Premium Essay

Essay on Bulgarian Political System - What Should It Be?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By unbound
Words 1143
Pages 5
Bulgaria – presidential, semi-presidential or parliamentary republic? by Vera Dimitrova, 11114075

According to the political scientist Lasswell , politics is “who gets what, when and how”. Every country has different definition for “who” “what” and “how” and so different political systems are preferable. Since there is no formula for determining whether a particular regime is suitable for a particular nation, except maybe the experience, it is very hard for me to prescribe a good government for Bulgaria. Yes, the semi – presidential regime in France is a successful and stable one. But does that mean that it will be successful here? Bulgarians are very different from the French in cultural aspect. Yet, many believe that the Bulgarians are very close to the Russians. Does that mean that a semi – presidential regime in Bulgaria will be like the one in Russian which is, probably, the worst scenario? I don’t think so. The demographic, social and economic factors for every country are specific and that’s why taking in account the specific features of Bulgaria is crucial in defining the best political system for us. Let’s start with two factors having huge social impact on Bulgaria - the 500-year-rule of the Ottoman Empire and the communist regime. Almost 600 years of our late history the common Bulgarian citizens spent in obeying to the established rule and living with the decisions someone else made for them. For hundreds of years our will, individuality and creativity was surprised by the Ottoman empire and less than a hundred years after this rule ended – we adopted another one – the communist. The constant presence of foreign political pressure and the disappointment from the Bulgarian government made the Bulgarian skeptical and reserved towards the State. The low standard of life in Bulgaria compared to the one in the rest of the European countries...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cross-Cultural Communication

...remote groups and stage of development are the most probable reason for discrepancies and controversies found in the sources when the same topics are discussed. That is why this paper focuses on group of Arabic nations usually called Middle East and "Arabs" means Middle-East-Arabs in this paper. By contrast, Bulgarians are small nation situated in South-Eastern Europe what some authors and international authorities consider as Central Europe. Living in country in transition period and the will of younger generation to move towards Western stile are reasons for occurrence of somewhat of mixed business practices. The younger the staff is and the bigger the company is - the more western oriented the practices are, especially in the local branches of big multinational corporations. Even though geographically close situated and shared common history, for several centuries these two cultures differ and in this paper the differences and similarities of business practices of Bulgaria and Arab World will be compared. Basic cultural values ​​and practices: The main cultural values ​​for the Arabs are collectivism, hospitality and honor. In one way or another they are valid for Bulgarians as well, but with some variations. Collectivism in both cultures is due to the...

Words: 2915 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

First Balkan War

...The Balkan Crisis represents a series of tensions in the region that arose, in part, due to the decline of the Ottoman regime in Europe. This culminated in the 1908 annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary and the Balkan Wars preceding World War I. While not directly causing WWI, these events laid the foundations for disputes amongst the Great Powers as well as solidifying the existing Bismarckian alliance system. Furthermore, the competing nationalistic interests manifested themselves in the Balkan Wars which were largely a war for control of Macedonia, under the guise of liberation from Ottoman rule. The role of nationalism was not the traditionally espoused Serbian aggression, but political elites in all European states using nationalism as a vehicle to manipulate their populations. The Balkan Wars deserve study because they show the burgeoning role of nationalism in European politics and set the precedent for events that unfolded later in the twentieth century. Historians often attribute nationalism as one of the major causative factors WWI. This statement cannot be blindly accepted because although nationalism is clearly one of the dominant trends of the twentieth century, it was still in its infancy before WWI. The decision to go to war is decided by rulers, not at least initially by the populace. Therefore, nationalism is worthy of definition, especially with respect to a region as complex as the Balkans, where these issues are still a problem today.......

Words: 2517 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Gshtefbf

...Unpleasant, and it subsequently gained popularity as a written work. Included in this collection of plays are lengthy explanatory prefaces, which note significant issues in the plays and which have been invaluable to critics. In place of brief stage directions, Shaw’s plays also included lengthy instructions and descriptions. Another unique aspect of Arms and the Man was its use of a woman as the central character. Set during the four-month-long Serbo-Bulgarian War that occurred between November 1885 and March 1886, this play is a satire on the foolishness of glorifying something so terrible as war, as well as a satire on the foolishness of basing your affections on idealistic notions of love. These themes brought reality and a timeless lesson to the comic stage. Consequently, once Shaw’s genius was recognized, Arms and the Man became one of Shaw’s most popular plays and has remained a classic ever since.   Arms and the Man Summary Act 1 It is November 1885, during the Serbo-Bulgarian War. Raina Petkoff, a young Bulgarian woman, is in her bedchamber when her mother, Catherine, enters and announces there has been a battle close...

Words: 7430 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

My Papers

...INTERNATIONAL FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK Celebrating the BNB 130th Anniversary INTERNATIONAL FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES Edited by Tsvetan Manchev, Doctor in Economics BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK 2009 International Foreign Exchange Reserves Abbreviations BNB GDP BIS b.p. EIB EC EU ESCB ECB LBNB М1 М2 М3 IMF ERMII Fed − the Bulgarian National Bank − gross domestic product − the Bank for International Settlements − basis points − the European Investment Bank − the European Commission − the European Union − the European System of Central Banks − the European Central Bank − the Law on the Bulgarian National Bank − narrow money − М1 plus quasi money − broad money − the International Monetary Fund − Exchange Rate Mechanism II − the Federal Reserve System © The Bulgarian National Bank, 2009 © 2009 by Tsvetan Manchev et al. ISBN 978-954-8579-30-8 Published by the Bulgarian National Bank 1, Knyaz Alexander I Square 1000 Sofia telephone +359 2 9145-750 facsimile +359 2 980 2425, 980 6493 www.bnb.bg 2 International Foreign Exchange Reserves Contents Introduction ......................................................... 11 PART ONE. Chapter 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS Nature and Function .......................................... 19 Definition ............................................................. 19 Gold as a Foreign Reserve Assets ...................... 20 Reasons to Own and Use Foreign Reserves ...... 23......

Words: 55968 - Pages: 224

Premium Essay

Etymology

...Etymology In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper) to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses." "Plagiary", a derivative of "plagiarus" was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson to describe someone guilty of literary theft.[7][9] The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620.[10] The Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", and plagium, "kidnapping", has the root plaga ("snare", "net"), based on the Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave" (seen for instance in Greek plekein, Bulgarian "плета" pleta, Latin plectere, all meaning "to weave"). Legal aspects Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense. "Plagiarism" is not mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil.[11][8] Some cases may be treated as unfair competition or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights.[8] The increased availability of intellectual property due to a rise in technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal.[citation needed] In short, people are asked to use the guideline, "...if you did not write it yourself, you must give credit."[12] Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship may constitute plagiarism......

Words: 1901 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Terrorism

...Transportation has always been a target or method for terrorism to transfer their message to the public. While transportation keeps economic moving, nationally and globally, business relies on transport and transport systems at every level no matter transferring goods, transporting customers or staff commuting. From jet airliners to mass transit buses and rail terminals, vehicles and transport facilities are all-too familiar targets of terrorist attacks in all country and abroad. The impact of large-scale disruption of transport infrastructures can be critical for national and global business because transport systems have long been viewed as targets for terrorists groups worldwide. Also we will elaborate more on how terrorism can be spread or being use through the four methods of transportation like rail, road, aviation and maritime. For the incident strikes on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York on September 11, 2001, this has exposed critical security flaws within the United States transportation system which required urgent attention. The first attack on public transportation involving weapons of mass destruction occurred in 1995 when the Japanese doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo released sarin gas into the Tokyo subway system. Then we will explain about what are the factors and effect of terrorism behavior....

Words: 13246 - Pages: 53

Premium Essay

Latin

...Lincoln High School IB History Internal Assessment Student Handbook Table of Contents What is the History IA? ­ ­ ­ Planning Your Historical Investigation ­ Examples of Types of Investigations ­ Examples of Research Questions ­ ­ Choice of Topic ­ ­ ­ ­ 20th Century ­ ­ ­ ­ History of the Americas ­ ­ Alternative ­ ­ ­ ­ The Written Account & Assessment Criteria A. Plan of the Investigation ­ ­ B. Summary of Evidence ­ ­ C. Evaluation of Sources ­ ­ D. Analysis ­ ­ ­ ­ E. Conclusion ­ ­ ­ F. Sources and Word Limit ­ ­ Sample History IAs ­ ­ ­ ­ 1­Trotsky and the Russian Civil War 2­US in Chile 3­Women in the French Revolution 4­Pre­WWI Alliances ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 4 7 9 ­ 10 11 12 13 14 14 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ 1 2 2 3 4 ­ ­ 10 ­ ­ 16 Information in this guide is gathered from a variety of sources, including, but not limited to: The IB History Course Guide, Oxford’s IB Skills and Practice, IBOCC, and anecdotal experience. What is the History IA? The History IA is your chance to explore a period, theme, or event in history that you are interested in. For full IB Candidates, it also serves as 20% of your final History Grade. The final paper will be assessed by your teacher, with a sampling sent off to IB for score moderation. The History IA asks you to use the full range of skills you have been taught in class. In particular: ● knowledge and understanding ● application and interpretation ●......

Words: 14314 - Pages: 58

Premium Essay

Global Marketing Culture

...Culture Essay Culture is pervasive in all marketing activities”, (Albaum et al, 2005) Hall distinguishes culture according to the degree of context in their communication systems (De Mooij, 2010). High context cultures (Japanese, Chinese) contrast greatly with low context cultures (USA), who require a more explicit conveyance of messages. As Hall (1984) says, “Many Americans don’t seem able to evaluate anything unless they can attach a number to it”. Introduction One of the early scholars of culture, Linton (1945), defines it as: ‘‘The configuration of learned behavior and results of learned behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society.’’ Other early scholars like Kluckhorn (1954) conceptualized that the cultural influences transcend in terms of the beliefs, norms, traditions, and values of society and this view still prevails among the scholars of culture. Why is culture important? Global Marketing in the simplest description attempts to understand customers in terms of what they buy, when they buy, why they buy, how much they buy, where they buy it, and with what they buy. Internationally, this means understanding culture. How marketing efforts interact with culture determines the success or failure of a product. "There are many examples of cultural differences that have affected marketing success or failure." (Buzzell) The relationship with culture comes into play with the realization that each of the......

Words: 3846 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Politics

...Spend 40 minutes on Section A and 40 minutes on Section B SECTION A QUESTION ONE PRIME MINISTERIAL POWER “For too long the big political decisions in this country have been made in the wrong place. They are not made around the Cabinet table where they should be, but they are taken on the sofa in Tony Blair’s office. No notes are kept and no one takes the blame when things go wrong. That arrogant style of government must come to an end. I will restore the proper process of government. I want to be Prime Minister of this country not a President (Source: David Cameron, The Times, 5th October 2006) “The Cabinet is the committee at the centre of the British political system. Every Thursday during Parliament, Secretaries of State from all departments as well as other ministers meet in the Cabinet Room in Downing Street to discuss the big issues of the day. The Prime Minister chairs the meeting, selects its members and also recommends their appointment as ministers to the monarch. The present Cabinet has 23 members (21 MPs and two peers). The secretary of the Cabinet is responsible for preparing records of its discussions and decisions”. (Source: From a modern textbook) (a) What criticism is David Cameron making of Tony Blair’s style of decision making in source 1? [5] (b) Explain the main functions of the cabinet [10] (c) To what extent have UK Prime Ministers become “presidential”? [25] Or 2 QUESTION TWO THE JUDICIARY A powerful coalition of......

Words: 68254 - Pages: 274

Premium Essay

History

...The Edexcel International GCSE in History Schemes of work We are happy to provide these new enhanced schemes of work for you to amend and adapt to suit your teaching purposes. We hope you find them useful. Practical support to help you deliver this specification Schemes of work These schemes of work have been produced to help you implement this Edexcel specification. They are offered as examples of possible models that you should feel free to adapt to meet your needs and are not intended to be in any way prescriptive. It is in editable word format to make adaptation as easy as possible. These schemes of work give guidance for: * Content to be covered * Approximate time to spend on different key themes * Ideas for incorporating and developing the assessment skills related to each unit. Suggested teaching time This is based on a two year teaching course of five and a half terms with one and a half hours of history teaching each week. This would be a seventy week course with total teaching time of approximately 100 hours. The schemes suggest the following timescale for the different sections: * Paper 1: 20 hours for each of the two topics: Total 40 hours. * Paper 2 Section A: 20 hours for the topic: Total 20 hours. * Paper 2 Section B: 25 hours for the topic since it covers a longer period in time. Total 25 hours. * Revision: 15 hours. Possible options for those with less teaching time * 20 hours for Section Paper 2 Section......

Words: 19278 - Pages: 78

Premium Essay

Learning Theory

...- 31 The transition to 'theory' - 32 Some recurrent ideas in critical theory - 34 Selected reading - 36 2 Structuralism - 39 Structuralist chickens and liberal humanist eggs Signs of the fathers - Saussure - 41 Stop and think - 45 The scope of structuralism - 46 What structuralist critics do - 49 Structuralist criticism: examples - 50 Stop and think - 53 Stop and think - 55 39 Stop and think - 57 Selected reading - 60 3 Post-structuralism and deconstruction - 61 Some theoretical differences between structuralism and post-structuralism - 61 Post-structuralism - life on a decentred planet - 65 Stop and think - 68 Structuralism and post-structuralism - some practical differences - 70 What post-structuralist critics do - 73 Deconstruction: an example - 73 Selected reading - 79 4 Postmodernism - 81 What is postmodernism? What was modernism? - 81 'Landmarks' in postmodernism: Habermas, Lyotard and Baudrillard - 85 Stop and think - 90 What postmodernist critics do - 91 Postmodernist criticism: an example - 91 Selected reading - 94 5 Psychoanalytic criticism - 96 Introduction - 96 How Freudian interpretation works - 98 Stop and think - 101 Freud and evidence - 102 What Freudian psychoanalytic critics do - 105 Freudian...

Words: 98252 - Pages: 394

Free Essay

Ch 13 Nation-States

...suggest that a different student act as recorder for each block of questions. Also, assign a different student to be the discussion leader/gatekeeper to keep the discussion on track and prevent any single individual from dominating the discussion. A third student could function as timekeeper. See Chapter 11 and 14 role-playing activities for further discussion of these tasks. Remind students that Balkan and Middle East politics are always changing and can get quickly out of date. We have done our best to bring things up to date as of late Spring, 2006. If something major occurs after publication that changes any of the answers, the website will provide an update. It helps to emphasize to students that as boundaries change, what was once ethnonationalism (intra-state) can become irredentism (inter-state), and vice versa. They need to apply...

Words: 32987 - Pages: 132

Free Essay

Politics

...Trustees of Princeton University Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989 Author(s): Timur Kuran Source: World Politics, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Oct., 1991), pp. 7-48 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2010422 . Accessed: 26/02/2011 05:24 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=cup. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Cambridge University Press and Trustees of Princeton......

Words: 15671 - Pages: 63

Free Essay

Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman

...Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman Introduction by Lawrence Lessig Edited by Joshua Gay GNU Press www.gnupress.org Free Software Foundation Boston, MA USA First printing, first edition. Copyright © 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. ISBN 1-882114-98-1 Published by the Free Software Foundation 59 Temple Place Boston, MA Tel: 1-617-542-5942 Fax: 1-617-542-2652 Email: gnu@gnu.org Web: www.gnu.org GNU Press is an imprint of the FSF. Email: press@gnu.org Web: www.gnupress.org Please contact the GNU Press for information regarding bulk purchases for classroom or user group use, reselling, or any other questions or comments. Original artwork by Etienne Suvasa. Cover design by Jonathan Richard. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this book provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this book into another language, from the original English, with respect to the conditions on distribution of modified versions above, provided that it has been approved by the Free Software Foundation. i Short Contents Editor’s Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A Note on Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Topic Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 101866 - Pages: 408

Free Essay

Alevel History Spec

...2014 OCR. All rights reserved. Copyright OCR retains the copyright on all its publications, including the specifications. However, registered centres for OCR are permitted to copy material from this specification booklet for their own internal use. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations is a Company Limited by Guarantee. Registered in England. Registered company number 3484466. Registered office:  Hills Road 1 Cambridge CB1 2EU. OCR is an exempt charity. Contents Introducing… AS Level History A (from September 2015) Teaching and learning resources iv Why choose an OCR AS Level in History A? 1 1a. Why choose an OCR qualification? 1 1b. Why choose an OCR AS Level in History A? 2 1c. What are the key features of this specification? 3 1d. 2 iii Professional Development 1 ii How do I find out more information? 3 4 2a. Overview of AS Level in History A (H105) 4 2b. Content of AS Level in History A (H105) 5 2c. Content of unit group 1: British period study and enquiry (Units Y131 to Y143) 8 2c. Content of unit group 2: Non-British period study (Units Y231 to Y254) 33 2d. 3 The specification overview Prior learning and progression 60 61 3a. Forms of assessment 61 3b. Assessment objectives (AOs) 61 3c. Assessment availability 62 3d. Retaking the qualification 62 3e. Assessment......

Words: 21136 - Pages: 85