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ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS
Mgmt 605-M02 Mondays 6:00-8:10 p.m.

DESCRIPTION
This course links the classical management process to the analysis of human behavior. How do people think, analyze a situation, and how they behave. The practicing manager should gain theoretical knowledge on which to base experience and/or intuition when making decisions or solving problems involving the human dimension in the organization.

In this course you are going to learn a series of models:

1) The individual—to help you understand, predict, and modify an individual’s behavior. 2) Perception of people—how such perception differs from other perceptions aspects and its importance 3) Functions of the managerial brain—how it works, makes decisions, solves problems, creates ideas 3) Dimensions of communications—to enable you to understand the basics of transmittal of knowledge 2) Two person interactions—so that you can understand conflict, leadership behavior, negotiations. 3) Small group functions,--so that you can understand when and why they are strong and get results and when they are weak and become failures 4) The large organization—so that you can utilize their strengths in marshalling human resources to get the work out and how they can adapt to changing times.

If you have any problems with this course, doing the work or meeting standards, speak to your instructor before you receive failing grades or other unpleasant consequences. When you discuss your problems with your instructor, the instructor joins with you as part of a two-person team to resolve the situation—it becomes an “our” situation.

If you keep the problem to yourself, you end up owning the problem all by yourself. Don’t allow that to happen. Your instructor does not get angry, upset, or “bite” when you approach him with problems.

Dr. Gray once owned a tough little dachshund. Once in a great while, when the dog and his master had a disagreement, the little dog would bite Dr. Gray. But in all the years with that dog, no matter how angry they became with each other, Dr. Gray never once bit the dog back.

II. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
The student should be able to analyze a situation, determine the behavioral aspects which are operative, and be able to explain, predict, and manipulate behavior to solve managerial problems or make decisions. The student should become sufficiently knowledgeable to be able to read the literature and apply changing behavioral theories to the world at work.

The work you are expected to do for each class:

1. You are expected to refer to this syllabus regularly. Notice that your syllabus list of topics has dates next to them. That means you are expected to read for that topic everything that is in the syllabus and on Blackboard BEFORE you come to class. After class, you are to enlarge your knowledge of the subject by reviewing your class notes, reviewing the material in the syllabus and on Blackboard, and doing some internet research/reading as appropriate to your interests and desired depth of knowledge. The internet is your textbook in this course. 2. When you go to Blackboard, read all the reference material on the topic in the Documents Section and in the Assignments section. (The assignments are NOT to be handed in unless they are specifically discussed and assigned in class.) 3. When an assignment is made in class, you are to refer to the syllabus topic again and to Blackboard for any information on how to do it or other information you might need about the assignment. You are then to review your notes, the material on Blackboard and do internet research to learn the topic before you start on any written work for an assignment. Use the internet as your reference source to learn all you can about the topic under discussion. The class discussion will help you focus on what you are expected to know and terms to search. Take notes in class to help you properly focus your searches and learning. Your class notes and Blackboard materials guide your internet searches and indicate the knowledge you are to extract from them.

4. When you do any homework: It must reflect the fact that you have read and absorbed the content (theory and specific facts) discussed in class, the syllabus, and related internet material. You are not to write a paper that is completely detached from the content of this course—your paper must be relevant to the syllabus of this course. Don’t write things “off the top of your head”—uninformed opinions without background knowledge are worse than useless to managers and do NOT meet MBA level work standards for this class.

5. Do the assignments as made in class and hand them in on time. Late assignments are heavily penalized. If the assignment has already been graded and handed back to the class it will NOT be accepted after that hour or date—and goes into your term average as a zero. Homework assignments are NOT to be submitted via the internet unless you are specifically directed to do so. If you have had special problems, speak to the instructor about what has to be done as a makeup. Handing in a pile of missing assignments at the end of the term is a useless gesture and will not reverse the string of zeroes they piled up when not handed in as scheduled.

Papers are due in class, not in hallways, subway platforms, toilets, in front of buildings—and will not be accepted in those inappropriate places.

ALL PAPERS DUE ON A PARTICULAR DATE SHOULD BE TURNED IN BY THE END OF THE CLASS BEFORE YOUR INSTRUCTOR PACKS UP FOR THE NIGHT.

IF YOUR PAPER GOES ASTRAY AFTER YOU HAVE IMPROPERLY SUBMITTED IT OR INTENDED TO SUBMIT IT, IT IS NOT YOUR INSTRUCTOR’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR THAT OCCURRENCE. YOUR GRADE ON IT IS F.

6. Warning: If there is an assignment with specific requirements for the homework to be done, your failure to meet those requirements will almost always result in an F grade for that exercise. Use the statement of the assignment as a checklist to see that you have responded to every part of every question, addressed yourself to the focus of each question, and are responding completely and comprehensively. Leaving out parts of an assignment when you turn in a paper is not MBA-level workmanship. It most certainly is not Professional Performance on a job.

7. It is your responsibility to learn what is required in the course, what is required to complete an assignment, and what has been assigned for written or study work for each session and the final. You have to keep up with the class—this is a graduate level class and it will not slow down for you. If you are absent, call a fellow student—make friends in the class, to get such information. It will not come from your professor who cannot be expected to respond to dozens of calls or emails arriving at random about, “What’s the homework?”

8. When the assignment calls for an individually done paper: Before any writing takes place—you may verbally discuss the content, how it is to be done, what sources you could suggest, and provide helpful hints when discussing the assignment with your classmates. Afterwards, you must separate and write your own papers, individually. If two papers look alike, or are simply restatements of one another with simple changes in wording, they will be considered as having been copied from one another. In which case, all the papers suspected, will be heavily penalized. Don’t show your finished paper to anyone else because you will not be allowed to claim that the copying was done without your knowledge or “authorization.” If you are caught using someone else’s paper from a prior term, you are subject to immediate dismissal from the course with an F.

III. TEXTBOOK REQUIREMENT
To be assigned in class
Reference: Any edition of Luthans, Organizational Behavior, 10th ed. or later THE WALL STREET JOURNAL

IV. GRADING CRITERIA
The homework to be handed in will make a major impact on the term grade.
a) A short assignment will be weighted 2x-4x or more.
b) A more detailed and logical analysis will be weighted 3x-5x or more.
c) A case requiring intensive thought with a detailed and logical analysis of a problem will be weighted 4x-8x or more.
d) A mid term may be administered, weight to be determined.
e)The final exam will be weighted from 8-12x or more. However, please take note: If, at the end of the term, you fail the final exam, your term grade can be pulled down to a C or even an F regardless of whatever grades you earned during the term.
f) Class “quick quizzes” will be administered regularly at the beginning or end of a class session. You will be questioned on material that was covered in the previous class and which you should have examined/studied before coming to class on the following week so that you will have learned the material. Not turning in a response, or turning in a response that indicates sub-standard learning results in a zero. While a zero or two may be dropped from any calculations of grade, additional ones will drop your average substantially. The weight of these exams in your final grade will be discussed in class. It can be from 8x-15x as deemed appropriate.
g) Other aspects of class performance can make a large impact on the final grade (by one level or more).

V. Office Hours and Location: To be announced in class.

VI. Internet Backup
This course is supplemented by homework assignments, possible extra credit assignments, class lecture notes/supplements, and other reference information placed on the internet for student downloading. The textbook will also refer you to internet material—please make use of it to expand your knowledge of the subject.

To access the internet for your course: Go to the site http://online.nyit.edu. Follow the instructions on the web page to enter the course and examine all the pages to which you can gain access. Make it a weekly activity to enter the web site. Important: If you are not registered in the course, you won’t be able to get into the web site.

Your computer must be equipped to accept “cookies” or you will not be able to get to required web-sites. If you use a company machine, talk to the computer systems administrator about possible problems with cookies.

Emails sent to you via Blackboard are the instructor’s way of communicating with you. It is, therefore, a requirement that you establish and maintain this channel of communications. Make sure your email address is the correct one for you.

VII. SPECIFICS: WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW AT THE END OF THE TERM

For your convenience, here is a summary listing of the names whose work should become part of your knowledge for this course (and to make you a better manager). At the end of this course, you should be able to recognize each name and connect it with the appropriate theory (and its ramifications for the manager at the workplace) or when given the theory, connect it with the name(s). To enlarge your understanding of the topics involve, research the names using outside sources. Researching names means you are to make personal notes about them and learn their theories. It does NOT mean you are to do a paper or hand in material unless you are given a specific assignment to do so.

Abraham Maslow
Kurt Lewin
B. F. Skinner
Chris Argyris
Clayton Alderfer
David McClelland
Douglas McGregor
E.L. Thorndike
Elton Mayo
Fred E. Fiedler
Frederick Herzberg
Harry Harlow
Henry Fayol
James G. March
Irving Janis
Max Weber
Rensis Likert
Robert Blake & Jane Mouton
Stanley Milgram
Victor Thompson
Victor Vroom
William H. Whyte
Victor Thompson
Elliot Jaques

Make it your primary focus, in this course, to learn the models these names represent.
____________________________________________________________

_

VIII. CLASS TOPICS

The course is divided into coherent blocks of material which are expected to be covered as listed below, but the actual material that will covered at each meeting will be dictated by the progress of the class. Not everything in this syllabus can be covered or discussed in class. Material listed in this syllabus that is not covered in class must be covered through your own, personal research and study. Just because a topic was not covered in class does not mean you do not need to learn it.

Students should stay ahead of the class work by researching the material on the net for each block BEFORE the class meets.

During each class session, students will be called upon to stand and deliver a short discussion of one or more of the topics listed for each class. That means, you should read about any theories mentioned for that week’s coverage before you come to class and be prepared to engage in some discussion about the points to be covered. Be ready to make a verbal contribution to the knowledge base of the students in the class when you are called upon.

The instructor will, as necessary to insure learning, at the start or at the end of a class will ask you to take out a piece of paper and write responses to one or more questions he will direct to you. Your responses be turned in for grading. If no paper is turned in, the grade for it will be an automatic zero.

9/12 Introduction: Approaches to Human Behavior
History of management in terms of its pioneers and behavioral leaders, Historical Background: Hawthorne studies, Theoretical Frameworks. Historical models of the personality

9/19-26 Personality Models and Their Use:
1. Composite of Leavitt and Maslow model: a practical application. Self Actualization and the concepts of Chris Argyris, Elliot Jaques (Time Span of Discretion), and the professional growth in an individual’s need 5.

10/3-10/10 Development of the Brain, Learning, and Problem Solving:
How the mind learns and solves problems. Law of effect. Reinforcement and punishment. Decision models. Bounded Rationality, Satisficing. Research the theories of: E.L. Thorndike, B. F. Skinner, James G. March 10/17 Perception:
Perception of things/events; perception of people (derivation and use of a perception model); perception in ongoing relationships.

10/24 Communication:
Communication nets, direction, feedback, and related characteristics. Effectiveness and efficiency of communications. Impact depends on words (7%), vocals (38%), nonverbals (55%) Verbals: tone, emphasis, hesitation, pitch. Nonverbals: expressions, gestures, dress, body language, being late, etc. Dimensions of communications: speed, accuracy, direction, structure, feedback. 3rd Ear Listening

10/31 Motivation:
Models and application to the problems of motivating a workforce. Job design, human failure. Research the theories of the following: Elton Mayo, Clayton Alderfer, Victor Vroom, David McClelland, Douglas McGregor, Frederick Hertzberg

11/7 Leadership and Attitudes:
Theories of leadership: The "born" vs. "developed" manager. Changing attitudes, gaining commitment, behavior modification. Power and authority. power needs vs. achievement needs—McClelland: The nature of relationships: Cooperation (integration) vs. superior/subordination (control) vs. separation (autonomy). Research the theories of the following: Fred E. Fiedler, Robert Blake & Jane Mouton. Go to the internet and look up The Milgram Experiment. Learn what the experiment was, how it was conducted, the observations made of the experiment’s subjects, and the conclusions arrived at by researcher Stanley Milgram. Victor Thompson's role reversal theories—the problems of role reversal.

11/14 Two person interactions: Transactional Analysis. Social Intelligence:
The structure of two-people communications and how they grow into groups. A quick look at Freud and his theory as it developed into aspects of Transactional Analysis—Parent, Adult, Child. Effecting change in someone. Social intelligence—its development and role in interactions. Negotiation. Game theory, The intrapreneur.

11/21 Group Dynamics:
Development, structure, networks, maintenance, efficiency of groups. Groupthink, problems. The value of diversity as a productive factor in group composition. Problems of Committees or task forces. Research the Groupthink Concept by Irving Janis. The operations of groups in the modern organization.

11/28 Large Organization Theory:
Analysis of the modern organization and its behavioral strengths and weaknesses. Role of the worker. Role of the manager. Role of the executive. Research the theories of the following: Max Weber, Henry Fayol (management is a process)

12/5 Large Organizations and Their Pathologies:
Productivity/stability problems. Goal pathologies. The organization in society. International organizations.
Research the theories and concepts of the following: Peter Drucker William H. Whyte 12/12 Review:
Reinforcement of important topics. Utilizing material on job/for career advancement. Review of course.

12/19 Final Exam:
Remember to bring two pencils and an eraser.
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IX. “RULES” OF THE COURSE

Due Dates
Papers are due on the date announced as the turn-in date with no excuses. If you are absent, mail it to the instructor’s home postmarked no later than the due date. If it arrives after the due date, it will be severely downgraded. If the paper arrives after the date on which graded papers were returned to the class, the paper will not be accepted and the assigned grade will be F for that exercise/assignment. Assignments are made in relation to work covered in class and are designed to help you learn the material at that time. Therefore, do not miss handing in assignments during the term and then, near the end, suddenly, hand in a stack of completed assignments. If you have problems handing in your assignments, speak to Dr. Gray at the time the assignments are given out—not months afterwards.

When you write a paper, start with a theoretical model, such as from one of the key names in Section VII above, or from a theory covered in class, or in the literature, as the “basis” of your analysis. Examine each of the factors that might be used to describe the problem or other situation, and then explain, using the model’s concepts, how to correct or influence the situation. Papers that are written without any reference to theory are usually not worth reading.

To contact the professor:
Email: irwingray@hotmail.com
Home Phone: 212-988-0374. Please do not call after 10:00 p.m.
Office hours to be announced in class. Home address: 340 E. 74th Street, Apt. 2H, New York, NY 10021

Do I have to hand in all the assignments?
Yes. A missed assignment is factored into your term grading average as a zero; missing assignments can pull down your term average--even to an “F.” If you miss class, get assignments through classmates. Your professor will not give out missed assignments on the telephone or by email. Get them from your classmates. When you come to class, trade phone numbers and email addresses with three of your classmates so you will always have someone to contact.

If you cannot come to class, and cannot personally hand in work that is due, it can be mailed directly to Dr. Gray (send any special letters NO SIGNATURE REQUIRED—Fed Ex and other delivery services have forms you can sign to authorize delivery with no signature required from Dr. Gray) at: Dr. Irwin Gray 340 E. 74th Street, Apt. 2H, New York, NY 10021

Papers ARE NOT accepted via the internet unless special permission is given for you to submit them that way.

Specific format to follow for material handed in: All homework handed in must have a typed (or computer printed) cover sheet. If it does not have a cover sheet, it will not be accepted. No fancy jackets, no fancy special covers. All work to be handed in is to be printed or typed. Exception: diagrams where typing does not add to the clarity (diagrams and lettering for them should be done in ink). Fasten the papers together with a staple in the upper left corner. No jackets, no clips, no pins.

The cover sheet must show:
1. A title of the assignment in the center of the page. The title should reflect the topic of the assignment.
2. In the lower right hand corner:
a) Your name: Last name (or family name), First name (or given name)
Please note the comma between the last name and the first name. It indicates that you have written it with the last name first and eliminates confusion. SO SHOW THE COMMA BETWEEN LAST AND FIRST NAMES
Use the names under which you registered. I will not engage in a detective hunt to figure out who you are if you register under one name and then use a different name, or nickname on your paper. You will not get credit for the assignment or it will be graded as late.
b) Your I.D. or last four digits of your social security number.
c) The course number and which campus (MO).
d) The date on which you submit your paper.

MBA level submissions have to look like MBA level work. Sloppy pencil scratchings, torn sheets of paper, trashy penmanship, and sloppy appearance will be rejected or failed. If a graph has to be done, purchase graph paper or do the graph on Lotus or Excel. The X and Y axes must be clearly labeled as to the dimensions involved, what they mean, and how they are measured. The graph should have a clear title telling the reader what message the graph is supposed to illustrate. Use a straight edge or French curve to make your graphs. Freehand drawing is for art class, not for graphical analyses. For other work: Use the spell-checker on your computer and print it on good paper. Take the time and trouble to make your submissions look like MBA level work and not that of illiterates. If the work is done in class and you are asked to hand it in, make sure it too looks like MBA work—it must not be sloppy, on little torn sheets of paper, or give a negative impression of sub-MBA-level work.

A page that is in landscape mode should be put into your paper so that the bottom edge of what is written or illustrated on the page is on the reader’s right. This is one of those small-detail format items, but it is one of the differences between being “professional” and mediocre.

Suggestion: To see what formats should be used for footnotes, punctuation, English grammar, and layouts of letters, reports, etc., purchase a copy of the following: William A. Sabin, THE GREGG REFERENCE MANUAL, Glencoe-McGraw-Hill, ninth edition or later, soft cover. This manual also shows how to set up footnotes for web-page references.

When you are asked to use or refer to statistical/anecdotal material, it means that you should research THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, FORTUNE, HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW, THE NEW YORK TIMES, BUSINESS WEEK, and other recognized journals of record. Daily News, New York Post, or Newsday articles are generally not research sources. Web pages you refer to should be those of reputable, quality organizations or firms. Whenever you quote any item or statistics from an interview, a journal, web page, or other piece of writing, use a proper footnote form to give the source.

When you do homework for this class, the following is important for you to remember:

a. You should study the material from the lecture and material you download from Blackboard that explains or is related to the subject of the assignment. Memorize that material so that you know it thoroughly.
b. Explore the subject of the paper on the internet. Find related articles and other information that expands or deepens your knowledge of the subject. Download those articles and study them thoroughly. Print a hard copy of the material so you can show it to your instructor if asked to do so.
c. Lay out an outline of what you want to say in the paper. Use lists, hedgehogs, and regular outline formats to put your ideas on paper. This outline must be submitted as part of any paper you hand in. Placement of the outline is in back of the paper you write.
d. When you write the paper consider carefully the following:

a. It must be written in your own words in as good English as you can speak. You may NOT use a professional editor to make your paper read like that of an accomplished English major with 20 years of writing experience. If your English in class is limited, stretch it when writing, but remember that a polished paper will be suspected of your not having done it and you will not learn the language if you do not write it. b. It must incorporate material from the course—material covered in class or from material on Blackboard as part of what you submit. Your paper cannot be a rehash of ideas you had before you came into the course. You must use the theories, concepts, or language you learn in the course as part of your assignment paper. c. If you use material from the internet, simple cut-and-paste will get you an F for the paper. Then, there will be NO doing it over, no apologies, and no extra work to compensate for the damage that F will do to your grade for the term. d. If your English is bad and you have problems writing properly, your instructor will correct your language, as much as possible, so that you can learn from your mistakes. Use SPELL-CHECK when you write your paper. Bad spelling is an insult to the reader because it says you did not care enough to write well for something you are giving him or her. It will not be forgiven and will cost you on your grade for that paper. Bad spelling is not the same as using the wrong word, which is not offensive, but do activate the grammar check on your word processor and try to correct the errors it points out.

e. Footnote your papers when you use something from a book, the internet, or from any other source. Including footnotes makes your paper more believable—gives it more weight in the eyes of the reader. Failure to footnote is plagiarism. Put the footnotes on the bottom of the page in which you show the material you use from that source—not as endnotes. You do not need to include a bibliography. For the footnotes—don’t make up your own format—use a reference manual for the correct format. As an assist, here are some formats to use:

Book: Author first name then second name, Title of Book, place of publication, date of publication, page number. (page number shown with a p. or for multiple pages with a pp. —for example: p. 45 or pp. 46-47)

Newspaper: Article reporter’s First name Second name, “Title of Article,” Newspaper Name, place of publication, Date, Section name, p. #.

Internet Source: Your reader should be able to find the exact page from which you took the material, so full path information should be shown:

Author’s name, “title of document,” “title of complete work or site name,” date of posting of the article, the URL and path details, date at which you accessed (or took information from) the site.

Show the URL as follows with the angle brackets as shown on the next line below:
<Http://www.yahoo.com/Computer World_Wide-Web/FAQ-List.html>

Late Papers:
When a due date is set, that means your paper must be in your professor’s hands by the end of the class in which the papers are to be turned in. Any other submissions that come after that date and hour are LATE and subject to loss of a half to a full grade or more. That includes papers delivered by special mail, personal deliveries to your professor’s home front door, or to the department, or mailbox, or wherever. If it has not reached your professor’s hands by the end of the due date class hour, the PAPER IS LATE AND SUBJECT TO PENALTIES regardless of the reason. If you are going to mail the paper to your professor’s home, do so at timing that allows it to reach your professor’s hands by the date and hour equivalent to the end of the class or it is LATE.

Extra credit papers: Any paper that you do voluntarily for extra credit must be turned in on the date of the class at which it is due. Handing in a paper via the mail, email, or after the class will result in the paper being rejected (no extra credit).

Incompletes or missing work:
If you miss the final, you will get an incomplete. Then you will have to take it as arranged during the next term. If you are missing papers, they ordinarily do not qualify you for an “I” (incomplete); they are zeroes in determining your term average and resultant grade.

If you take an incomplete in the course, the course grade awarded later can then be ONE GRADE LOWER than the grade calculated from your papers, cases, and final exam. Except under very rare, and special, circumstances, an A grade will not be awarded.

Save the graded papers when returned to you:
If you check your professor’s grade sheets and you think they show the wrong grades for you, you will be asked to bring your papers to class before any changes can be made. If you get back papers with a grade on them, make sure you keep them.

Make certain to keep a copy of everything you hand in. Your professor safeguards the papers and takes every precaution against losing any of them, but if it should happen, you will immediately be asked to turn in your copy. If it is not available, on demand, it will be deemed not to have been have handed in, in the first place. Papers should not be sent to other offices or through esoteric channels.

If you received a poor grade on a paper:
Do better on the next one you have to hand in. Do any available extra credit papers. Do well on the final. There will be no “doing it over,” “special makeup assignments,” or “extra work” to compensate for substandard submissions which have been awarded poor grades. Do it right the first time! DO NOT RESUBMIT PAPERS FOR WHICH YOU HAVE ALREADY BEEN GRADED. THEY WILL NOT BE READ.

Prevent this from happening by starting work as soon as possible after the assignment is given. Find out then what you do not understand and then discuss the assignment with classmates and your professor to clear things up. Do not put off working on it until the night before it’s due.

Doing the work of the course
Please be aware that if you have signed up for the course, you are expected to turn in all work as assigned, at MBA level in format and content, original to you, and on the date assigned. And you are expected to attend class and partake in classroom discussions in a knowledgeable way (you have read the book and studied the information on Blackboard). Anyone who stops turning in papers, or suddenly disappears from classes, will be given a WF (withdrew, fail) grade. For those of you with student visas, it means you do not get credit towards the course for your minimum student load. In other words, if you do not intend to be an MBA candidate, please do not stay in this course.

A student who wishes to withdraw from the class should notify the professor and the registrar when the decision is made to do so. Do not simply “leave” the course or stop attending. It can cause you future grief. Sometimes, you may want to ask your professor for an incomplete. Discuss this with the professor as soon as your problem shows up. Do not wait until the end of the term.

Will there be a mid-term exam?
Usually, there is no mid-term. Your homework papers, class work, quizzes, and final make up the bases of your grade.

If you do work as a team member:
All the names of the team members must be listed in Alphabetical Order of the LAST (family) name on the front sheet or the individuals will not be given credit for the assignment. They must be computer printed in the same manner as the rest of the paper. Handwritten, inserted names will NOT be accepted.

If you are a team member, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure your name is included and there is no doubt about it. Use email to check that the person printing the report included your name or no credit will be given to you for that paper.

As a part of a team, you are held jointly and severally responsible for the results: That is legal terminology for holding you responsible for the results as part of the team and also holding you responsible for the entire results as an individual if the team does not perform—that is, should some of the individuals on the team not do their work. You cannot claim credit for the assignment on the basis of having done your share. Your share is 100% of the total as part of the team or as an individual. Those who do not work do not get their names on the header sheet.

Personality Models

Models are simplified constructs of complex situations or phenomena. Models are used to discuss the human personality because they help managers explain behavior, predict behavior, or even to manipulate behavior.

The following are a group of models assembled to show how, over the ages, models have been used by everyone from dictators, to great philosophers, to managers in dealing with the people they want to understand or control.

Each model summarizes the writings of the individual or experiment which gave rise to it. Included are comments to help understand how the model affects modern managerial thought.

Confucius (551-479 BC):
Jun jun Chen chen Fu fu Zi zi

Let the ruler rule as he should and the minister be a minister as he should. Let the father act as a father should and son act as a son should. Man’s role is life is predetermined from their past and cannot be changed. This destiny is laid out in heaven and existence is a series of repetitive stages. The goal in life is not to change one’s role but to accomplish those things one would be remembered for.

If everyone performed his role, the social order would be sustained. Being thus known to others by observable conduct, the elite were dependent upon the opinion and moral judgment of the collectivity around them. To be disesteemed by the group meant a disastrous loss of face and self esteem for which one remedy was suicide. A major Confucian principle was that man was perfectible. Confucian code also stressed the idea of proper behavior according to status. Although this code did not originally apply to the common people, whose conduct was to be regulated by rewards and punishments rather than by moral principles, it was absolutely essential for government among the elite. His ideas became prominent in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD). After Commodore Matthew Perry of the US Navy succeeded in opening Japan in 1858 to international trade, the Japanese saw that unless they modified their feudal economy and government, they would be susceptible to military blackmail by any western nation. The basic content of their “reformed” education system, set up in the 1860s, embraced the philosophy of sushigaku, an adaptation of Confucianism which still sought to maintain control over the masses by the elite. A basic principle of sushigaku was that a person’s fate and fortune were determined by the social conditions of his birth. No one could, nor should he try to, alter his inherited station in life, a notion uniquely tailored for the stabilization of authority in a feudal social order. This philosophy influenced the Japanese social order well into World War II.

Aristotle Model (384 B.C. ):
All living things fall into classes separated in level by their ability to reason. Such a ranking could be:

5) Human
Ability to reason
4) Animal
3) Vermin
2) Vegetable
1) Inanimate

Religious Model--Thomas Aquinas (1225):
Man is a social animal--lives with others for the highest welfare under rules set up by the state. Work is the Christian duty of man. Working for god is the highest order of work.

Religious Model--John Calvin (1509-1564):
God's command is to labor industriously in a calling. God's favor is indication of man's industriousness and application; god's favor increases chances of attaining heaven.

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911):
Man is a dumb ox who responds to money for what he does. All that is needed is to offer an incentive and a worker will behave as needed.

Hawthorne (Bank Wiring Room) 1923-1932: First Industrial Psychology Factory Experiments
The "workman's ethic":
1) Do not do too little; don't be a chiseler.
2) Do not do too much; don't be a rate buster.
3) Don't be officious (overly act up as an official).
4) Don't squeal.
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Modified Leavitt Model of Behavior @ Work

Step 1: List behaviors of person--what subject says, what you can see, hear, smell, or feel regarding his/her body movements plus anything you learn about how the subject acts, feels, or thinks about things. These descriptions must be grounded in carefully researched facts and must NOT be your impressions, your judgments, your feelings about the person, or what you think about him or her. Do not use words that evaluate or sum up or attribute characteristics to the individual. This list should be the first thing you present to a reader when you draw up a model.

When the stimulus, map, goal, and feedback loop are logically related/logically consistent, we have a model.
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SUCCESS STORY
James Gould Cozzens

1. Copyright 1935 by James Gould Cozzens and copyright renewed 1962 by James Gould Cozzens. Reprinted by permission.

2. I met Richards ten years or more ago when I first went down to Cuba. He was a short, sharp-faced, agreeable chap, then about twenty-two. He introduced himself to me on the boat, and I was surprised to find that Panamerica Steel & Structure was sending us both to the same job.

3. Richards was from some not very good state university engineering school. Being the same age myself and just out of Tech. I was prepared to patronize him if I needed to, but I soon saw I didn't need to. There was really not the faintest possibility of anyone supposing that Richards was as smart as I was. In fact, I couldn't imagine then how he had managed to get his job. I have an idea now. It came to me when I happened to read a few weeks ago that Richards had been made a vice president and director of Panamerica Steel when the Prossert interests bought the old firm.

4. Richards was naturally likable, and I liked him a lot, once I was sure that he wasn't going to outshine me. The firm had a contract for the construction of a private railroad, about seventeen miles of it, to give United Sugar a sea terminal at a small deep-water Caribbean port. For Richards and me it was mostly an easy job of inspections and routine paper work. At last it was easy for me. It was harder for Richards, because he didn't appear ever to have mastered the use of a slide rule. When he asked me to check his figures I found it was no mere formality. "Boy," I was at last obliged to say, "you are undoubtedly the dumbest white man in Santa Clara province. If you don't buck up, Farrell will see you never get another job down here."

5. Richards grinned and said, "I never want another one. Not a job like this, anyway. I'm the executive type."

6. "Oh, you are!"

7. "Sure, I am. And what do I care what Farrell thinks? What can he do for me?"

8. "Plenty. If he thinks you're any good, he can get you something that pays money."

9. "He doesn't know anything that pays money, my son."

10. "He knows things that would pay enough for me," I answered, annoyed.

11. "Oh," said Richards, "if that's all you want, when Farrell's working for me I'll make him give you a job. A good one." 12. "Go to the devil!" I said. I was still checking his trial figures for an extra concrete pouring at the Nombre de Dios viaduct. "Look, stupid,” I said, "didn't you ever take arithmetic? How much are seven times thirteen?"

13. "Work that out," Richards said, "and let me have a report tomorrow."

14. When I had time, I continued to check his figures for him, and Farrell only caught him in a bad mistake about twice; after all, Farrell was the best man Panamerica Steel had. He'd been managing construction jobs both in Cuba and Mexico for twenty years. After the first month or so he simply let Richards alone and devoted himself to giving me the whole benefit of his usually sharp and scornful criticism. He was at me every minute he could spare, telling me to forget this or that and use my head, showing me little tricks of figuring and method. He said it would be a good plan to take some Spanish lessons from a clerk he named in the sugar company's office.

15. "Spanish?" said Richards, when I told him he'd better join the class. "Not for me! Say, it took me twenty-two years to learn English. People who want to talk to me have to know it, or they'd better bring an interpreter with them."

16. "All right," I said. "I don't mind telling you the idea is Farrell's. He spoke to me about it."

17. "Well, he didn't speak to me," said Richards. "I guess he thinks I'm perfect the way I am. And now, if you'll excuse me, I have a date with a beer bottle." 18. I could easily see that he was coming to no good end. 19. In January several directors of the United Sugar Company came down on their annual jaunt—nominally business, but mostly pleasure—a good excuse to get south on a vacation. They came on a yacht.

20. The yacht belonged to Mr. Joseph Prossert, who was, I think, chairman of United Sugar's board then. It was the first time I'd ever seen at close quarters one of these really rich and powerful financial figures whose name everyone knows. He was an inconspicuous, rather stout man, with little hair on his head and a fussy, ponderous way of speaking. He dressed in some dark thin cloth that looked like alpaca. His interest in sugar and in Cuba was purely financial--he didn't know anything about it from the practical standpoint. I really saw him at close quarters, too, for he was delayed on his boat when the directors went up to Santa Inez and Farrell left Richards and me and two or three armed guards to come up that afternoon.

21. Mr. Prossert was very affable. He asked me a number of questions. I knew the job well enough and could have answered almost any intelligent question--I mean the sort that a trained engineer would be likely to ask. As it was, I suppose I'd said for perhaps the third time, "I'm afraid I wouldn't know, sir. We haven't any calculations on that," getting a glance of mildly surprised disbelief, when Richards suddenly spoke up. "I think, about nine million cubic feet, sir," he said. He looked boyishly embarrassed. "I just happened to be working it out last night. Just for my own interest, that is. Not officially." He blushed.

22. "Oh," said Mr. Prossert, turning in his seat and giving him a sharp look. That's very interesting, Mr.-err-Richards, isn't it? Well, now, maybe you could tell me about....” Richards could. He knew everything. He knew to the last car the capacity of every switch and yard; he knew the load limits of every bridge and culvert; he knew the average rainfall for the last twenty years; he knew the population of the various struggling villages we passed through; he knew the heights of the distant blue peaks to the west. He had made himself familiar with local labor costs and wage scales. He had the statistics on accidents and unavoidable delays. He had figured out the costs of moving a cubic yard of earth at practically every cut and fill. All the way up Mr. Prossert fired questions at him and he fired answers right back.

23. When we reached the rail head, a motor was waiting to take Mr. Prossert on. Getting out of the gas car, he nodded absent-mindedly to me, shook hands with Richards. "Very interesting indeed." he said. "Very interesting indeed, Mr. Richards. Goodbye and thank you."

24. "Not at all, sir," Richards said. "Glad I could be of service to you."

25. As soon as the motor moved off, I exploded. "Of all the asinine tricks! A little honest bluff doesn't hurt; but some of your so-called figures...."

26. "I aim to please," Richards said, grinning. "If a man like Prossert wants to know something, who am I to hold out on him?"

27. "I suppose you think you're smart," I told him. "What's he going to think when he looks up the figures or asks somebody who does know?"

28. "Listen, my son," said Richards kindly. "He wasn't asking for any information he was going to use. He doesn't want to know those figures. If he ever does, he has plenty of people to get him the right ones. He won't remember these. I don't even remember them myself. What he is going to remember is you and me."

29. "Oh, yes?"

30. "Oh, yes," said Richards firmly. "He's going to remember that Panamerica Steel & Structure has a bright young man named Richards who could tell him everything he wanted to know when he wanted to know it—just the sort of chap he can use, not like that other fellow who took no interest in his job, couldn't answer the simplest question, and who's going to be doing small-time contracting in Cuba all his life."

31. "Oh, yeah?" I said. But it is true that I am still in Cuba, still doing a little work in the construction line __________________________________________________________

Predicting Behavior Farrington Ore Dilemma.doc

James Farrington was driving rather faster than usual, as he made his way home from the airport. He was only too aware of what was disturbing his normally even temperament. His mind kept going over the most awkward decision he had had to face in his managerial career with Uranium Refiners, Inc.

The crisis had appeared a month earlier, just six months after his appointment as Division General Manager of Mineral Refiners, Inc. brand new uranium ore purifying plant in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The plant operations manager, William Cox, came to see him. He brought along Dr. Martin Wardsworth, the plant physician.

Wardsworth did, most of the speaking. Several men had gotten sick in the ore handling department in the past month, all suffering from the beginnings of uranium radioactivity poisoning. “They are now in the hospital. I want to carry out screening tests immediately throughout the plant to find out how widespread it is.” Farrington was concerned about the problem, but not too worried. He consented to sample screening of operators throughout the plant to find the radioactive elements in their blood samples. He imagined the results would show the problem to be confined to one department, caused by operators not wearing masks or faulty ventilation. “But keep the reason for the tests quiet,” he urged them.

The three men met a week later, when Wardsworth presented his report. The radioactive readings of the operators’ blood throughout the site was dangerously high, and several more cases of poisoning had been found. “The source of the pollution is affecting the whole site,” he emphasized, “and that means it is probably reaching the housing areas within a mile of here. We must stop it immediately.”

Farrington authorized a study by outside consulting engineers to find the source and report on how it could be checked. Ten days later, the report bleakly confirmed his worst fears. The high blood radioactivity levels were being caused by operators breathing fine uranium ore dust which covered the whole site. It came from the high volume overhead conveyor which carried incoming ore from the unloading docks, on the Mississippi River, 1,200 feet to the refining sheds.

The consultants’ report outlined the fabrications that would be needed to put a dust-tight cover along the length of this open conveyor. With the strengthening of the structure, the cost of the work would amount to about $950,000. It would need a complete plant shut-down for about four months to carry it out. This would cost the company almost $10 million in lost production.

Farrington questioned his colleagues on some of the assumptions and details of the report, but in the end he was faced with the stark fact that the pollution was serious. Farrington decided that immediate action was necessary and called Marie Stansfield, Uranium Refiners, Inc. managing director. Stansfield was stunned by the news. She asked for an immediate written report and recommendation and a meeting with Farrington three days later, to give her time to consider the implications. Farrington sent the report with a recommendation that the danger to the public and employees left the company with no choice but an immediate shut-down.

At the meeting later that week, Stansfield and the other executive directors listened quietly while Farrington gave a personal explanation of his recommendation. Then Stansfield rocked him with her verdict. “I agree with your recommendation, but it cannot be implemented for another six months. Our results are not going to be good this year and we couldn’t carry another bad knock like this. Our share price must be maintained for the next few months, because we are going to the stock market with a new issue to raise the cash for our New South Wales, Australia mine. Farrington protested about the risks the company would be running by deferring action. His protest about the public being harmed by the delay was met by a stony skepticism that the extra six months could make things seriously worse. The directors felt that Dr. Wardsworth was overstating the urgency of the problem.

Farrington left two hours later, exhausted and bitterly disappointed. As he drove home from the airport, he wondered what to do now. He could accept the decision as a regrettable necessity and wait six months before acting to solve the problem.

But how could he square this with his conscience, believing that delay was harmful to employees and nearby residents? He could quietly resign and wash his hands of the affair.

He saw several possible alternatives open to him:

1. He could resign in a blaze of publicity, sacrificing his chances of getting another good job in the ore refining industry, but forcing the company to attend to the problem immediately. But if he did this, there was always the chance the company could disown him and find an excuse to call him a crank and possibly avoid the shutdown anyway.

2. He could, in defiance of his top management, shut the plant down and publicly announce that he was doing it to improve the mechanical efficiency and operating profits of the firm. He could pay his workers some sort of severance pay to tide them over during the shutdown period to make the public think he was trying to “do good” for the firm and the employees. And, he would just have to live with whatever revenge top management would try to inflict on him, if that is what they wanted to do.

3. He could discreetly leak the story to a friend who edited the local newspaper. The resulting publicity would force the closing of the plant and no one would ever know just how the newspaper got the story. It may be underhanded and unethical, he mused, but perhaps it is justified now.

4. He could go along with what top management wanted. He could provide special masks for everyone working in the plant and forget about the wind and dust blowing outside the plant. Those masks, by the way, are not really 100 percent effective protection, but for six months, until the plant will be able to shut down, they will be good enough.

Your Assignment

You are to predict what James Farrington will do.

Your prediction is NOT to be based upon your gut feelings, instincts, or guesses about what you would do in his place. You are to make use of the Modified Leavitt

1. You are to draw a complete Modified Leavitt model of Mr. James Farrington. That is, you are to list his behaviors and deduce from them what is his Stimulus, Personal Goal (not the company’s goal and not the goal of doing good for people), and his Needs Map in this situation.

(Put your paper in landscape mode when you print the model picture and show all the parts of the model on it. Note: A page in landscape mode goes into a report with the bottom at the right edge of the page. So it reads from the right, not left.)

2. You are to provide a paragraph or two explanation of how you derived your model. Is it consistent—do the stimulus, map, and goal all seem to explain Farrington in a logical way?

3. You are then to predict what he will do. Your prediction should follow from the model you drew up--logically. For example, you would not say that the man has a very high need for job security and then predict he would resign his job. Similarly, you would not say his stimulus is his concern for the community when the model asks you to look into his heart and figure out what and how the situation hits him, personally. Concern for the community is NOT concern for himself. The model focuses on HIMSELF!

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4. You are to provide a paragraph or two explanation of your behavioral prediction and how it derives from the model you drew up. This is a key part of your assignment: think carefully about how you arrived at the model and write up that process.

Questions about personality models

1. Describe the relay-room experiment that took place under the Western Electric experiments of 1923. What were the lessons learned from the relay room experiment?

2. Which is the model that demagogues and other hate-mongers use to stir up trouble between different races, creeds, or religions so as to enhance their own power? How do they use it?

3. Brick laying crews on some jobs are paid by the number of bricks they lay onto a wall. So quality often suffers unless management keeps a close and continuous check on the crew and its work. One day, they were assigned to a building and everyone involved tried to outdo himself in how straight, uniform, and beautiful the brickwork he was doing turned out—even if it meant working more slowly and finishing the laying of fewer bricks per day. Management did nothing special on this job and the foremen acted as they normally and usually did on every job. What could explain this sudden interest in quality on this job?

4. The “Father of Scientific Management” had an interesting description of the personality of the average worker and what motivates him which was de rigueur at the beginning of the 20th century. How did he see the worker and, what did he think was the way to motivate the worker?

5. What is the observer effect? Tell how the observer effect would apply in a situation like the following—and make you question most closely the accomplishment of a job applicant:

He tells you that in his present job (that he now wishes to leave) he took over a failing group that no one else could rejuvenate. As soon as he took the position, he made up new procedures and paperwork rules and within one month tightened up operations to increase production tremendously. Now, a month later, he is bragging about what he achieved as he seeks a job with your firm.

6. One of the Hawthorne investigations of worker behavior was known as the bank-wiring-room experiment. What major theory came out of that experiment?

7. What is the first thing to study when trying to build a model of a worker in modern, managerial terms, so that the worker’s behavior can be understood, predicted, or manipulated? The theories of Leavitt, Maslow, Argyris, and Elliot Jaques are used in the model—what are those theories?
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A Piece of String by Guy de Maupassant

Along all the roads around Goderville, the peasants and their wives were coming toward the burgh because it was market day. The men were proceeding with slow steps, the whole body bent forward at each movement of their long twisted legs, deformed by their hard work, by the weight on the plow which, at the same time, raised the left shoulder and swerved the figure, by the reaping of the wheat which made the knees spread to make a firm "purchase" by all the slow and painful labors of the country. Their blouses, blue, "stiff- starched," shining as if varnished, ornamented with a little design in white at the neck and wrists puffed about their bony bodies, seemed like balloons ready to carry them off. From each of them a bead, two arms, and two feet protruded.

Some led a cow or a calf by a cord, and their wives, walking behind the animal, whipped its haunches with a leafy branch to hasten its progress. They carried large baskets on their arms from which, in some cases, chickens and, in others, ducks thrust out their heads. And they walked with a quicker, livelier step than their husbands. Their spare straight figures were wrapped in scanty little shawl, pinned over their fat bosoms and their heads were enveloped in a white cloth glued to the hair and surmounted by a cap.

Then a wagon passed at the jerky trot of a nag, shaking strangely, two men seated side by side and a woman in the bottom of the vehicle, the latter holding on to the sides to lessen the hard jolts.

In the public square of Goderville there was a crowd, a throng of human beings and animals mixed together. The horns of the cattle, the tall hats with long nap of the rich peasant, and the headgear of the peasant women rose above the surface of the assembly. And the clamorous, shrill, screaming voices made a continuous and savage din which sometimes was dominated by the robust lungs of some countryman's laugh, or the long lowing of a cow tied to the wall of a house.

All that smacked of the stable, the dairy and the dirt heap, hay and sweat, giving forth that unpleasant odor, human and animal, peculiar to the people of the field.

Maitre Hauchecome, of Breaute, had just arrived at Goderville and he was directing his steps toward the public square, when he perceived upon the ground a little piece of string. Maitre Hauchecome, economical like a true Norman, thought that everything useful ought to be picked up and he bent painfully, for he suffered from rheumatism. He took the bit of thin cord from the ground and began to roll it carefully when he noticed Maitre Malandain, the harness-maker, on the threshold of his door, looking at him.

They had heretofore had business together on the subject of a halter, and they were on bad terms, being both good haters. Maitre Hauchecome was seized with a sort of shame to be seen thus by his enemy, picking a bit of string out of the dirt. He concealed his "find" quickly under his blouse, then in his trousers' pocket; then he pretended to be still looking on the ground for something which he did not find, and he went toward the market, his head forward bent double by his pains.

He was soon lost in the noisy and slowly moving crowd, which was busy with interminable bargainings. The peasants milked, went and came, perplexed, always in fear of being cheated, not daring to decide, watching the vendor's eye ever trying to find the trick in the man and the flaw in the beast.

The women having placed their great baskets at their feet had taken out the poultry which lay upon the ground tied together by the feet, with terrified eyes and scarlet crests. They heard offers, stated their prices with a dry air and impassive face, or perhaps, suddenly deciding on some proposed reduction shouted to the customer who was slowly going away:

"All right Maitre Authirne, I'll give it to you for that."

Then little by little the square was deserted, and the Angelus ringing at noon, those who had stayed too long, scattered to their shops.

At Jourdain's the great room was full of people eating, as the big court was full of vehicles of all kinds, carts, gig wagons, dump carts, yellow with dirt, mended and patched, raising their shafts to the sky like two arms, or perhaps with their shafts in the ground and their backs in the air.

Just opposite the diners seated at the table, the immense fireplace, filled with bright flames, cast a lively heat on the backs of the row on the right. Three spits were turning on which were chickens, pigeons, and legs of mutton, and an appetizing odor of roast beef and gravy dripping over the nicely browned skin rose from the hearth, increased the jovialness, and made everybody's mouth water.

All the aristocracy of the plow ate there, at Maitre Jourdain's, tavern keeper and horse dealer, a rascal who had money.

The dishes were passed and emptied, as were the jugs of yellow cider. Everyone told his affairs, his purchases, and sales. They discussed the crops. The weather was favorable for the green things but not for the wheat.

Suddenly the drum beat in the court, before the house. Everybody rose except a few indifferent persons, and ran to the door, or to the windows, their mouths still full and napkins in their hands.

After the public crier had ceased his drum-beating, he called out in a jerky voice speaking his phrases irregularly:

"It is hereby made known to the inhabitants of Goderville, and in general to all persons present at the market, that there was lost this morning, on the road to Benzeville, between nine and ten o'clock, a black leather pocketbook containing five hundred francs and some business papers. The finder is requested to return same with all haste to the mayor's office or to Maitre Fortune Houlbreque of Mannerville; there will be twenty francs reward."

Then the man went away. The heavy roll of the drum and the crier's voice were again heard at a distance. Then they began to talk of this event discussing the chances that Maitre Houlbreque had of finding or not finding his pocketbook.

And the meal concluded. They were finishing their coffee when a chief of gendarmes appeared upon the threshold.

He inquired: “Is Maitre Hauchecome, of Breaute, here?"

Maitre Hauchecome, seated at the other end of the table replied: "Here I am."

And the officer resumed: Maitre Hauchecome will you have the goodness to accompany me to the mayor's office? The mayor would like to talk to you."

The peasant, surprised and disturbed, swallowed at a draught his tiny glass of brandy, rose, and, even more bent than in the morning, for the first steps after each rest were specially difficult, set out, repeating: "Here I am, here I am."

The mayor was awaiting him, seated on an armchair. He was the notary of the vicinity, a stout, serious man, with pompous phrases.

Maitre Hauchecome, said he, "you were seen this morning to pick up on the road to Benzeville, the pocketbook lost by Maitre Houlbreque of Mannerville.

The countryman, astounded, looked at the mayor, already terrified, by this suspicion resting on him without his knowing why.

"Me? Me? Me pick up the pocketbook?"

"Yes, you, yourself."

"Word of honor, I never heard of it."

"But you were seen."

"I was seen, me? Who says he saw me?"

"Monsieur Malandain, the harness maker."

The old man remembered, understood and flushed with anger.

“Ah, he saw me the clodhopper, he saw me pick up this string, here, M'sieu the Mayor." And rummaging in his pocket, he drew out the little piece of string.

But the mayor, incredulous, shook his head.

You will not make me believe, Maitre Hauchecome, that Monsieur Malandain, who is a man worthy of credence, mistook this cord for a pocketbook."
The peasant, furious, lifted his hand, spat at one side to attest his honor, repeating:

It is nevertheless, the truth of the good God, the sacred truth, M'sieu' the Mayor. I repeat it on my soul and my salvation.

The mayor resumed: "After picking up the object, you stood like a stilt looking a long while in the mud to see if any piece of money had fallen out."

The good old man choked with indignation and fear.

“How can anyone tell—how anyone can tell—such lies to take away an honest man's reputation! How can anyone--"

There was no use in his protesting, nobody believed him. He was confronted with Monsieur Malandain, who repeated and maintained his affirmation. They abused each other for an hour. At his own request, Maitre Hauchecome was searched, nothing was found on him.

Finally the mayor, very much perplexed discharged him with the warning that he would consult the public prosecutor and ask for further orders.

The news had spread. As he left the mayor's office, the old man was surrounded and questioned with a serious or bantering curiosity, in which there was no indignation. He began to tell the story of the string. No one believed him. They laughed at him.

He went along, stopping his friends, beginning endlessly his statement and his protestations, showing his pockets turned inside out, to prove that he had nothing.

They said:

"Old rascal, get out!"

And he grew angry becoming exasperated, hot, and distressed at not being believed, not knowing what to do and always repeating himself.

Night came. He must depart. He started on his way with three neighbors to whom he pointed out the place where he had picked up the bit of string; and all along the road he spoke of his adventure.

In the evening he took a turn in the village of Breaute, in order to tell it to everybody. He only met with incredulity.

It made him ill at night.

The next day about one o'clock in the afternoon, Marius Paumele, a hired man in the employ of Maitre Breton, husbandman at Ymanville, returned the pocketbook and its contents to Maitre Houlbreque of Manneville.

This man claimed to have found the object in the road; but not knowing how to read, he had carried it to the house and given it to his employer.

The news spread through the neighborhood. Maitre Hauchecome was informed of it. He immediately went the circuit and began to recount his story completed by the happy climax. He was in triumph.

"What grieved me so much was not the thing itself, as the lying. There is nothing so shameful as to be placed under a cloud on account of a lie."

He talked of his adventure all day long, he told it on the highway to people who were passing by, in the wine shop to people who were drinking there. And to persons coming out of church the following Sunday. He stopped strangers to tell them about it.

He was calm now, and yet something disturbed him without his knowing exactly what it was. People had the air of joking while they listened. They did not seem convinced. He seemed to feel that remarks were being made behind his back.

On Tuesday of the next week he went to the market at Goderville, urged solely by the necessity he felt of discussing the case.

Malandain standing at his door began to laugh on seeing him pass. Why?

He approached a farmer from Crequlot, who did not let him finish, and giving him a thump in the stomach said to his face:

"You big rascal."

Then he turned his back on him. Maitre Hauchecome was confused, why was he called a big rascal?

When he was seated at the table, in Jourdain's tavern he commenced to explain "the affair."

A horse dealer from Monvilliers called to him: "Come, come, old sharper, that's an old trick; I know all about your piece string!" Hauchecome stammered: "But since the pocketbook was found."

But the other man replied: "Shut up, papa, there is one that finds, and there is one that reports. At any rate you are mixed with it."

The peasant stood choking. He understood. They accused him of having had the pocketbook returned by a confederate, by an accomplice. He tried to protest. All the table began to laugh. He could not finish his dinner and went away, in the midst of jeers. He went home ashamed and indignant, choking with anger and confusion, the more dejected that he was capable with his Norman cunning of doing what they bad accused him of, and ever boasting of it as a good turn. His innocence to him, in a confused way was impossible to prove, as his sharpness was known. And he was stricken to the heart by the injustice of the suspicion.

Then he began to recount the adventures again, prolonging his history every day, adding each time, new reasons, more energetic protestations, more solemn oaths which he imagined and prepared in his hours of solitude, his whole mind given up to the story of the string. He was believed so much the less as his defense was more complicated and his arguing more subtle [meaning: closely woven, detailed]. "Those are lying excuses," they said behind his back.

He felt it, consumed his heart over it, and wore himself out with useless efforts. He wasted away before their very eyes.

The wags now made him tell about the string to amuse them, as they make a soldier who has been on a campaign tell about his battles. His mind, touched to the depth, began to weaken.

Toward the end of December he took to his bed.

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He died in the first days of January, and in the delirium of his death struggles he kept claiming his innocence, reiterating: “A piece of string, a piece of string—look-here it is, M'sieu' the Mayor."
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Assignment: Draw the perception model of Hauchecome—how he was seen by the typical villager of Goderville.
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The Operation Of The Brain: Roster Of Learning Questions Examine the material on Blackboard and refer to articles on the internet in relation to each of the question topics before responding fully to the following questions. Answer all the questions and number your responses to match the question. Each response is to be in complete sentences so that a stranger without the question sheet will still be able to understand what you are writing about. Remember: Your main reference for responses to the above questions is the notes on the brain you should download from Blackboard. Incorporate the information supplied there. Do Not simply cut and paste words into your paper. State all answers in your own words. Do not put in pages of canned material you cut and paste right off the internet. And, as you incorporate material into your responses to the questions, LEARN IT. If that means you have to memorize it, then that is what you will have to do to fix the material into your head—hopefully, permanently.

1. The brain grows in weight to a maximum of about 1500 grams at the age of 20. It then loses weight at the rate of one (1) gram per year. Older people are often presumed to become less capable of thinking as they get older. Research the web and see if you can come to some conclusions as to: What training or other techniques might be useful for people to train their brains to function at a higher level if they do suffer a drop in brain capabilities? 2. When something special takes place or a crucial change in information flow occurs, many managers will ask their subordinates for a verbal report even when he or she knows that a written report will be reaching his or her desk very soon. Why will the manager ask for the verbal report (in addition to the written report)?

3. In what way can we learn from advertisers to gain greater acceptance for any of our messages transmitted to others (whether verbally or in written form)?

4. What can a person do to gain greater acceptance for such written reports? How should they be structured and what should be incorporated in those written reports?

5. You have a team of workers in your plant who operate under high-pressure and time deadlines to prepare contract bids to get work for the plant from the government. The company provides free meals when the teams have to work past their dinner time when the bid teams are working on crucial contract bid proposals. What kinds of foods might you ask the company cafeteria dietitian to prepare to help keep the teams operating at “high power” after dinner and to resist fatigue and the dulling of the mind as the hours grow late?

6. How does noise affect the mind’s performance when dealing with managerial or other problems? Discuss in terms of how the mind does its thinking.

7. Carl Smith never worked with his dad as a youngster. He never saw dad repair anything around the home or even use tools as part of a hobby activity. Carl was a sportsman like his father.

Jane Zen’s father was a hobby fiend and he did all the repairs around the house. Little Jane was chief helper, tool holder, and even called the “little repair lady” as a child. Jane’s father died at the time the girl was 13 years of age and she never lifted a tool again until she entered the army.

Carl and Jane both had 1,000 hours of army engine repair training. Now they have both been discharged from the army and they are both seeking a job with you as a computer-printer repair person.

a. Who might you guess will learn the trade faster and better? Explain why in terms of skill development vs. age.

b. Assuming that you had to hire the other person (not the faster and better learner), how might you make up for the deficiency?

8. Harold is a new employee. On the first day at work, you show him all the offices and the organizational layout. Then you: a) Introduce him to all 15 persons in the work group. b) Explain all the medical plans, leave, holiday, and other regulations. c) Show him the complex forms the job requires him to work with and explain all the fill-ins. d) Explain the complex rules and regulations which must be followed. e) Wish him good luck and “get started.”

Harold indicates very emphatically that he understands, is bright, willing, and a go-getter.

Yet, he makes many mistakes over the next few weeks and his break-in period is somewhat longer than expected with such employees. Explain why in terms of the operation of the Harold’s brain.

9. You are showing Ms. Xanopolis a complex keyboard operation and then tell her to go through it herself as you watch. She starts what you can see is an incorrect sequence. Should you: a) Stop her and correct “now”?

b) Let her finish and learn from her mistakes? Justify your answer in terms of the operation of the mind.

10. You are interested in fostering employee creativity. What steps can you take based on your knowledge of the operation of the mind?

11. In what way might attitudes interfere with creative thinking? How might employee stress (over future job layoffs or matters at home), interfere with thinking?

12. Some of your employees are opposing any changes in office routines, updating of computer software, or bringing in new software. What mental process might be causing them to oppose the changes and how might you “cure” the cause of the problem when you do uncover it?
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Perception vis-à-vis things/activities

When we are exposed to articles, events, or actions, our perception mechanism generally follows the following rules:

1. At any given moment, the perceiver responds to only a small portion of the sensory information provided by the environment and he organizes it in ways unique to him or her.

Unlike what you read in many detective stories, the eye is not a camera. When involved in rich experiences, you can experience “overload.” Example: A three-ring circus overwhelms you.

2. The frequency of previous experiences with particular stimulus patterns affects perception. The more you have seen something, the more likely you will recognize it later. Thus, advertisers sometimes take out ads that feature only their name, or hook onto public television programs that give only a tiny mention of the firm. What the sponsors are doing is building speed of your recognition of their product name when you get into the store.

3. Reinforcement history affects perception. A response to a stimulus followed by a reward will increase your speed of recognition—your perception of the stimulus. Conversely, a response followed by punishment will yield to failure in perception of the stimuli when encountered later on.

4. Contemporary factors affect perception. Your reaction to a hot dog vendor’s cart odor is different when you are hungry than when you are already full. Fatigue, anxiety, and fear, heavily affect perception. A frightened child will become hysterical in a Halloween fun house; other children will laugh at the ghosts and witches.

5. Indicators of perception affect the perception process. A scientist cannot directly observe a person’s sensory experiences —the scientist’s conclusions are directly affected by the indirect means to study the perception process. Keep this in mind when you read about studies of advertising effectiveness or polls of how well government is reaching the voters—in such cases, the questions asked to research the perception may, in fact, be altering the respondents’ perceptions.
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Perception re Data—Important point: An observer’s brain attempts to take in at least a slice of the data it can grasp as quickly as possible and fit it into a pattern. As soon as the brain sees a pattern it recognizes, it finishes setting up the pattern and acts on it. Otherwise, the brain would have to deal with millions of combinations every time it confronted new data and it could never take action. This is the process of perception vis-à-vis data. It should be clear to all how this pattern setting can differ from person to person and, at the same time, lead the one using the data to finish the pattern prematurely, to miss parts that do not fit the pre-conceived pattern in the mind, can cause selection of the wrong pattern, may encourage a manager to lock into the wrong pattern, and then be unable to shift when met by contradictions.
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Perceptions determined by Language (Language In advertising)_

Old Words New Words

Unwed mother Single mother

Cost at lease signing Drive off charge

Used car Previously owned car

Death insurance Life Insurance

Funeral Insurance Remembrance insurance

Learning Disabled Learning Differences

Down Payment Drive-off cost
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THE BEST POLICY Ferenc Molnar

Monsieur Bayout, president of the NATIONAL FARMERS BANK, sent for his secretary Philibert. “Tell me, Philibert,” he said, “who is this man Floriot down at our Perpignan branch?” “Floriot?.........That’s the cashier. He’s acting as manager temporarily. You remember, sir, the old manager, Boucher, died, and we haven’t found anyone to put in his place yet. Floriot’s looking after things meanwhile. There isn’t very much business in Perpignan.” Monsieur Bayout took a letter from his desk; “Well, apparently he’s robbing us. I’ve had this letter from Perpignan. It’s anonymous, I admit, but...” He handed Philibert a not very clean sheet of notepaper on which, in a somewhat unformed hand, the following lines were written:
To the President of the National Farmers Bank.

Dear Sir.

We farmers are putting our hard-earned savings in your bank at Perpignon, and one fine day we shall wake up and find it has gone bankrupt and all our savings are lost. It is bound to happen the way things are going on here. You probably don’t know that the cashier, Monsieur Floriot, has been embezzling money for months past. He must have put away a tidy packet by now, but of course by the time you high and mighty gentlemen in Paris realize what’s going on, all the money will be gone.

“Send an inspector down to Perpignan tomorrow, Philibert,” the president said. “But tell him to be tactful; we don’t want to upset the man. There’s probably no foundation for the story.” Monsieur Floriot, temporary manager of the Perpignan branch, stared at the inspector from Paris with horrified amazement. “Inspect my books?” he echoed. “What, now? In the middle of the month? Without any notification? It’s a bit unusual, isn’t it?” The inspector felt sorry for the agitated little man. “There’s nothing to worry about, Monsieur Floriot. We do this at all our branches from time to time. The president gets these sudden fits. It’s only a formality. I’ll be through in half an hour.” “Yes, but people will talk, especially in a small place like this,” Floriot wailed. “Everyone will be saying that I’ve been up to something shady. Think of the disgrace!” “Nobody’s going to know anything about it,” the inspector said, a trifle impatiently. “That is, of course, unless you yourself talk. Well, can I see the books now?” Two days later Philibert entered the president’s room. “I’m able to report on the inspector’s visit to Perpignan, sir. Everything in the books is in order. Not a single sou missing.” “Good. One really ought not to pay any attention to these disgusting anonymous letter writers. Thanks, Philibert.” Less than a month later, the president again summoned his secretary. “It’s quite ridiculous,” he said testily. “But I’ve had another anonymous letter about Perpignan. The writer declares that the books weren’t properly examined. Apparently, Floriot made such a song and dance about the whole thing that an accomplice had time to replace the stolen money. We really ought to have gone into the matter more thoroughly.”

“Do we have to make another investigation?” Philibert asked, ruefully.

The president drummed his fingers on the desk. “I don’t like doing it. All the same, it’s a duty we owe to our clients. If there is something in it, and people find out afterwards that we were warned, there’ll be a nasty scandal. I’m afraid the only thing to do is send the inspector down again. And this time let him do the job thoroughly. I want to clear this up once and for all.”

The same day three of the bank’s most reliable inspectors set out for Perpignan. This time Monsieur Floriot was really taken by surprise. One of the officials kept guard over him while the other two carried out a thorough examination of his accounts lasting over four hours. They found nothing missing and the books in perfect order.

I only wish things were as satisfactory in all our branches the chief inspector said, as he bade farewell to the completely shattered Floriot.

A week later: “Monsieur Floriot of Perpignan is waiting to see you, sir,” Philibert announced.

Departing from his usual habit, Monsieur Bayout rose and advanced towards his visitor with an outstretched hand.

Floriot, however, gave a stiff little bow. “I’ve come to hand in my resignation, sir,” he said.

“Your resignation? You can’t mean that, my dear Floriot. Why?”

“You found it necessary to have my books examined twice running, sir. Naturally it caused a lot of talk. Even though I was proved to be an honest man, it made a bad impression. People are saying there must have been some good reason why the head office sent down twice to have my affairs investigated. My reputation’s gone.

I’m not a young man, and I have a wife to think of.”

Monsieur Bayout was deeply moved. “I’ll make it my personal responsibility to see that your name is cleared. Wait a minute, though.... The manager’s job is still vacant, would you like to have it? No one could doubt your honesty then, could they? Yes, and you’ll get a substantial increase in salary, too.”

“You really mean....” Floriot stammered.

“Of course, of course, my dear fellow. The bank will be fortunate in keeping the services of so conscientious a worker.”

Back at his home in Perpignan, Pierre Floriot slid his feet into the comfortable felt slippers his wife handed him.

“At last!” he grunted, in a good-humored voice. “What’s the use of being an honest man if nobody hears of it? I might have gone on being a cashier for years and years, and the people at the head office would never have known how honest I was?”

“They know now!” Madame Floriot beamed, regarding her husband with admiration. “Those letters were a wonderful idea of yours!”

Assignment: Draw the perception model of Floriot. How did he want to be perceived? What image did he seek to create?
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Perception Deception of Napoleon in Egypt

1. General Napoleon Bonaparte of France was twenty-eight years old when he launched his campaign to conquer Egypt in the summer of 1798. The young French general had already conquered Italy. Now he planned to capture the independent nation of Egypt, and use it as a base to attack the British Empire in India.

2. When Bonaparte set sail from France for Egypt, his military record was a spotless string of victories. He had never experienced a failure in battle. The Egyptian campaign began well. A fleet of ships carried Bonaparte and his 35,000 troops across the Mediterranean Sea from France to Egypt, where the French crushed the Egyptian army at the Battle of the Pyramids on July 21.

3. On August 1, while Bonaparte and his army occupied the Egyptian city of Cairo, the fleet of ships which had carried him to Egypt was annihilated by the British navy. The destruction of the French fleet gave Britain undisputed command of the Mediterranean Sea between Egypt and France.

4. Bonaparte then found himself isolated in Egypt, unable to communicate with his government in Paris, and unable to bring reinforcements and supplies from France. For six months Bonaparte remained in Egypt, consolidating his control of the country, while the British navy cruised off the Egyptian coast. Then, early in 1799, Bonaparte learned that the Ottoman Turks had declared war on France, and were preparing to attack his army in Egypt.

5. Bonaparte did not wait for the Turks to attack him. He took the offensive and marched north from Egypt with 13,000 men to assault Ottoman strongholds in the Holy Land, in what is now the State of Israel.

6. After marching two hundred miles and crossing the Sinai Desert, Bonaparte fell upon the Turkish citadel at Jaffa. His troops quickly captured the walled part of the city, where they went on a murderous rampage, looting the civilian houses and murdering two thousand civilians — men, women, and children — with bayonets. Three thousand Turkish soldiers surrendered the next day. Bonaparte, claiming that he could not afford to feed so many prisoners, ordered their mass execution. On the day when the Turkish soldiers were massacred on the beach by French firing squads, the morale of Bonaparte’s men was shaken by a sudden outbreak of bubonic plague in their ranks. The men were so frightened by the plague that some officers feared the soldiers might mutiny and flee back to Egypt to escape the disease. Bonaparte told his troops that only men who were afraid of the plague would catch it. Visiting a field hospital where infected men were dying, Bonaparte bravely touched many plague victims, and he even helped to carry the corpse of a man who had died of the plague. Bonaparte did not catch the plague, and his demonstration seemed to have a calming effect on his men.

7. In March of 1799 Bonaparte moved on to the Turkish fortress at Acre, about sixty miles north of Jaffa. This fortress was built on a spit of land jutting into the Mediterranean Sea. The Turkish defenders were equipped with modern artillery provided by Commodore Sir Sidney Smith of the British navy, leader of a small fleet that was patrolling the eastern Mediterranean. The fort had very thick walls that could not be breached by the light artillery Bonaparte had brought with him from Egypt. Bonaparte tried to have heavier artillery shipped from Egypt to Acre by water, but most of the ships carrying his cannon were captured by the British navy.

8. Bonaparte besieged Acre for over two months. Several times he ordered his lightly-armed infantrymen to storm the fort, but each assault was repulsed. The French losses became so heavy that Bonaparte finally realized he could never capture the fortress. Bonaparte knew that his future career would suffer if the failure of his campaign at Acre became known to the Directors — the leaders of the revolutionary government of France.

9. To fool his government, Bonaparte decided to pretend that he had succeeded in destroying Acre. He wrote boastfully to the French Directors that Acre had been reduced to “rubble,” and was “not worth the taking.” In letters to Egypt he claimed that Acre was “razed,” and promised that he would bring back to Cairo “many prisoners and captured flags.” He then made preparations to silently slip away from the place of defeat.

10. To boost the morale of his discouraged soldiers, and to prepare them for a retreat from Acre, Bonaparte issued a letter to the troops, which said: “After having maintained ourselves in the heart of enemy country for three months, we shall return to Egypt. . . . At this point the capture of the castle of Acre is not worth wasting even a few days. The brave men I might have lost in that enterprise are needed now for more important operations. Soldiers, there are more hardships and dangers facing us. . . . You will find in them new opportunities for glory. And if, in the midst of so many combats, every day is marked by the death of a hero, then new heroes must arise and take their place among those chosen few who take the lead in peril and wrest victory from it.”

11. Organizing his retreat was difficult for Bonaparte because thousands of his surviving soldiers were not fit to march back to Egypt. Many were wounded and others were infected with epidemic diseases. The bubonic plague was spreading so fast among the French troops that Bonaparte feared the disease might destroy his entire army. He approached his chief physician, Doctor Rene Nicolas Desgenettes, to discuss the problem. General Louis Alexandre Berthier was present during the conversation Bonaparte told the doctor: “If I were in your place, I should put an end to the suffering of our plague patients and, at the same time, to the danger they represent for us, by giving them an overdose of opium.” When the physician seemed startled by this suggestion, Bonaparte added that, if he himself had contracted the plague, he would offer to kill himself as an example of the sacrifice he asked of his men. Dr. Desgenettes thought of life as more sacred. He informed Bonaparte that many plague victims survived the disease. “My duty is to preserve life,” the doctor added.

12. Bonaparte retorted: “My aim is to preserve the army. I shall not try to overcome your scruples, but I believe I shall find people who will appreciate my intentions more than you do.” According to General Berthier, he did not say a word during the discussion, but sat quietly, nervously biting his finger nails. He was greatly relieved when Bonaparte stopped talking of killing the sick, and made plans to bring all his soldiers from Acre back to Egypt. Bonaparte divided his army into three groups: those who could walk, those who could ride, and those who needed to be carried. All the army’s horses, mules, and camels were to be used for transporting invalids. All who could walk were ordered to travel on foot. This included Bonaparte himself. When one of his grooms offered to saddle his horse in the usual way, Bonaparte shouted at him: everybody is to go on foot, rascal, and I along with the rest! Don’t you know my orders?”

13. Before the army began its retreat from Acre, all of the French cannons and canon balls were buried on the beach. No draft animals could be spared to move the heavy weapons, because all were needed to pull carts full of sick and wounded men Bonaparte worried about the problem of transport. After every available cart was loaded with wounded soldiers and plague victims, many invalids were still lying on the ground. Some of the “healthy” men, who were expected to walk back to Egypt, were on the brink of collapse. Bonaparte sent some of the most seriously sick or wounded men aboard the few leaky ships that the French still possessed. As soon as they set sail from Acre, these men were intercepted by Sir Sydney Smith’s patrolling British ships. Since Bonaparte’s army did not seem to pose a threat to the British navy, Sir Sydney did not bother to hold the ailing Frenchmen as prisoners. He carried them to Egypt, where he let them go.

14. The rest of Bonaparte’s army started its overland retreat to Egypt on May 17. The army fed itself by looting the towns and villages along the route of the retreat. To starve pursuing Turks, Bonaparte ordered that the countryside be burnt as soon as his army had passed through Louis de Bourrienne, Bonaparte’s friend and private secretary, described the march: “Our march was lit up by torches with which we set fire to the towns, the villages, the hamlets, and the rich harvests that covered the land. The entire countryside was on fire.” Sick and wounded soldiers fell down along the line of march and lay on the earth begging passing men to help them. Louis de Bourrienne wrote, “I saw amputated men, wounded men, plague-stricken men, or people merely suspected of having the plague, being abandoned in the fields. . . . We were surrounded by nothing but dying men, looters, and arsonists. “Nobody wanted to touch the plague victims who fell beside the road. The plague victims would cut wounds in their bodies, then they would call out to the retreating soldiers, “I am only wounded, I haven’t got the plague.” But nobody would stop to help them. After marching for a week the army got back to Jaffa, where they rested for several days. On May 28 Bonaparte revisited the plague hospital in Jaffa, where he had formerly touched victims to demonstrate that the plague did not frighten him. On this visit, his behavior differed.

15. Pacing rapidly through the wards, striking the cuffs of his boots with his long whip, he announced: “The Turks will be here in a few hours. Let all those strong enough to get up come with us; they will be carried on litters and horses.” There was a complete silence in the room. Not a single man was healthy enough to arise from his bed. Bonaparte ordered that opium be brought into the hospital to put the sick out of their misery. According to Bonaparte, he did not murder the victims. He provided the tincture of opium, but it was not administered to the sick; it was just left at their bedsides, so that they could take it voluntarily as soon as the Turks arrived. All the patients in the plague hospital swallowed fatal doses of opium, but seven men threw up their doses and survived. When the Turks arrived at Jaffa, they handed over the seven survivors to the British navy.

16. For seventeen days Bonaparte’s army trudged on toward Egypt. It took them a week to cross the Sinai Desert, where hundreds of sick and starving men died from heat exhaustion and dehydration. The route the French had followed across the desert was marked by a trail of corpses. By the time he neared Cairo in mid-June of 1799, Bonaparte had lost at least one-fourth of his original army. To give the impression that he returned from a successful expedition, he made careful arrangements to transform the appearance of his army. He left his sick and wounded soldiers in several villages on the outskirts of the city, and the rest entered Cairo in a victory march, with flags unfurled and with bands playing.

17. From Cairo, Bonaparte wrote to his French superiors to explain why Acre had not been taken. The reason he gave was that Acre was infected by the plague. “If the soldiers had entered the city,” he wrote, “they would have brought back into camp the germs of that horrible evil, which is more to be feared than all the armies in the world.”

18. When Louis de Bourrienne reproached his commander for telling too many lies, Bonaparte replied: “My dear, you are a simpleton. You really don’t understand a thing.”

19. Summing up the results of his campaigns in Egypt and the Holy Land, Bonaparte told the Directors in Paris, “We are now the masters of the entire desert.” In August of 1799 Bonaparte decided to slip away from Egypt and return to France. He left in such secrecy that his designated successor as commander in Egypt, General Jean-Baptiste Kleber, learned of Bonaparte’s departure only from a letter that Bonaparte left behind for him: “Needless to say I am abandoning Egypt with the greatest regret, [but] I shall be here with you in heart and spirit. The army that I confide in you is composed of my children. Over the period of time . . . I have been given the mark of their attachment to me. . . . In real friendship to you and for the true attachment I have for them — BONAPARTE.”

20. With two small frigates and escorting vessels, Bonaparte slipped through the British blockade of the Egyptian coast on the morning of August 22, 1799. On landing in France, Bonaparte was greeted by an exuberant crowd who knew nothing of his failure at Acre and had heard only of his victories in Egypt. The witnesses to Bonaparte’s failures had been left behind in Egypt. Bonaparte rushed on to Paris as a conquering hero and, a little later in the same year, staged a coup that made him dictator of France.

21. The army he had left in Egypt gradually lost strength, and finally surrendered to Turkish and English forces in 1801.

Analysis Required

Set up the perception model that details the image Napoleon transmitted to the government in Paris even as he was being badly beaten in Egypt. Fill in all parts of the model with the image being formed in government officials’ minds in their offices in Paris.
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Political Image Perception Molding

Mr. Virgil Rutter, a highly paid consultant to major political candidates and other widely known individuals, was a guest on PBS's program, Talk of the Nation on November 8, 1999. In answer to a question concerning what he does when acting as a political consultant, he responded as follows:

"It is the job of a political consultant to make the candidate realize that people vote their perceptions, not by reality.

It is our job to shape the image [of the candidate]."

Your analysis

Review the theory provided by the model of Perception of People.

Draw up a model of yourself—what is the Image of you, yourself, which you think people have of you?

Discuss how other people see you and what they would draw as an image of you.
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Problems in Communication

DIRECTIONS: Read each case. Then mark your choice in the space at the end of the question. Mark SA if you strongly agree with your employees proposed solution; A if you agree; I if you neither agree nor disagree, that is you are in-between, 50-50, or indifferent; D if you disagree, and SD if you strongly disagree.

1. You are supervising a group of 6 junior physicists in a laboratory in California. The newest recruit is from New York. Whereas the rest of the group wears sport shirts and no coat, he wears a coat and a tie. One of your subordinates privately says to you, “Why don’t you speak to that square from New York? He’s always trying to be different? Tell him to get with it--wear a sport shirt.” [ ] 2. You are supervising a group of packers in a warehouse. One of the new employees says that the group is telling him not to pack over 85 boxes a day. You talk to your best packer who says, “You and I know that when a man goes above 85 boxes a day, he starts getting more returns from Inspection. All we want the new guy to do is to keep inspectors off our back. Why don’t you tell him that?” The present work standard calls for a minimum production of 82 boxes a day. Some men in other groups have turned out an average of 94 boxes a day. Average production in your group is 86 boxes a day; in other groups 84-90 boxes a day. [ ]

3. You are supervising a group of social workers. Your most experienced, valuable worker comes to you and says, “I’m worried about Mary. After a year’s experience, she still takes notes as she interviews clients.” You know that Mary otherwise is doing very well. Her clients like her and respond to her. But he says, “You and I know that a trained worker should be able to discuss problems in a relaxed atmosphere and a notebook destroys this.” No other worker takes notes during an interview. In social work schools, note taking is discouraged. Tell her, chief, to change.” [ ] 4. You are the general manager of a concert hall. The president of the board of directors and the biggest yearly donor, Mrs. Richwoman, catches you at a cocktail party attended by lots of important people. Aloud, she tells you that she thinks you are doing a terrible job. “You will have to improve,” she says, “or you’re out!”
You assume a stone face and walk away as the best strategy to take. [ ]

5. Your boss calls you into the office and tells you that he is going to give you the performance evaluation that he was supposed to do a month ago. He starts telling you all the horrible things you have been doing over the past month. Suddenly, the phone rings and he has to go to a meeting with a company customer—your meeting will resume tomorrow morning. You go out of the office and sit at your desk the rest of the day reading emails. [ ]

6. You have just discovered a major error in some important calculations you did for a presentation your boss will deliver tomorrow. The presentation is to many unimportant company people and is in a set of figures no one is likely to check. Your boss is not likely to catch on to the fact that they are wrong. You decide to keep quiet and let things slide. [ ]
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Communications Difficulties

Study the cartoon “Pickles” below:
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You are to analyze the failure of communications portrayed in the incident on the next page by responding to the two questions below. Your response is to be not longer than one-half page for each question.

1. What were the main reason(s) behind the failure of communications in the “Pickles” situation?

2. What can we learn, from the incident illustrated in the cartoon, that managers should do when issuing orders or asking an employee to perform some activity?

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Communications in a Negotiation—Strategies Used

Analysis -- Is this: Zero Sum or Non-Zero Sum game?

Concealment -- Never give away any information you don't have to give away.

Forbearance -- Hold off, be patient.

Surprise -- Change team leader. Appear to fly off the handle.

Fait accompli -- You act and present finished result to opponent. Cross out parts of a contract you don't like, sign it and return. Ask, "Who me? I don't know who did this.., but we must accept!" "Now it's up to you. What are you going to do about it?"
Reversal -- First make small demands. Then make big demands. Get acceptance of small and then lead to big.

Apparent Withdrawal -- Walkout, but leave a backup person. Frighten the other side.

Limits -- This is the absolute "end.." "It's quitting time." You are our "first customer of the day" (in a bazaar) -- lowest limit.

Feinting -- Go for unimportant thing and give in. Then ask for the whole thing you really want.

Association -- "We are friends!" "We are brothers!"
“It's you and me against the world."

Dissociation -- "Who's your friend?" "Not my friend!"

Crossroads -- Enter lot's of confusing issues. Make real headway on the one you want.

Blanketing -- Sweep loads of issues under the one coverage. Hides weaknesses.

Salami Tactics -- Carve a concession at a time. You never try to take from an opponent-- get him to "give" a small piece at a time.

Bracketing -- Get both ends of what you want, then get the middle piece because it "logically" fits the rest.

Agent -- "I need approval"-- "I am only an agent." Used to stall the mediator between you and other side. Cools down emotions. Gives time to rethink commitments. Gets you off the hook for unwise commitments

Shift Levels -- In a department store, stop fighting with the clerk; go for the boss.

Kanpai –- Japanese variant of the association technique. Slightly different in Chinese, Korean. Raise the alcohol glasses and crush each other’s glass saying “Kanpai.” It stands for “we become friends or brothers” and also stands for “Forget about any pressures and talk about everything coming into your mind without social differences.” By using the word early on in a meeting, it reduces the opponent’s anxiety and nervousness and yields desirable comments from the opponent.

Class Exercises:

1. Form teams of two. Devise demonstrations of each method of negotiating which you could demonstrate to the class.

2. Analyze at least three of the tactics given above (if you have an original tactic that is not included in the list above, add it to the list, describe it fully, and use as one of those you analyze).

In doing any kind of communications analysis, first describe the situation of the negotiating tactic (where it happened, when, under what circumstances, how many people were involved, etc.). Then, for a complete analysis, it is necessary that you make use of the dimensions of communications. Use the dimensions of communications one by one--apply them to the negotiating situation and comment on accordingly. For example: Was there feedback? Did the first negotiator listen to the second to see if the second got his position correctly or did they talk against each other with no feedback? Was the direction of communication from one to the other and back (2 way) or simply from one to the other and the second person simply nodded or agreed or, with a very few words, resisted or just shook his head (1-way communications)?
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Autotelic vs. Exotelic Motivation
Autotelic is defined by one "having a purpose in and not apart from itself"; an activity that we do for its own sake.
Used to describe people who are internally driven and as such may exhibit a sense of purpose and curiosity. It is a broad term that can be applied to missionaries, scientists, and innumerable other vocations.
Autotelic is composed of two Greek roots, auto (self) and telos (goal).

Exotelic activity is activity you do in order to get at some external reward.
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JOB MOTIVATION METHODS

Three jobs from the Kitchen Tools Company will be described. Your task is to use your knowledge of Maslow's, Alderfer's, Vroom’s and other applicable theories to motivate the employees in each of the three jobs.

1) Assembly line worker: Pays $10.00 per hour plus an excellent benefits package. Workers package kitchen tools. Workers are separated from each other by partitions. As pairs of kitchen tools travel down the assembly line, these workers pick them up, put them in a bag, seal the bag and attach the label.

2) Line supervisor. In charge of the packagers on the assembly line. Supervisor makes sure that all of the kitchen tools are being packaged and ensure that the products are packaged appropriately. Line supervisors spend much of their time dealing with others. Even though the line supervisors are paid $15.00 per hour and receive an excellent benefits package, there is limited opportunity for advancement.

3) Secretary. Responsible for filing, typing, dictation, etc. Is also responsible for composing interoffice memos and communications. Secretaries know all of the ins and outs of the company and have ample opportunity for advancement. Paid $20.00 per hour and have an excellent benefits package.

How would Vroom analyze the jobs and how would Maslow, Alderfer, and any other theorist you would choose, change the jobs to motivate the employees?

If you could obtain more information about any of these jobs, what would you like to learn? ____________________________________________________________

_______________ Leadership vs. the Person Who Originates Nothing

In the short story, “Heart of Darkness,” the author, Joseph Conrad, tells of a ship captain who travels into the African heartland of 1902 to take command of a river steamer. Along the way, he stops at a trading post whose general manager is talkative enough, but, the captain observes, “originates nothing” as he speaks with you.

1) What do you think Conrad meant when he used the phrase about the general manager who “originates nothing?”

2) Have you ever met someone who responds to you quite civilly, who listens to every word you say, reacts with appropriate body language, but seems to “originate nothing” during your conversation?

3) How do you feel about your interaction with this individual after you have had a period of conversation and discover that he “originates nothing?” Why do you feel this way?

4) Why do you think certain individuals choose this as a way of interacting with others?
What suspicions do you have when you walk away from your meeting with him or her?

5) Who is more likely to be someone who “originates nothing,” a man or a woman?
Do you have any feelings about why your experience pinpoints one over the other?

6) How do you feel about working for an executive who “originates nothing?”
_________________________________________________
Two Person Interactions and Theories of Attitude, Leadership

1) How do the theories of Freud and the theories of Transactional Analysis relate to each other?

2) On the basis of TA, what forms of communication take place between two people?

3) What happens to communications channels that tend to create conflict between individuals and how might such conflict be resolved even as it starts if one of the individuals is alert to what is happening and is knowledgeable about TA?

4) How would you define what an attitude is and how are attitudes formed?

5) What is meant by cognitive dissonance and under what conditions might it be generated in an individual?

6) What is meant by leadership? What are some common theories of leadership that attempt to explain how and why someone becomes a leader?

7) What are the leadership styles described by some theorists and how might they be employed if you went into a plant that had leadership problems?

8) Which is the most difficult leadership level in a firm that, for example, employs both white collar and blue collar employees?

9) What is situational leadership?

10) What are the theories propounded by Blake and Mouton?

11) What is meant by Need for Achievement vs. Need for Power? Whose theory applies most to these needs?

12) What is “role reversal” and what types and levels of work will create such situations most frequently?
_______________________________________________________

Group Performance

(a) (b) (c) Resources Application Agreement Group Perf = { available to the + of those + is reached on } group— resources to their application intellectual the task and methods & physical to be used

A group’s performance is a function of (dependent on) the interaction of (a), (b), and (c)

Communication structure determines (a). Can have one person in the center of the group and each member communicates only with him (hub and spoke pattern), or some may communicate with only a sub group of members, or some may communicate to others who then communicate with others (a wheel pattern), or may have a high status person deal with only one person in group who deals with next lower person, who deals with next lower, and so on (chain pattern). The pattern determines how group marshals its resources which, in turn, depends on: * Motivation to communicate * Motivation to share ideas, physical resources, time resources

Goal orientation and power structure determine (b) which depend on: * Status of group members vis-à-vis one another—low status people may fear communicating with higher status group members and higher status members may be unwilling to communicate with lower status group members. * Bringing in people who have the information base to contribute * The motivation to contribute * A desire for a payoff for the group’s activities (avoiding time-wasting). * A certain amount of energy is consumed in a group as members try to impress each other with their status or by members trying to improve their status by seeming to contribute “more.” * Status congruency occurs when everyone knows where he or she fits in a group and is comfortable with the position they hold. * Helps develop group norms, increases satisfaction with group, and allows for social activity (jokes, pleasant remarks, diversions) to reduce the tensions of working on the task.

Cohesiveness determines (c) which depends on: * Attraction of group members towards each other which facilitates interchange of information and sharing of information. * Satisfaction with the productivity of the group * Cohesiveness can be thought of being measured on a scale:
One end of the scale is marked by workers who actively sabotage each other so that they look better when their fellow workers are made to look bad. The Other end of the scale is marked by damaging cohesiveness wherein people hide their true thoughts and go along (Abilene Paradox), or talk themselves into agreeing, adopting the ideas and attitudes of the group and going along even if at first they had good reasons for feeling that the decision is bad (Groupthink).

No cohesion Damaging Sabotage cohesion (cover-up) Pseudo True Groupthink group group Abilene Factor

A group which is too highly cohesive may focus more on the social aspects of “sticking together” than the task aspects for which they have been convened. They may even include some bad ideas, in their output product, from lesser members just to keep them happy.
____________________________________________________________

___

Norms/Cohesion: Analysis

1. Describe what is meant by “Group Norms” and “Cohesion.”

2. How do such norms and cohesion help a soldier withstand the psychological pounding he takes on the battlefield with death all around him?

3. Police officers are reluctant to turn in a “cop who goes bad or corrupt.” How can “Group Norms” and “Cohesion” be turned around to get police officers to turn in their fellows when they “go bad”? Base your answers on one or two theories that you describe briefly, and apply them to the question.
_______________________________________________________

Possible Debrief Questions
How were decisions made?
Who influenced the decisions and how?
How could better decisions have been made?
How was conflict managed?
How did people feel about the decisions?
How satisfied was each person with the decision (ask each participant to rate his / her satisfaction out of 10, then obtain a group average and compare / discuss with other groups' satisfaction levels)
What have you learnt about the functioning of this group?
How would you do the activity differently if you were asked to do it again?
What situations at work/home/school do you think are like this exercise?
____________________________________________________________

________
Who Should Survive
An atomic attack has occurred. The following eleven persons—the only humans alive on earth—are in an atomic bomb shelter. It will take two weeks for the external radiation to drop to a safe level; however, the supplies in the shelter can sustain only seven persons for two weeks, at a very minimum level. In brief, only seven of the eleven people can survive.
1. Dr. Dane: Thirty-seven; Ph.D. in history, college professor; good health; married; one child, active; enjoys politics.
2. Mrs. Dane: Thirty-eight; A.B. and M.A. in psychology; counselor in mental health clinic; good health; married; one child (Bobby); active in community.
3. Bobby Dane: twelve; brain-injured in an accident when young; special education classes for four years; I.Q. 70, but can follow directions; amazing strength and body for such a young boy.
4. Mrs. Garcia: Thirty-three; Spanish-American; ninth grade education; cocktail waitress; prostitute; good health; abandoned as a child; in foster home as a young girl; ran away from home; married at sixteen; divorced eighteen; one child three weeks old (Jean).
5. Mary Evans: fifteen; in 10th grade; good health; can take apart and put together any mechanical gadget; hobby is fixing cars.
6. Mr. Newton: Twenty-five; starting last year of medical school; suspected homosexual activity; good health; seems bitter concerning racial problems; wears hippie clothes.
7. Mrs. Clark: Twenty-eight; college graduate; electronics engineer; married; no children; good health; enjoys sports.
8. Mr. Blake: fifty-one; B.S. in mechanics; very handy; married; four children; good health; enjoys outdoors and working in his shop.
9. Father Franz: Thirty-seven; Catholic priest; college plus seminary school; active in civil rights; criticized for liberal views; good health; former college athlete.
10. Dr. Gonzales: Sixty-six; Spanish-American; doctor in general practice; two heart attacks in past five years, made good recovery from them and continues to practice.
11. Jane Zhu: Thirty-seven; married; three children; poor health; Ph.D. in mathematics; University professor; speaks eight languages fluently.
THE PROBLEM: Which seven of the eleven persons in the bomb shelter should survive? Be prepared to justify how and why you excluded someone.

You are to record the details of how the group came to a decision on who to kick out of the shelter and who to keep so that these can be discussed in class.
___________________________________________________________

Group Exercise: The Lawn Care Company

To earn extra money, four friends organize a company to sell lawn preparation, lawn care, lawn mowing, leaf raking, and end-of-summer lawn-cleanup services to the homeowners in their neighborhood. The service would operate on Tuesday and Thursday nights, all day Saturday, and Sunday mornings during the months of May, June, July, August, September, and October.

Although the group works only the restricted hours listed above, there is immediately a great demand for the company's services because, individually, the group members have reputations for the most beautiful lawns and nicest houses in the neighborhood.

After a few weeks, however, one of the partners starts arriving late to assignments, another rarely comes to work at all, and the third sits and watches while the fourth does all the mowing and raking. None of the partners has had any substantial changes at their jobs that would explain their productivity falloff.

Of course, they all wish to continue dividing the profits "four ways and equally."

The partners see their little company as yielding a substantial amount of money to each of them over the six months they will work. They don't want to break up the company.

You as the Consultant: The fourth, "working," partner calls you as a consultant to help them overcome the problems that have arisen. When you talk to each of the partners individually, they don't seem to give you good reasons or know themselves just why their productivity and enthusiasm have fallen off.

You can approach the situation as being all motivation oriented, all small group oriented, or use a combination of theories from each set of theories as the basis from which you will diagnose the problems.

Set up some solutions for the group using the following steps:

1. Choose a theory. Explain it in a few sentences. Then, tell how you would apply it in this case.

2. Plot a course of action that you would take to remedy the above situation based upon the theory—that is, state in general terms what you would like to have the group do.

3. Assume that you investigated the situation. Make some logical assumptions about what you will find wrong and assume that your findings are correct. Jot down your list of findings.

4. Derive a list of recommendations you would make to the group. These should be specific physical or managerial actions you would suggest they take and things to do or stop doing to remedy the situation. Note: Telling them to talk about their needs and feelings is not a recommendation for action.

5. Jot down some notes providing a short explanation to support the recommendations you made.

6. You decide to meet with all four partners and talk out the problem with them. Write a script for what you might say in a first group session to inspire the partners to listen and implement your recommendations. Come up with just two or three sentences that capture the message. Then write a script laying out the results of your previous five steps.
____________________________________________________________

________

Grady Wright Behavior Puzzle

Mr. Sanchez, the English teacher at Technical High School, has a class of twenty—two male students, all between sixteen and eighteen years of age. The best student, from the standpoint of grades, is William Courtney. Next are two other students, Blair Brown and Henry Michaels. The remainder of the class has grade averages in the general “C” range. The teacher’s problem student is Grady Wright, who is considered a “Disciplinary Problem” by the school. Grady seems to be able to persuade other students to follow him in causing disturbances. Last week Mr. Sanchez tried out a new idea. He gave the class a test of a choice that did not require any writing, only checking of proper answers. He told the class that no one was to put their name on the test paper or otherwise identify himself or herself. While the test was going on, Mr. Sanchez noticed Grady drawing a small design on the corner of his test paper. Thus, when the tests were turned in, Mr. Sanchez could easily identify Grady’s paper. Surprisingly, Grady turned in the best test paper in the class, something he had never done before. Mr. Sanchez is puzzled by Grady Wright. Can you help him?

Your Assignment

1. Write a paragraph or two explaining how you see this situation: Is it a perception, motivation, or group function problem? What theory or theories would you choose to use to diagnose the problem and why?

2. Using the theory or theories you chose, in several paragraphs or fewer, write a short explanation for Mr. Sanchez of what you think is happening which could explain Grady’s behavior.

3. Assume, regardless of which theories you used in answering questions one and two above, that Mr. Sanchez asks you to choose a motivational model from the textbook, class notes, or other research you think applicable. He wants to motivate Grady to become a better performer. Remember, Mr. Sanchez cannot discuss the particular paper with Grady because it was given with the understanding that no names were to be on it. Therefore, Mr. Sanchez has to pretend he does not know that Grady has done so well and cannot reveal anything about it to Grady.

a) Write a few paragraphs to justify your choice of motivational model to use.

b) Based on the model, make recommendations as to what Mr. Sanchez can do with Mr. Grady in the future. Your recommendations should be a series of short, numbered, sentences telling concrete actions Mr. Sanchez can take.
____________________________________________________________

________

The Large Organization: Spectrum of Flexibility | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Extreme rigidity | Absolute dictatorship | | Highly pathological | Extremely | | | | | | | | difficult | | | Incestuous Amplification Org. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Clergy | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Degree | Military | | | Number | | Ease of | | of | | | | of | | entry | | Rigidity/ | Bureaucracy | | pathologies | and | | Flexibility | | | developed | exit | | | Dying organization | | | | of | | | | | | | | members | | | Mature stage | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Growth stage | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Start-up organization/business | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Semi Social--volunteer | Free of | | | | | | | | organizational | | Quite Flexible | Social organization | | pathologies | Easy |

____________________________________________________________

___

Handling Change in the Large Organization

People’s reactions to change = f (perceived personal threats, trust in employer’s integrity, personal sense of worth, personal resource backup, etc.)

Kurt Lewin: Force Field Analysis: Unfreeze; Change; Refreeze

____________________________________________________________

______________

BASICS OF A BUREAUCRACY: Max Weber

1. Fixed and Official Jurisdictional Areas: 2. Division of Labor:
3. Hierarchical structure: 4. Focus of the Managerial Effort:
5. Written Documents: 6. Management Training
7. Management Rules: 8. Impersonal Relationship
9. Modern Practice Encourages:
____________________________________________________________

________

Changing Organizational Attitudes Sexually Transmitted Disease : Your company employs a great number of unmarried individuals. ranging in age from 18 to 35, about 60 percent men and 40 percent women. They are middle class, white collar personnel doing software development and systems design. They come from all parts of the U.S. and many countries ~around the world. Your offices are located at the east end of Long Island (150 miles away from New York City). You do not want them to become victims of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). Aside from preventing the personal tragedies that result, your company is hoping to slow down the increases in the cost of providing health benefits.

Your Assignment

You are directed to attack the problem by designing, one, two, or three separate programs (you choose whether you can do it all in one program or need separate programs) that accomplish the following:

a) Change the perception of the work force that all forms of STD are curable and, therefore, are not worth worrying about.
b) Change the attitude that they “won’t contract STD” and, therefore, they need not practice “safe sex.”

c) Teach them facts about STD. because, apparently, they are ignorant of them.

Your response is to be maximum three pages long with one page for each of parts (a), (b), (c) . Each page should have a list of steps the company should take to accomplish the aims of that part of the assignment. ____________________________________________________________

_______

Sophisticated Computers: Organizational Change

You are introducing ultra sophisticated computerized drawing and drafting computers into an old line engineering construction design group. The firm designs extremely specialized types of laboratory buildings and because there are only two firms, worldwide, that compete with yours, there has been little incentive to change the old ways till now. Nearly all the engineers and drafting people are over 50 years of age. A number are over 60, and a few are in their 70s. There is no required retirement age and the firm values their unique expertise in their design field. However, nearly all of them are still working with pens and inks to hand draw lab building designs; they do use computers and software to do some of the complex calculations they used to do with slide rules.

You want the firm to begin doing not only more sophisticated analysis to cut down on the use of outside consultants, but you want to also be able to present more sophisticated printouts for clients who want to see visuals of your designs.

Clients also want more project planning charts, and more spreadsheet reports. At the present time, such tasks are being done for you on a consulting basis by a local software accounting and planning group. This is not only expensive, but is a clumsy way to operate as you spend more time transmitting information back and forth than analyzing it.

You would prefer to train everyone to handle the new duties and to work with Computer Aided Design packages, but realistically, you have to face the fact that some people will not be able to adapt to the new technologies. You recall that the firm had a terrible time when it converted its manual accounting and clerical systems to computerized systems many years ago and today, in spite of the availability of computers, some of the engineers still use their slide rules more than you think is wise.

You have made up your mind that those who absolutely resist adapting to the new systems, will have to leave the firm (retirement or layoff).

What you would like to do is minimize the loss of people and maximize the number of people who take on the training and start using the most sophisticated equipment for their new duties. Naturally, those who take on the new duties will be upgraded in job classification and receive pay increases.

Devise a strategic plan and then a series of concrete steps management can take to properly introduce the changes, sell them to the employees, convince them to accept the training, and have that training take maximum effect.

a) What organizational change theories would help guide your strategies? Mention and explain at least two.

b) How might you apply those theories to get the older work force to accept the new computers and software—and really use them to their fullest capabilities?

c) Would your strategy change if there was a way to implement the change without anyone losing his/her job? How and why or why not?
____________________________________________________________

__________________

ORGANIZATIONAL PATHOLOGIES

1. Goal displacement 2. Goal amplification 3. Goal attenuation 4. Goal distortion 5. Communication problems 6. Crisis orientation 7. Priority problems 8. Centralization tendencies 9. Maturity problems (product life cycle thinking) 10. Commitment problems (tendency to make individual decisions even if they affect others) 11. “Political” screening: hidden agendas; private motives; alliances; power plays 12. Self screening problems: What makes people their own “worst screens”? Fear of risking job. “Live by the sword, die by the sword.” Fight for what you think is right, but you gain nothing even if you “win”! Don’t fight, don’t stand out—if you stick your head up, it gets cut off! Don’t want to look stupid if wrong. Don’t want to look too smart even if correct.

Your Assignment

I. For each of the above, jot down a specific incident you can recall from your own experiences.

II. What is the best way to counter the pathology you noted in each of the above?

____________________________________________________________

__________________

Henri Fayol

Management is a Process consisting of:

Plan: To lay out in advance the work to be done and what is to be accomplished.

Organize: To structure the lines of authority and responsibility.

Coordinate: To establish the sequence and timing of the work to be done.
Command: The giving of orders to get the work underway and maintaining its flow.

Control: To monitor and correct deviations from plan as the work progresses

Subordinates’ jobs
A manager’s job: To perform the process of management through the workforce of the enterprise to get its work done.

Plan
Organize
Coordinate Works through the To get the work done
Command personnel of the firm (the “body corporate”)
Control

Manager’s job

Fayol lays out 14 points to guide managers in working with the “body corporate”:

1. Authority and responsibility 2. Centralization
3. Discipline 4. Division of work
5. Equity 6. Esprit de corps
7. Initiative 8. Order
9. Remuneration of Personnel 10. Scalar Chain
11. Stability of tenure 12. Subordination of Individual interest to general interest
13. Unity of Command 14. Unity of Direction

____________________________________________________________

__________________

The Bumper Sticker

Marie was one of 50 employees of a small electronics firm. There was no doubt in anyone’s mind that she was the firm’s best electronics technician. No problem of any kind ever surfaced that she could not solve and repair—whether a piece of equipment came off the assembly line or had been returned after service with a customer.

She had, however, a terrible temper that especially blew up whenever she drove her car and someone cut her off, jammed in front of her in traffic, or rendered some other discourtesy, large or small, on the road.

One day, Marie showed up and her car prominently displayed new stickers on the front and rear bumpers:

How’s my driving? If you don’t like it, call 1-800-eat-shit!

The company’s small parking lot was right next to the building and anyone visiting the company and parking his or her car would easily be able to see all the employee cars in the lot with even a casual glance all around.

When other employees criticized her and suggested that she remove it from her car, Marie claimed freedom of speech and repeatedly came up with arguments against having to remove the sticker. And she fights against giving up her parking spot in the company lot.

Your Analysis

Let us assume, for various reasons that it is advisable for the firm to make sure she removes the stickers: Assume that you are the vice president of the firm. Rather than speak to her “off the top of your head,” and, to avoid, if possible, any kind of confrontation, you decide to think about what you will say and lay out your points carefully.

Can you select a theory that might help you script your discussion with her? What script might you lay out?

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Copyright 1948 The American Mercury Inc. (now Davis Publications, Inc.). Reprinted by permission of the trustee of the estate of Lili Darvas Molnar.
[ 2 ]. From an article by Jacqueline Schaalje, “Bonaparte Invades the Holy Land,” Old News, December, 1999, pp 1-4.
[ 3 ]. Fayol, Henri, General and Industrial Management, Revised by Irwin Gray, Lake Books edition, Belmont, CA, 1987. Originally published in Fayol H., “Administration Industrielle Et Générale,” Bulletin de la Société de l’Industrie Minérale, N° 10, 1916, p. 5-164. First English edition: General and Industrial Management, published in 1949, Pitman (London) Translated from the French ed. (Dunod) by Constance Storrs, with a foreword by L. Urwick.

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...For the purpose of this assignment, I have observed how employees do their tasks at three local stores; a small family run restaurant, a fast food restaurant, and a large-scale supermarket. I live in a small community with fewer than 7000 people within its city limits (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.), yet there are five small restaurants, seven fast food chains, and two supermarkets. Because there are several options for consumers, businesses need to make the most of their operations and materials management (OMM) processes to draw in as many consumers as possible, and to keep them as loyal customers. The operations, which are, “The value-creation activities that convert a company’s inputs into finished goods and services” (Jones, 2007, p. 373) for these three companies have some similarities, because they are in the service industry, but there are also some differences. The small family run restaurant takes a different approach concerning greeting their customers and bringing them into the restaurant. Someone is at the door immediately to greet them with a warm smile, take them to a seat, and bring them beverages. Even during peak hours, they are sure to greet each customer and let them know how long they will wait before they are seated, if there is a wait at all. The employees of the fast food restaurant, on the other hand, do not greet the customers until they reach the counter to place their order. The customers walk through a maze of ropes to reach the counter, and if there...

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