.

Niche
The total set of biotic and abiotic resources a species uses within a community.

Population
A group of individuals of a single species that occupies a given area.

Producer
An organism that makes organic molecules from inorganic materials and energy.

Symbiosis
A situation in which individuals of two species live in close association with one another.

Trophic level
One of the feeding levels in a food chain, including producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, and so forth.

Review Questions
21.1 Organisms and Their Environment
1.
What is ecology?
2.
Does an organism’s environment include only nonliving components? yes 3.
What is the difference between a community and an ecosystem?
The difference between a community and an ecosystem is one (community) is an area where organisms live and the other (ecosystem) is all the organisms that live within a given area and all the abiotic features of their environment

21.2 Species Interactions
4.
A diagram of who eats what within a community is called a__.
5.
What organisms are at the base of a food chain or food web?
6.
What role do decomposers play? What organisms function as decomposers in most communities?
7.
Can two species have the same niche in a community? Why or why not?
8.
What is parasitism? What are some examples of parasitism?
9.
What is the difference between commensalism and mutualism?
21.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems
10.
All organisms need energy in order to grow, reproduce, and perform the activities necessary for survival. Where does this energy come from ultimately?
11.
How does sunlight energy enter the biotic world?
12.
How much of the energy at one trophic level becomes available to the next trophic level, on average? What happens to the rest?
13.
What is an energy pyramid?
21.4 Kinds of Ecosystems
14.
What are some of the factors that determine the types of organisms that live in a certain habitat?
15.
What is the primary variable used to classify habitats into major biomes?
16.
Give an example of a biome where the soil is nutrient-poor, and of one where soil is nutrient-rich.
17.
Why are fires essential to savanna habitats?
18.
What are some features of plants found in desert habitats?
19.
What are the three life zones found in aquatic lake habitats?
20.
What’s the difference between plankton and nekton?
21.
What is the intertidal zone, and what are some of the organisms that live there?
21.5 Change in an Ecosystem
22.
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
23.
Why are the later colonizers of a habitat dependent on earlier waves of colonizers?
24.
What happens to the total biomass in an ecosystem during succession?
What trend is there in the number of species present in an ecosystem?
25.
Why does regular disturbance sometimes contribute to the biodiversity of a habitat?
21.6 Population Studies
26.
Under what conditions do organisms experience exponential growth?
27.
Why do populations that occupy unpredictable environments often grow exponentially?
28.
Under what conditions does logistic growth resemble exponential growth? When do the two differ?
29.
What is the difference between r-selected and K-selected organisms?
30.
Describe Type I, Type II, and Type III survivorship.
31.
Why is an r-selected life history associated with unstable environments? Why is a K-selected life history associated with stable environments?

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ecosystems

...this assignment, you will investigate the biotic and abiotic structure and function of an ecosystem. Choose 1 of the following ecosystems: * Tropical rainforest * Grassland * Coral reef * Estuary * Desert You will prepare a 10-12 slide PowerPoint presentation (not including the title or reference slides) and include a minimum of 3 images about your choice of ecosystem, covering the following in your presentation:  * Where might this type of ecosystem be located? Give 1 specific example. * Describe the structure of the ecosystem. * List both the abiotic components and biotic components. * Describe the function of the ecosystem. * How do the abiotic and biotic components interact in biogeochemical cycles? * Describe both the carbon and nitrogen cycles. * Describe disturbance and recovery. * Describe 1 natural and 1 human-caused disturbance to the ecosystem. * Explain the damage to the ecosystem, including how the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the ecosystem changed. * Explain how ecosystems recover naturally based on resilience mechanisms and the theory of secondary succession. Ecosystem  Definition noun, plural: ecosystems A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit.  Supplement An ecosystem is made up of plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, rocks, minerals, water sources......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

An Ecosystem

...miles southwest of Houston, Texas. It is a wonderful representative natural ecosystem that is receiving worthy considerations for native species preservation and management. There is no roadside sign to announce the Nash Prairie, no fence around more than 400 acres of tall grasses that have never been plowed. The grassland remained unplowed because of the farming methods. Cattle infrequently grazed on the property, and the landowners harvested hay once, maybe twice, a year and never in the same pattern, which allows plants time to regenerate. This has resulted in a rich and subtle ecosystem. Serious bird watchers, wildflower enthusiasts, and botanists tend to know about this place and its native grasses. Laura Huffman, Texas director of the Nature Conservancy (an environmental group) says that “this prairie is a beautiful representation of what Texas really looked like.” It is said to be a beauty in a haystack for many reasons. According to Wiley Plus (2009) publication, the structural and functional dynamics of this ecosystem is comprised of nonliving and living fundamentals. The nonliving part is the physical-chemical environment, including the local atmosphere, water, and mineral soil (on land) or other substrate (in water). The living part, called the ecological community, is the set of species interacting within the ecosystem. There are two basic kinds of processes that must occur in an ecosystem: a cycling of chemical elements and a flow of energy in order for it......

Words: 1087 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ecosystem

...Ecosystem of the Mojave Desert Bio/101 March 5, 2012 Ecosystem of the Mojave Desert The Mojave Desert is 54,000 square miles of its own special brand of diversity; it is one desert - rather than a series of separate entities. By becoming aware of the combined identity, appreciation and better understanding of the issues that affect the Mojave Desert can occur on a holistic level. Generally, at the edges of the Mojave are areas where dominant plant and animal species change from one to another and both, to various degrees may be possibly found on the fringes of the other. The Mojave Desert ecosystem evolves from plants and animals which are resources within each other. Adaption to the rough temperatures and little water, these ecosystems finds many ways to survive. This ecosystem plays host to a wide variety of plants and animals living in an environment that humans may think are harsh conditions. Many animals get their energy by eating plants, but desert plants give up the fruit of their production very reluctantly. Sharp spines, such as a cactus, discourage plant-eaters. The Mule deer avoids these obstacles by eating seeds, although safe to eat, they can be hard to find. Many are small and look like grains of sand. The plant's solar energy flows through the ecosystem as Mule deer, and other herbivores like jackrabbits, fall prey to carnivores like great horned owls, coyotes, bobcats, or snakes (Townsend, Harper & Begon, 2000). Survival in the desert cannot occur...

Words: 3420 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Ecosystem

...WHAT IS ECOSYSTEM An ecosystem consists of the biological community that occurs in some locale, and the physical and chemical factors that make up its non-living or abiotic environment. There are many examples of ecosystems -- a pond, a forest, an estuary, grassland.  The study of ecosystems mainly consists of the study of certain processes that link the living, or biotic, components to the non-living, or abiotic, components. Energy transformations and ecosystem components are the two main topics that comprise the field of ecosystem ecology.  COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM ABIOTIC COMPONENTS | BIOTIC COMPONENTS | Sunlight | Primary producers | Temperature | Herbivores | Precipitation | Carnivores | Water or moisture | Omnivores | Soil or water chemistry (e.g., P, NH4+) | Detritivores | etc. | etc. | These include the non-living, physico - chemical factors such as air, water, soil and the basic elements and compounds of the environment. Abiotic factors are broadly classified under three categories. Climatic factors which include the climatic regime and physical factors of the environment like light, humidity, atmospheric temperature, wind, etc. Edaphic factors which are related to the structure and composition of soil including its physical and chemical properties, like soil and its types, soil profile, minerals, organic matter, soil water, soil organisms. It comprises the living part of the environment, which includes the association of a number of......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ecosystem

...ECOSYSTEMS ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystem is a living thing. It is a community of animals, and them interacting with each other in an environment. Everyone is in it. It a place where the plants grow and, also there are animal in it, people are part of the ecosystem too. If one thing is taken away can affect the other. There is a component called abiotic and biotic. Plants and animal and also people are part of the ecosystem. An ecosystem means ecological system. Each organism has its niche. Plants are important or other animal. We are part of an ecosystem. Plants are important to animal that eats plant. It is because the animal gets energy from plant. Animal are not the only that is there it’s also people. People are also part of ecosystem. People are everywhere when you walk on the street, when you go to the park too. Something part of the ecosystem can also be underwater too. If you take away one thing it affects the other. For example, if you take away the plants it will affect the animals that eat plant; also, the plant eater would be extinct. Also the carnivores would be extinct. It is like if you take away one stick from under, it will pull the others. It’s also like how you take the leg from the table the whole table won’t be straight. Abiotic components are sunlight, temperature, precipitation, soil or water chemistry, etc. The biotic components are primary producer, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, etc. In conclusion, an ecosystem is a living thing.......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ecosystem Function

...Ecosystem Structure, Function and Change Ecosystem Structure, Function and Change In the area that I live in we have the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is over 26,800 acres of wetlands, riparian forests, native grasslands, and vernal pools (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 2012). In 1966 was when the first piece of land was purchased, and since then it has grown to comprise of six refuge units. The units are called: San Luis, East Bear Creek, West Bear Creek, Freitas, Blue Goose, and Kesterson. If it were not for the refuge many animals would have lost their homes and there would actually be a few extinct species of animals as well. In the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge there are four different types of ecosystems. The first type of ecosystem that can be found in the refuge is riparian woodlands. The riparian woodlands are found along rivers and sloughs, and they consist of willows, cottonwoods and oaks ( U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 2012). The second type of ecosystem that can be found is wetlands. Wetlands include permanent marshes which contain water year-round. However depending on how much rain the refuge gets in the winter depends on the level of water in the wetlands. Grasslands are the third type of ecosystem in the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge and that type of ecosystem is actually the most common one in the refuge. The grasslands are dominated by annual and perennial grass species. The last of the ecosystems that is found in......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Balanced Ecosystem

...Jessica Hilliard December 07, 2015 Environmental Science Glimmerville City Council To Whom It May Concern: This letter is to inform on balancing the ecosystem and offering solutions for the ongoing problem of grass carp, in Glimmerville. A balanced ecosystem is when natural animals, plant life, and non-living elements are in sync with one another. When the ecosystem is disturbed by increasing pollution, population, and migrating patterns they lose their coherence. When introducing invasive species to native species it creates an unbalanced ecosystem. Invasive species are aliens to the new habitat. When an invasive species are introduced they potentially kill off the native species and can even cause changes in the chemistry of the soil. Succession happens when the ecosystem has been disturbed naturally or by man-made. Gradually over time the ecosystem’s structure and biodiversity will change. When invasive species compete against native species it is like “survival of the fittest”. The invasive will compete against the native species for the same resources. One small change changes the balance of an ecosystem which results in the change of the flow of energy. Invasive species can directly kill native species by feeding on them and drastically eliminating their population. Invasive species hold to their name they invade. There are several solutions for eliminating the population of grass carp to the area of Glimmerville. One favorable solution is incentive...

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ecosystems and Economics

...ECOSYSTEMS AND ECONOMICS 1 Ecosystems and Economics Deana Petersen 2/18/2013 BIO/280 Richard Casey ECOSYSTEMS AND ECONOMICS 2 Ecosystems and Economics Human society has had a dramatic impact on ecosystems all over the world. Un-natural actions by man have left ecosystems in a state where they cannot replenish themselves. Human caused degradation and loss to these systems return to affect human health in the end. Every ecosystem on Earth plays part to another, biodiversity, health, and sustainability are all dependant on each other. Once these factors cannot support themselves the health of an ecosystem is in peril. When society changed its habits and how it uses natural resources that in turn affect ecosystems will there be a lessened burden on ecosystems richness and sustainability. This also brings benefit to human society by having resources available farther into the future for use. Ecosystem Loss and Degradation from Human Society The past century has had a tremendous impact on ecosystems all over Earth. Population growth puts an even increasing demand on food, fresh water, fuel, and......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Description of Ecosystems

...Ecosystems can be complex and hard to manage. In fact, they can encompass diverse species and habitats. As such, specific planning and prioritization is needed in order to protect them from the different threats that might undermine their existence, but also preserve and enhance the life of species through a variety of measures and activities. Description of ecosystems The Shut-in Mountain is home to a variety of specifies. Among, these species we find invertebrates, fish, birds, fen, etc. The fen is an aquatic plant species with very little system that floats on ponds, marshes and lakes. The Shut-in Mountain fen feeds on aquatic invertebrates such mosquito larvae, protozoans and tiny crustaceans, tadpoles and newly hatched fish. This aquatic freshwater ecosystem is surrounded a terrestrial ecosystem which is a habitat for many species such as beavers, birds. Currently, humans exploit the aquatic through fishing and practice recreational hunting or for consumption. There also thousands of visitors who go there for recreational activities. However, over exploitation of these ecosystems could result in the extinction of the species which live in these natural habitats. The hunting and the fishing could be beneficial to humans through consumption and/or sale of their game. For instance, they can sell the fur and hides from mammals. In addition, humans could benefit from these ecosystems for medical purposes. For example, beavers’ castor sacs are used in traditional......

Words: 1558 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Balancing Ecosystems

...Balancing Ecosystems Shaneequa Wheatfall ENV/100 January 11, 2016 Rob Davie Balancing Ecosystems Dear City Council of Glimmerville, This letter is being written to assist you with effective options to help bring balance back into the ecosystem in Glimmerville in regards to the Grass Carp issue you are experiencing. I recently provided assistance to Sparksville and successfully restored the balance in their aquatic ecosystem and wanted to share a few suggestions with you. It appears that due to the Grass Carp issue, Glimmerville is experiencing an in-balance in the ecosystem. An ecosystem is “a community and its physical environment” (Berg & Hager, 2014, Chapter 5). Changes in the functionality of the ecosystem occur when we, as humans, increasingly alter the ecosystem for our use. As we did more research into the Grass Carp issue we found that the fertilizer that farmers were using caused a high growth in water supply which was backing up the waterways. To solve this problem, Grass Carp placed in the late to control this issue. Over the course of time, we found that this invasive species (Grass Carp) began to reproduce and overpopulate the lake, causing the native species (bass) to become fewer in numbers that result in laps in the energy flow of the ecosystem. The invasive species began to dominate the food chain of the native species. It is important that we, as humans, strive to restore and maintain a balance in the ecosystem. Every organism work......

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mangrove and Ecosystems

...ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT Mangrove ecosystems play an integral role within the stabilisation of coastal intertidal soil by preventing coastal erosion through their complex network of roots (“Teaching about Mangroves, 2013”). Scientifically they are defined as an assemblage of unique tropical plants which are able to survive within variable flooding conditions and withstand high salinity concentration. They do so by a selective combination of structural adaptations such as salt excretion upon leaves, and filtering of absorbed nutrients (“Encyclopaedia of Earth, 2013”). The most healthy and abundant mangrove communities occur in tropical and subtropical areas, between 30o N and 30O S latitude (“Encyclopaedia of Earth, 2013”). An example of a mangrove community presents itself within the Moreton Bay Mangrove community located within South-East Queensland, Australia. The community possesses 8 mangroves species but is predominantly dominated by Avicennia marina (Grey Mangroves) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Black Mangrove) (“Moreton Bay Mangrove, 2013”). The Moreton Bay community provides vital protection and food source for various marine and terrestrial species including wading birds, shrimps and crabs. Structurally it is comprised of coastal environments consisting of numerous river estuaries that extend seaward (“Moreton Bay Mangrove Species, 2013”). 1. BIOTIC INTERACTIONS IN THIS MANGROVE COMMUNITY The biotic......

Words: 2945 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Balancing Ecosystems

...Balancing Ecosystems Nasirah Halstead ENV/100 August 25, 2014 Sharon White, Instructor Balancing Ecosystems Dear City Council: I am writing you concerning matters of restoring balance to the city's ecosystem. An ecosystem is a factor in the biological community that consists of occurrences locally, chemical factors, as well as physical, make up the environment non-living or abiotic. The unbalanced ecosystem in Sparksville's aquatic system is the situation at hand. The boundaries of this ecosystem are being addressed for reasons having to do with the goal of restoring the lake back to normal. The invasions of Grass Carp have made it almost impossible for the rest of the underwater community to be in existence. The changes in the ecosystem in the lake have influenced all components of living for the community and life under water within the lake. Bass fish are at an all-time low for the community. The resources of Bass fish are so small that the city cannot hold the annual Bass Tournament, leaving the city bankrupt of resources that help the economy. Grass Carp are known as an invasive species meaning it is a non-native species within the Lake. The Carp introduced when the city decided to use an eco-friendly fertilizer to help with the crops. The plants began to grow healthier; however, the Grass Carp begin to come to the Lake and take it over and out-competing the native species. The native species are usually more aggressive in their race to get adequate......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A Local Ecosystem

...Biology – Module 1 – A Local Ecosystem The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors. Compare the abiotic characteristics of aquatic and terrestrial environments. An aquatic environment is one that consists in water. The abiotic characteristics of an aquatic environment include: Buoyancy – This refers to the upward pressure (or thrust) that is applied on the organism by its medium. Buoyancy is determined by the density of the medium and determines the floating ability of an organism. Water provides sufficient buoyancy for many organisms, e.g., the jellyfish. If a jellyfish is taken out of water and placed on land it will disintegrate by spreading apart. Thus, the water provides enough buoyancy (pressure) in order to keep the shape of the jellyfish. Pressure – This is the downward force that is applied on an organism by its medium. In water, the pressure is dependent on the depth. Organisms that live at the bottom of the ocean experience the effects of extreme pressure and they must have specific adaptations that enable them to survive in such harsh environments. Temperature Variations – Usually in an aquatic environment there are minimal temperature variations to that compared with terrestrial environments. The temperature variations also depend on the size of the body of water; a large body of water will experience much less temperature variations than a smaller......

Words: 4532 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Estuary Ecosystem

...Tampa Bay Estuary. The Nitrogen cycle is a cycle where nitrogen through decaying vegetation, excrement and carcasses materialize into the nitrogen we find in the soil. The Nitrogen cycle is almost identical to the Carbon cycle. Natural Disturbance are disturbances caused by Mother Nature. Anthropogenic caused disturbances are man’s way of harming the ecosystem. Nature has a way of recovering with and without help. Estuary Ecosystem The United States of American is a country that consists of many different ecosystems in a relatively small space. From the arid desert climate with scorching temperatures to mountainous areas that stay frozen year round, the United States has many different ecosystems to offer. One ecosystem in particular is the estuary system. Normally found along coastal lines, estuaries offer a safe haven for water, air and land creatures alike. It also offers a great area for many different types of vegetation to grow. One state with a plethora of estuaries is the state of Florida. Florida, having a relatively warm climate year round and having a coast line that almost surrounds the entire state, gives these ecosystems a great environment to flourish. One flourishing estuary in particular is located in the Tampa area and is known as the Tampa Bay Estuary. This 400 square mile protected area is home to many different types of animals to include a winter home to migratory birds. This refuge allows these many different types of animals the opportunity to......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Rainforest Ecosystem

...1. Ecosystems and How They Work - Sustainable Development In this assignment, you will investigate the biotic and abiotic structure and function of an ecosystem. Choose one of the following ecosystems: * Tropical rainforest * Grassland * Coral Reef * Estuary * Desert You will write a two to three page APA-style research paper about your choice of ecosystem including: * Where might this type of ecosystem be located? Give one specific example. * Describe the structure of the ecosystem: List both the abiotic components and biotic components * Describe the function of the ecosystem: How do the abiotic and biotic components interact in biogeochemical cycles? Describe both the carbon and nitrogen cycles * Describe disturbance and recovery: Describe one natural and one human caused disturbance to the ecosystem. Explain the damage to the ecosystem, including how the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the ecosystem changed. * Explain how ecosystems recover naturally ... (More) Ecosystem Definition noun, plural: ecosystems A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit. Supplement An ecosystem is made up of plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, rocks, minerals, water sources and the local atmosphere interacting with one another. Word origin: coined in 1930 by Roy Clapham, to denote the physical and biological......

Words: 2080 - Pages: 9