Free Essay

Factors That Influence or Affect Helping

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By scheek555
Words 583
Pages 3
Everyday thousands of Americans simply don't have enough food to feed their family and their children. Most turn to government assistance, such as WIC and food stamps for support. However, not all needy families qualify and some may not receive enough food stamps. In that case, they turn to local food pantries for help with food. The donations they receive can truly make a difference.

Out of the realm of typical behavior, I recently donated two turkeys to Our Daily Bread Food Pantry to be distributed to their client families for their own Thanksgiving celebrations. The volunteers were overwhelmed with the support received during this time when the economy is weak. They were tremendously grateful for the local generosity and asked that I "please keep giving."

I'm a firm believer in doing helpful deeds. I'm a naturally kind and compassionate person, and I believe that every negative experience in one’s life can result in something positive. I would not consider my behavior to be prosocial for the reason that I had no motive for donating both turkeys to the local food pantry designed to help others. My behavior was altruistic. Why? My act was voluntarily to help needy families with no expectation of a reward in any form, except perhaps a feeling of having done a good deed. Prosocial behavior ranges over a continuum from the most selfless acts of altruism to helpful acts that are motivated entirely by self-interest (Taylor, Peplau, Sears, 2006).

The fact that I was directly gaining a tax deduction for my charitable donation did not affect my feelings about the behavior. My empathic concern motivated me to help the families in need. Because the goal of empathic concern is to enhance the welfare of someone else, it provides an altruistic motive for helping (Taylor, Peplau, Sears, 2006).

Bystander intervention is the technical term for helping a stranger in distress. Research shows that situational factors affect this type of helping. People are less likely to intervene when others are present. There are several explanations for this bystander effect, including a diffusion of responsibility, the influence of other people on how an individual interprets the situation, and evaluation of apprehension (Taylor, Peplau, Sears, 2006).

Many factors influence people's willingness to help, including the ambiguity of the situation. In ambiguous situations, it is unclear that there is an emergency. Also, people are less likely to help in unfamiliar environments than in familiar ones (e.g., when they are in strange cities rather than in their hometowns). People are much more likely to help others they judge to be innocent victims than those they believe have brought their prob¬lems on themselves. Thus, they may fail to lend assistance to homeless people and drug addicts whom they feel "deserve what they get." Perceived cost, similarity, mood, gender, and the social norm of "doing your part" in helping a worthy cause are also factors that can influence or affect helping (Taylor, Peplau, Sears, 2006).

In summary, acts of kindness and generosity come in many different forms, such as giving food to a hungry stranger, donating one’s time to aid homeless people or helping a fellow tenant make the rent. Taking care of our neighbors is an American value, and feeding our neighbors is a shared responsibility.

References

Social perception. (2013, September 22). Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_perception

Taylor, S. E., Peplau, L. A, Sears, D. O. (2006). Social Psychology, 12th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishing.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How Does Positive Affect Influence Organizational Citizenship Behaviours

...Work and Well-Being How and to what extent does positive affect influence organizational citizenship behaviours? January 2006 Introduction This essay is broken down into various sections to develop the ‘building blocks’ upon which we can provide an answer to the question. In section 1, we will look at the core constructs of ‘positive affect’ (PA) and ‘organizational citizenship behaviours’ (OCBs). In section 2, we will answer the question of how PA influences OCBs by looking at some of the main theories and models. In section 3, the extent to which PA influences OCBs will be considered by reviewing the empirical evidence. Finally, section 4 attempts to draw conclusions and provides an overall discussion. Section 1 - Definitions This section looks at the constructs of ‘positive affect’ and ‘organizational citizenship behaviours’. Positive Affect (PA) Between the 1930s, when it started to emerge as a construct of interest to organizational research, and the mid-1980s, affect at work was construed almost exclusively in terms of job satisfaction (Brief & Weiss, 2002). However, Organ & Near (1985) argued that job satisfaction has both a cognitive (belief, judgement, comparison) as well as an affective (emotional, feeling) dimension, whereas most measures of job satisfaction tended to focus on the cognitive element. This distinction is important: Weiss & Cropanzano (1996) see affective......

Words: 4423 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Psychology

...reserved First published online as a Review in Advance on September 10, 2004 PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: Multilevel Perspectives Louis A. Penner Karmanos Cancer Institute/Family Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 40202, and Research Center for Group Dynamics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; email: pennerl@karmanos.org John F. Dovidio Psychology Department, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York 13346; email: John.Dovidio@UConn.edu Jane A. Piliavin Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; email: jpiliavi@ssc.wisc.edu David A. Schroeder University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701; email: dave@uark.edu Key Words altruism, cooperation, helping ■ Abstract Current research on prosocial behavior covers a broad and diverse range of phenomena. We argue that this large research literature can be best organized and understood from a multilevel perspective. We identify three levels of analysis of prosocial behavior: (a) the “meso” level—the study of helper-recipient dyads in the context of a specific situation; (b) the micro level—the study of the origins of prosocial tendencies and the sources of variation in these tendencies; and (c) the macro level—the study of prosocial actions that occur within the context of groups and large organizations. We present research at each level and discuss similarities and differences across levels. Finally, we consider ways in which theory......

Words: 14699 - Pages: 59

Premium Essay

Social Psychology & Prosocial Behaviour

...Essay ‘Using social psychology theories, discuss the situational factors that affect the likelihood that people will engage in prosocial behaviour. What is the evidence for these effects, and how might changes in our society affect the likelihood of people acting prosocially? According to Gross (2010) the term prosocial behaviour is used to describe behaviours carried out by individuals intended to benefit others, such as helping, cooperating, comforting, reassuring, defending, sharing, donating to charity and showing concern. Whether one displays prosocial behaviour can, to a certain degree, be dependent on several situational factors as explained in social psychology. These factors typically include the individual’s analysis of the situation, the number of bystanders and the cost of helping (Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark, 1981). When discussing this issue, it is essential to refer to social psychology theories as they provide insight and evidence on why people act prosocially. The key theories addressed throughout this essay include social cognition theory, attribution theory and the social exchange theory. By understanding prosocial behaviour, psychologists have led the search in finding ways to influence an increase in helping behaviours. The first apparent situational factor linked to prosocial behaviour is the individual’s internal assessment of the situation. The decision model of helping, devised by Latané and Darley (1970), outlines a five step......

Words: 1444 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Client Paper

...BSHS/305 December 15, 2014 Cassidy Hawf Client Paper In order to be a proficient and efficient helper in all facets of the helping field of human services, the helper must first be diverse. Diverse individuals have an upper hand when it pertains to assisting client needs efficiently and their expertise in the proper helping skills to use for each range of problem. The range of problems client's encounter is addiction, homelessness, or mental illness. It is within these ranges of problems the helper must implement a variety of skills to assist the client on how to manage effectively or cope with such issues. When envisioning a client and the problems that can be attributed from the past, the present, and in the future, the helper needs to look at the whole person and not just the problems directly. “Problems for clients are rarely single issues, and the human service professional should approach each client with the expectation of more than one problem. In fact, one problem can cause, influence, or at the very least be related to other difficulties,” (Woodside & McClam, 2011). Range of Problems The range of problems that a client may face can be short-term or long-term. Short-term problems are issues such as being an unemployed or displaced worker, poor living environment, or spousal abuse can be resolved by implementing a plan that will affect each problem by creating a positive outcome. Long-term problems like addiction, homelessness, and mental illness......

Words: 1287 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Framework

...Environmental and Consumer Influences Paper A product that I am familiar with is the Apple Iphone. I will go over and analyze the factors that affect consumers purchasing decisions when it comes to considering to buy and actually purchasing the Apple Iphone. When it comes to consumers they just do not make decisions when it comes to purchasing a certain product or service. There are many internal and external factors that lead them to purchase something for a specific business or company. This paper will go over some of those internal and external factors that influences consumers desire to purchase certain products or services over others. When people Purchase and Apple Iphone many psychological and social factors come into play that leads up to a consumer choosing the Apple Iphone over another phone within another company. A consumer has motives when buying a certain product or service; they want a product that can live up to the name and reputation of selling and providing the consumer a high quality product. The consumer wants to achieve a certain outcome. If their motives are to purchase an Apple Iphone then they will not likely stop until they achieve that goal. Another factor is the personality of the consumer. This is usually made up of how the consumer interacts with others. Consumers have their own ways of thinking which may not be the same way of thinking others in their circle may or may not have regarding something. Reference groups are groups of people......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

3hrc

...3HRC 1.1 Wiltshire Council’s purpose is to provide a broad range of services to the population of Wiltshire (435,000 residents). Wiltshire is a unitary authority and is responsible for schools, social services, rubbish collection and disposal, county roads, planning, and leisure services, among other things. Wiltshire Council is also the biggest employer within Wiltshire. Wiltshire Council has set out their goals in a business plan for the next four years 2013 – 2017. The goals include: * To protect those who are most vulnerable * To boost the local economy; and, * To bring communities together to enable and support them to do more for themselves These priorities will help to deliver their vision to create stronger and more resilient communities and make Wiltshire an even better place to live, work and visit. The plan will include investment in highway maintenance, creation of a campus opportunity in each community area, economic growth stimulation and provision of opportunities for every child and young person to improve their attainment and achieve their full potential. 1.2 Wiltshire Council offers services to all members of the local community so thereby have a huge range of ‘customers’. Some of the services the council provides are ‘free’ at source although they are funded through council tax and government grants which provide a full range of services to customers, some of whom are unable to pay directly for them. The services......

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Popularity of Social Networks

...recruit these underaged children, because they are easily controled and take fewer wages. Sometimes they even receive no payment, only shelter. One could ask himself why these children accepted doing such work. The answer for this question is in three words : “not enough income” .The decresed income made families are not able to afford schools, so the parents decide the children must work in order to pay family debts, suplement family income, and help in household enterprise. Moreover, the parents think that schooling is not considered useful for their children’s future and that learning handcrafts would be much more benefitial. This problem has a huge effect on our world because the child labor does not only affect the child physically and psychologically, but also it affects the entire society directly and indirectlty. There are no various non governmental organization that aim to decrease the child labor in Egypt and UNICEF is one of the very few that deal with this problem. The united nation’s children’s fund (UNICEF) is an organization that helps improving the children’s lives and rights that was found in 1999 and now it happens to be in 191 countries. It is mainly depending on the volunteerism of governments and people willing to help the children live a better life. Just as it is...

Words: 1073 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Importance of Learning About Mental Health

...to anyone at anytime. In this paper, I explain that being mentally health is being in a state of emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Small changes to this balance such as life experiences or biological factors can affect a person’s mental health. The major categories for mental health disorders and how they are categorized are as follows: * Anxiety- too much inner turmoil * Mood- major fluctuations in emotion * Psychotic- major disruptions in brain functions * Dementia- major disturbance to consciousness * Eating- unusual eating behaviors The best way to deal with these mental health issues is to talk to others about it. That is why it is so important for everyone to know about mental health so that they can be comfortable talking about it. Table of Contents Executive Summary Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 2.1 Purpose 2.2 Scope 2.0 Overview of What is Mental Health 3.3 What is Mental Health? 3.4 Causes 2.2.1 Life Experiences 2.2.2 Biological Factors 3.5 Warning Signs 3.0 The Major Types of Mental Disorders 4.6 Anxiety 4.7 Mood 4.8 Psychotic 4.9 Dementia 4.10 Eating 4.0 Dealing With Mental Health Issues 5.11 Helping Yourself 5.12 Helping Others 5.0 Conclusion List of...

Words: 2249 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Mathematics

...points, and various abstract elements, together with the relations between them and operations performed on them. Wikipedia defined mathematics as the abstract study of topics such as quantity (number) structure, space and change. Mathematic is a science subject that deals with the study of numbers, shapes, sizes and other relationships among the quantities. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: mathematics is one of the most important and compulsory subjects to be taught in primary schools and even in post primary schools. The subject is very important since it involves almost all aspects of life. It is involved in all aspects of life because, since the beginning of life there is mathematics. This research is carried out to identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of mathematics in primary school in Toro local government area.. For clarity,...

Words: 2040 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Importance Of Staff Retention

...(Sutherland, 2000). At the centre of the employee retention policies or strategies are leadership styles and motivation, which are intended to offer good enough factors for job satisfaction towards retention. It is in this light that all forward looking organizations in today’s rapidly changing global environment, across diverse industries are continually exploring ways to equip their managers or leaders with the right leadership qualities and styles that they hope can impact positively on job satisfaction and staff motivation to stay. Employee job satisfaction and motivation have undoubtedly remained two of the most significant catalysts to employees’ loyalty and the leadership style serves as the conduit to speeding up the activation of these catalysts. Nonetheless, changes in social values, culture, technology and political systems have also greatly impacted on the leadership processes and styles on employee motivation and loyalty over the years. Available literatures indicate that there are significant multiplicities of approaches to defining Leadership. According to Omolayo (2000), leadership can be defined as a social process in which the leader seeks the participation of subordinates in order to reach organizational goals and objectives. Essentially, it is a relationship through which one person influences the behavior or actions of other people. In common speech, leadership and management are erroneously used interchangeably. Management is about developing,......

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Draft

...Interconnection: All four factors influence brain development and life long learning, the role of the environment plays a huge part in our day-to-day development. All four factors work together in order for us to develop, meaning that the if we receive the write nutrients we may be medically health, which allows us physically develop and then social and the environment interlock together. Interconnection: All four factors influence brain development and life long learning, the role of the environment plays a huge part in our day-to-day development. All four factors work together in order for us to develop, meaning that the if we receive the write nutrients we may be medically health, which allows us physically develop and then social and the environment interlock together. Nutrition/Health – The role of nutrition in brain development is complex, nutrition has been called the single greatest environmental influences on babies in the womb and during infancy, and it remains essential throughout the first five years of life. A proper balance of nutrients in this formative period is critical for normal brain development. Shortage of nutrients such as iron and iodine can impact cognitive and motor development, and these effects are often irreversible. Children who are malnourished are deprived of adequate calories and protein in their diet, through the infant life they do not grow either physically or mentally, children who are malnourished may have inadequate......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Consumer Decision Making Because Advertisement

...external influences affecting the Consumer’s Decision Making Process. A number of factors affect the consumers buying behavior. Some of these are internal and others because of external influences. A few of these internal and external factors influencing the consumer’s buying behavior while deciding to buy a You C-1000 Vitamin C. Decision making is a process dependent on many factors which vary from person to person and also from region to region. Consumers are living in a society which follows its own culture and values. Personal preferences again change with age, lifestyle, income, and psychological factors. Internal aspect 1. Perception Perception is how a consumer processes information consciously or subconsciously. The perception about the brand and also about him has an influence on the buying decision. When consumer see You C-1000 advertisement, they can get the information, that product is for better life and healthy body. Brand of You C-1000 vitamin also can influence the decision making of costumer, the brand means, there are many vitamin c in that drink. Also the slogan “Healthy Inside, Fresh Outside” 2. A consumer’s knowledge and experiences A consumer’s knowledge and experiences have an impact on the decision making process to You C1000 vitamin. An educated person is aware of benefit available in the drink and chooses the brand and model in accordance with his needs. Various previous information obtained by a person who will influence......

Words: 1116 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Demographic Transition

...dynamics of a population within a specific area in a country. To put it in other words, it measures the stages from high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates and death rates while a country is developing from a preindustrial economic system to an industrialized economic system (Montgomery). Four Phases of Demographic Transition Stage I -Within the first stage of a demographic transition, the birth rates and death rates are high. As you may know, within a developing country one of the reasons the birth rate is high is because of the fact that children are needed in order to keep up with farming and also to look after the elderly. The death rate is high mainly due to the different types of diseases in poor health. The death rate affects all ages. Stage II - In the second stage of the demographic transition, the birth rate will stay high while the death rate sees signs of that it are decreasing at a rapid pace. The birth rate is still high because of the children that are needed for farming and to still look after the elderly. The rapid pace of the death rate decreasing is due to the types of improvement in medical care and better supply of water and sanitation. In the second stage, fewer children are dying. Stage III - In this stage of the demographic transition, there has been a rapid decrease in birth rates while the death rate is slowly beginning to decrease. This is mainly due to the improvement of medical technology and the way people are eating and again......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Risk/Quality Management

...organization that definitely uses all that risk and quality management can offer. Pharmacy is the organization that was chosen using background knowledge and new information. Pharmacy is “the branch of the health sciences dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs.” Pharmacies deal with prescription drugs and fulfilling out prescriptions to patients. Pharmacists employ the use of science and the knowledge they gained during their schooling. With this knowledge they perform tasks such as helping over physicians decide was is best for their client in terms of selection and compatibility with other prescriptions. However, they do not only help in providing information but gathering information as well though observation and communicating with the client. Through observation and communication, pharmacists can provide quality medication to clients and help them with their health in other ways. Pharmacists are not limited to just helping with prescription orders but can aid in weight loss, dieting choices and help with high blood pressure. Pharmacists can choose to either have their own approved pharmacy or choose to work at a prominent pharmacy. This means that pharmacies have more freedom when it comes to ensuring good quality however they have less freedom when it comes to risk management. Both risk management and quality...

Words: 1992 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Therapeutic Relationship Between Client and Clinician

...crutial aspect for the therapeutic outcome. Having a connection between the client and therapist can have many determining factors that lead to a positive evaluation and outcome of the therapy. There are many components and attributes a therapist must be aware of and contain to have a good helping relationship with their client. A client wants to have a positive experience when receiving help and if there is no relationship or positive understanding between each the outcome could be negative or the client could stop therapy early. The concept that was thought of in the early 1900’s to profile clients and match them with a clinician that would possibly have a more successful outcome with therapy should be used in a lot of therapeutic helping relationships, and goes along with the importance of having a good clinician-client relationship. Being able to profile a client to find out which therapist would be a good fit for them, would help the initial alliance between the therapist and client. A client’s relationship with their therapist is very important in helping have a positive outcome at the end of therapy. According to the article “Relationships Among Client-Therapist Personality Congruence, Working Alliance, and Therapeutic Outcome” both client and therapist have their own ways of thinking, morals, behaving, and other characteristics that will influence how they relate to each other and the approach to the process. The article states that both will bring in their......

Words: 1251 - Pages: 6