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MIGUEL REALE

LIÇÕES
PRELIMINARES
DE DIREITO

25a edição
22ª tiragem
2001

PRINCIPAIS OBRAS DO AUTOR
OBRAS FILOSÓFICAS
Atualidades de um Mundo Antigo, 1936, José Olympio, 2. ed., 1983, UnB; A
Doutrina de Kant no Brasil, 1949, USP; Filosofia em São Paulo, 1962, Ed. Grijalbo;
Horizontes do Direito e da História, 1956, 3. ed., 2000, Saraiva; Introdução e Notas aos
“Cadernos de Filosofia” de Diogo Antônio Feijó, 1967, Ed. Grijalbo; Experiência e
Cultura, 1977, Ed. Grijalbo; Estudos de Filosofia e Ciência do Direito, 1978, Saraiva; O
Homem e seus Horizontes, 1980, 1. ed., Convívio, 2. ed., 1997, Topbooks; A Filosofia na
Obra de Machado de Assis, 1982, Pioneira; Verdade e Conjetura, 1983, Nova Fronteira, 2. ed., 1996, Fundação Lusíada, Lisboa; Introdução à Filosofia, 1988, 3. ed., 1994, Saraiva; O
Belo e outros Valores, 1989, Academia Brasileira de Letras; Estudos de Filosofia
Brasileira, 1994, Inst. De Fil. Luso-Brasileira, Lisboa; Paradigmas de Cultura
Contemporânea, 1996, Saraiva.
OBRAS DE FILOSOFIA DO DIREITO
Fundamento do Direito, 1940, Ed. Própria, 3. ed., 1998, Revista dos Tribunais;
Filosofia do Direito, 1953, 19. ed., 1999, Saraiva; Teoria Tridimensional do Direito, 1968,
5. ed., 1994, Saraiva; O Direito com Experiência, 1968, 2. ed., 1992, Saraiva; Lições
Preliminares de Direito, 1973, Bushatsky, 4./25. ed., 2000, Saraiva, uma ed. Portuguesa,
Livr. Almedina, 1982; Estudos de Filosofia e Ciência do Direito, 1978, Saraiva; Direito
Natural/Direito Positivo, 1984, Saraiva; Nova Fase do Direito Moderno, 2. ed., 1998,
Saraiva; Fontes e Modelos do Direito, 1994, Saraiva.
OBRAS DE POLÍTICA E TEORIA DO ESTADO
O Estado Moderno, 1933, 3. ed., José Olympio, 4. ed., UnB; Formação da Política
Burguesa, 1935, José Olympio, 2. ed., 1983, UnB; O Capitalismo Internacional, 1935, José
Olympio, 2. ed., 1983, UnB, Teoria do Direito e do Estado, 1940, livr. Martins., Ed. 4. ed.,
1984, Saraiva; Parlamentarismo Brasileiro, 1. e. 2. ed., 1962, Saraiva; Pluralismo e
Liberdade, 1963, Saraiva, 2. ed., 1998, Ed. Expressão e Cultura; Imperativos da Revolução

II

de Março, 1965, Livr. Martins Ed.; Política de Ontem e de Hoje, 1978, Saraiva; Liberdade e Democracia, 1987, Saraiva; O Estado Democrático de Direito e o Conflito das
Ideologias, 2. ed. 1999, Saraiva.
OBRAS DE DIREITO POSITIVO
Nos Quadrantes do Direito Positivo, 1960, Ed. Michelany; Revogação e
Anulamento do Ato Administrativo, 1968, 2. ed., 1980, Forense; Direito Administrativo,
1969, Forense; Cem Anos de Ciência do Direito no Brasil, 1993, Saraiva; Questões de
Direito, Sugestões Literárias. 1981. Teoria e Prática do Direito, 1984, Saraiva; Por uma
Constituição Brasileira, 1985, Revista dos Tribunais; O Projeto de Código Civil, 1986, 2. ed, 1998, Saraiva; O Projeto do Novo Código Civil, 1999, 2. ed., Saraiva; Aplicações da
Constituição de 1988, 1990, Forense; Temas de Direito Positivo, 1992, Revista dos
Tribunais; Questões de Direito Público, 1997, Saraiva; Questões de Direito Privado,1997,
Saraiva.
OBRAS LITERÁRIAS
Poemas do Amor e do Tempo, 1965, Saraiva; Poemas da Noite, 1980, Ed. Soma;
Figuras da Inteligência Brasileira, 1984, Tempo Brasileiro Ed. e Univ. do Ceará; Sonetos da Verdade, 1984, Nova Fronteira; Vida Oculta, 1990, Massao Ohno/Stefanowski Ed.;
Face Oculta de Euclides da Cunha, 1993; Das Letras à Filosofia, 1998, Academia
Brasileira de Letras.
PRINCIPAIS OBRAS TRADUZIDAS
Filosofia dei Diritto, Trad. Luigi Bagolini e G. Ricci, 1936, Torino, Giappichelli; Il
Diritto come Esperienza, com ensaio introd. de Domenico Coccopalmerio, 1973, Milano,
Giuffrè; Teoria Tridimensional del Derecho. Trad. J. A. Sardina-Paramo, 1973, Santiago de
Compostella. Imprenta Paredes, 2. ed. Universidad de Chile, Valparaíso (na coletânea
"Juristas Perenes"), 3. ed. reestruturada, trad. Angeles Mateos, Tecnos, Madrid, 1997;
Fundamentos del Derecho. Trad. Júlio O. Chiappini. Buenos Aires, Depalma, 1976.
Introducción al Derecho. Trad. Brufau Prats, 1976, 10. ed., 1991, Madrid, Ed. Pirámide;

III

Filosofia del Derecho. Trad. Miguel Angel Herreros. Madrid, 1979, Ed. Pirámide;
Expérience et Culture. Trad. Giovanni Dell’Anna Bordeaux, 1990, Éditions Bière.

IV

À pequenina Luciana estas primeiras luzes do Direito

V

NOTA À VIGÉSIMA PRIMEIRA EDIÇÃO
Singular o destino deste livro. Nascido na sala de aula como apostilas, veio sendo revisto e completado até se tornar, sem perda de seu cunho didático, a exposição dos elementos essenciais de uma Teoria Geral do Direito como projeção natural de minhas pesquisas filosófico-jurídicas.
Estava longe de imaginar o sucesso da presente obra, com vinte e uma edições até agora no Brasil, uma em Portugal e nove na Espanha sob o título de
Introducción al Derecho, traduzida e adaptada ao Direito espanhol por Brufau
Prats, eminente catedrático de Filosofia do Direito nas Universidades de Barcelona e Valladolid.
Atribuo esse êxito ao tom coloquial que procurei emprestar a estas páginas, preservando a clareza e o rigor próprios dos trabalhos científicos.
Por outro lado, ao invés de uma espécie de Enciclopédia Jurídica, que redunda sempre em um amálgama indefinido de noções, preferi situar os problemas gerais do Direito Positivo em função da teoria tridimensional do Direito, resultado de minhas meditações sobre a estrutura e a natureza da experiência jurídica. Daí a reduzida exposição de doutrinas alheias, a não ser quando correspondentes a momentos essenciais do desenvolvimento científico, com remissão, porém, aos livros em que participo do debate das idéias, em cotejo com os mestres do pensamento jurídico.
Outro ponto que merece ser lembrado é a contínua ilustração da exposição teórica mediante a invocação de textos da Constituição ou do Direito Civil, o qual, a bem ver, é "a constituição do homem comum", continuando a ser, na linha da tradição romana, a disciplina jurídica por excelência.
Uma de minhas vaidades é ter podido contribuir, com minhas lições, para auxiliar os jovens a percorrer o mundo jurídico, conforme propósito assinalado no
Prefácio que redigi para a 1ª edição, cuja leitura me parece indispensável.
Daí minha constante preocupação de atualizar o texto à medida que iam se desenvolvendo minhas pesquisas. Nesse sentido, seja-me permitido observar que são relevantes os acréscimos feitos na presente edição, sobretudo nos Capítulos
V, VII, XIII e XV, sendo que, neste último, penso ter estabelecido mais rigorosa
VI

relação entre os conceitos de fontes e de modelos do Direito, abrangendo estas os modelos jurídicos e os modelos hermenêuticos.
Como se vê, o passar dos anos não me tem privado, felizmente, do permanente dever de autocrítica, visando a atingir soluções teóricas cada vez mais em sintonia com a experiência jurídica, tema central de meus estudos.

VII

PREFÁCIO À PRIMEIRA EDIÇÃO
Este é um livro, cuja estrutura e espírito se firmaram na sala de aula, destinando-se sobretudo aos que se iniciam no estudo do Direito. Sua inspiração remonta ao tempo em que ministrei, na Faculdade de Direito de São Paulo,
Introdução no primeiro ano e Filosofia Jurídica no quinto, pondo-me in concreto o problema de dois estudos diversos, mas complementares.
São dessa época umas preleções que, apesar de múltiplas deficiências formais, vinham sendo reclamadas por meus antigos alunos, hoje mestres em várias Faculdades de Jurisprudência do País.
Todavia, o tempo decorrido e todos os resultados de minhas meditações e pesquisas não me permitiam rever e reeditar aquelas aulas antigas. Preferi reescrevê-las, como se as estivesse proferindo hoje.
O que, porém, não abandonei foi a compreensão da Introdução ao Estudo do Direito como uma composição artística, destinada a integrar em unidade os valores filosóficos, teóricos, sociológicos, históricos e técnicos do Direito, a fim de permitir ao estudante uma visão de conjunto, uma espécie de viagem ao redor do mundo do Direito, para informação e formação do futuro jurista.
Como toda viagem bem programada, esta apresenta um itinerário que não obedece a linhas inflexíveis. Há idas e retornos, com pausas demoradas, quando o assunto reclama; há fugas do caminho principal, para uma espiada a paisagens ou monumentos significativos nas redondezas; há vias amplas e serenas, onde se explana e se espraia o comumente sabido, mas há também, vez por outra, uma subida mais íngreme, ou descidas arriscadas para ver, de longe, as profundezas dos princípios. Além do mais, todo viajante culto prepara a sua excursão, enquadrando-a na devida perspectiva social e histórica. Sem esta, as criações do
Direito deixam de ser formas de vida para se reduzirem a figuras convencionais e frias. Penso, em verdade, que, em lugar de esquemas escolásticos vazios, que só solicitam a memória, o que mais convém ao calouro é ir tomando conhecimento, a pouco e pouco, do mundo em que vai construir a sua morada.

VIII

Situá-lo desde logo no âmago da experiência jurídica, para que sinta a sua sedutora beleza e adquira ciência e consciência de sua dignidade cultural e ética.
Daí não ter querido, apesar das antigas preleções terem sido integralmente refundidas, abandonar o tom coloquial e simples, com repetições próprias da preleção oral, mas didaticamente aconselháveis, pelo propósito de ir envolvendo o estudante nas malhas do assunto, suscitando a sua reação crítica. É, também, a razão pela qual, primeiro, se enunciam noções elementares, quase que evidentes, para progressivamente tornar-se possível a plena determinação conceitual. Na árvore do saber, os conceitos equivalem aos frutos maduros.
Não será demais ponderar que, com este livro, se demonstra que a teoria tridimensional do Direito, além de seus possíveis valores no plano filosófico, abre algumas perspectivas originais também no plano da Teoria Geral do Direito. De certo modo, é uma contraprova de seu alcance, na medida em que é aplicada visando à compreensão positiva e técnica da experiência jurídica.
Temos criticado com veemência os estudantes por preferirem as apostilas aos livros, atribuindo tal fato a preguiça mental, a uma tendência a mastigar carne já moída. Em se tratando, porém, de obras de iniciação científica, talvez seja necessário rever o assunto, à luz das modernas teorias da comunicação, no sentido de se escreverem livros com espírito de apostila, compondo-se o rigor dos conceitos com os valores da comunicabilidade. Caberá ao professor completar o compêndio com leituras selecionadas, orientando a pesquisa bibliográfica e a elaboração dos problemas surgidos no desenrolar do curso.
Deixo aqui meus agradecimentos aos que cooperaram na revisão deste livro, cujo índice Remissivo foi organizado por Leib Soibelman, e por mim revisto e completado. MIGUEL REALE
1973

IX

ÍNDICE
PRINCIPAIS OBRAS DO AUTOR
NOTA À VIGÉSIMA PRIMEIRA EDIÇÃO
PREFÁCIO À PRIMEIRA EDIÇÃO

II
VI
VIII

CAPÍTULO I - OBJETO E FINALIDADE DA INTRODUÇÃO AO ESTUDO DO DIREITO1
NOÇÃO ELEMENTAR DE DIREITO
MULTIPLICIDADE E UNIDADE DO DIREITO
COMPLEMENTARIDADE DO DIREITO
LINGUAGEM DO DIREITO
O DIREITO NO MUNDO DA CULTURA
O MÉTODO NO DIREITO
NATUREZA DA INTRODUÇÃO AO ESTUDO DO DIREITO

1
3
6
7
8
9
10

CAPÍTULO II - O DIREITO E AS CIÊNCIAS AFINS

12

NOÇÃO DE FILOSOFIA DO DIREITO
NOÇÃO DE CIÊNCIA DO DIREITO
NOÇÃO DE TEORIA GERAL DO DIREITO
DIREITO E SOCIOLOGIA
DIREITO E ECONOMIA

12
15
16
17
19

CAPÍTULO III - NATUREZA E CULTURA

22

O DADO E O CONSTRUÍDO
CONCEITO DE CULTURA
LEIS FÍSICO-MATEMÁTICAS E LEIS CULTURAIS
BENS CULTURAIS E CIÊNCIAS CULTURAIS

22
23
26
28

CAPÍTULO IV - O MUNDO ÉTICO

31

JUÍZOS DE REALIDADE E DE VALOR
ESTRUTURA DAS NORMAS ÉTICAS
FORMAS DA ATIVIDADE ÉTICA

31
33
34

CAPÍTULO V - DIREITO E MORAL

38

A TEORIA DO MÍNIMO ÉTICO
DO CUMPRIMENTO DAS REGRAS SOCIAIS

38
40

X

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