Free Essay

Human Capital Theory

In: Social Issues

Submitted By dashs
Words 534
Pages 3
Daria
Sociology B2

Human Capital Theory

What is human capital? According Schultz (1993), the term “human capital” has been defined as a key element in improving a firm assets and employees in order to increase productive as well as sustain competitive advantage. To sustain competitiveness in the organization human capital becomes an instrument used to increase productivity.

The theory of human capital is rooted from the field of macroeconomic development theory (Schultz, 1993). Becker’s (1993) classic book, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with special reference to education, illustrates this domain.
Becker argues that there are different kinds of capitals that include schooling, a computer training course, expenditures on medical care. And in fact, lectures on the virtues of punctuality and honesty are capital too. In the true sense, they improve health, raise earnings, or add to a person’s appreciation of literature over a lifetime.

Consequently, it is fully in keeping with the capital concept as traditionally defined to say that expenditures on education, training, and medical care, etc., are investment in capital. These are not simply costs but investment with valuable returns that can be calculated.
Uluslararası Sosyal Arastırmalar Dergisi The Journal of International Social Research Volume 2 / 8 Summer 2009

The Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performance

Human capital is getting wider attention with increasing globalization and also the saturation of the job market due to the recent downturn in the various economies of the world. Developed and developing countries put emphases on a more human capital development towards accelerating the economic growth by devoting necessary time and efforts.
Thus human capital development is one of the fundamental solutions to enter the international arena. Specifically, firms must invest necessary resources in developing human capital which tend to have a great impact on performance. Firm performance is viewed in terms of financial and non-financial performance.

The human capital focuses two main components which is individuals and organizations. This concept have further been described by Garavan et al., (2001) that human capitals have four key attributes as follows: (1) flexibility and adaptability (2) enhancement of individual competencies (3) the development of organizational competencies and (4) individual employability.
It shows that these attributes in turn generate add values to individual and organizational outcomes. There are various findings that incorporate human capital with higher performance and sustainable competitive advantage (Noudhaug, 1998); higher organizational commitment (Iles et al., 1990); and enhanced organizational retention (Robertson et al., 1991).
Hence, all this debates fundamentally focuses on individual and organizational performance.

REFERENCES

Gary S. Becker Investment in human capital: a theoretical analysis

Agarwala, T. (2003). Innovative human resource practices and organizational commitment: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(2), 175–197.

Bantel, K. (1993). Strategic clarity in banking: Role of top management-team demography. Psychology Reports, 73, 1187-1203.

Barney, J. B. (1995). Looking inside for competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 49–61.

Bates, T. (1990). Entrepreneur human capital inputs and small business longevity. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 72(4), 551-559.

Becker, B., & Barry, G. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779–801.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Human Capital Theory

...rapidly, is the ultimate competitive advantage. Jack Welch. Human Capital Theory (HCT) purports that peoples learning capacity when effectively utilised results in profitability for the individual, organisation and society at large. It underlines or seeks to explain why Human Resource Development (HRD) is beneficial not only for the individual, but for the firm and the macro-economy. The extent to which firms undertake training is important in establishing the amount of support for human capital theory. During 2001 – 2002, the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported 81% of all Australian employers provided some training for their employees. Of all employers, 79% provided unplanned or on-the-job training while 41% provided structured or specified content training. These statistics are evidence of employers approach in that training is seen as a necessity; but does management d understand the link between training and improved performance outcomes? Capital is a product that yields returns. Traditionally we associate this with investment funds, land or equipment. Taylorism emerged in the 1890’s and focused on applying science to the engineering process with a view to driving efficiencies by way of increasing productivity by refining processes or reducing inefficiencies via reduced wastage. It was not until the 1950’s that consideration was given that workers contributions could be recognised as capital. The fundamental principle underpinning HCT is the belief......

Words: 2835 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Human Capital and Sustainable Development

...Topic of Research Proposal: HUMAN CAPITAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY. Background of the Study Human Capital has been recognized globally as one major factor that is responsible for the wealth of nations. According to Smith (1776) and Folloni & Vittadini (2010), human capital refers to the acquired and useful abilities of all the inhabitants or members of the society. Without adequate investment in developing the human capital which is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and the capacities of people in the country, the possibility of sustainable development might be minimal. Investment in the human resource determines the type, quality, availability and productivity of the nation’s manpower. It involves the socio-economic development strategies (European Commission, 2007) critically needed to facilitate sustainable development. One major challenge facing Nigeria as a nation within the global community, is how to achieve sustainable development. According to the IMF (2002), sustainable development is made of three pillars. They are economic development, social development and environmental development. The essence of these pillars are to maintain and enhance the capacity and capability of future generations while meeting the needs of the present generation. To accomplish these multi-dimensional tasks, human capital should be strategically cultivated and positioned for the preservation of both the present and the future economic growth and......

Words: 4067 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Human Capital

...HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT Human capital is the stock of competencies, knowledge, social and personality attributes, including creativity, cognitive abilities, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value. It is an aggregate economic view of the human being acting within economies, which is an attempt to capture the social, biological, cultural and psychological complexity as they interact in explicit and/or economic transactions. Many theories explicitly connect investment in human capital development to education, and the role of human capital in economic development, productivity growth, and innovation has frequently been cited as a justification for government subsidies for education and job skills training.[1] "Human capital" has been and is still being criticized in numerous ways. Michael Spence offers signaling theory as an alternative to human capital.[2][3] Pierre Bourdieu offers a nuanced conceptual alternative to human capital that includes cultural capital, social capital, economic capital, and symbolic capital.[4] These critiques, and other debates, suggest that "human capital" is a reified concept without sufficient explanatory power. It was assumed in early economic theories, reflecting the context, i.e., the secondary sector of the economy was producing much more than the tertiary sector was able to produce at the time in most countries – to be a fungible resource, homogeneous, and easily interchangeable, and it was referred to......

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Mr Yang Chen

...successful in venture creation. Also, opportunity recognition means the perceiving possibility of starting a new business and leading to considerable profit. There are two types opportunity recognition ‘internal perspective’ and ‘external perspective’. Internal perspective means entrepreneurs should make sure that problems and needs identified before make a decision which is risky, but external perspective denotes they should make the decision to start a venture precedes opportunity recognition. Most of entrepreneurs looked at three methods of discovery opportunity recognition ‘active searching’, fortuitous discovery’ and ‘opportunity creation’. However, social capital and human capital might be affected on opportunity recognition when entrepreneur creates a new business. This paper is going to discuss how human capital and social capital influence on each method of discovery opportunity and how those three methods help entrepreneurs to recognize valuable opportunities. The first significant theoretical model of opportunity identification is an active search, and those people who are advocating the active search method propose that individuals recognize opportunity through purposeful, deliberate, conscious search. For instance,...

Words: 2452 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Retirement

...ECO 6191A Labor Economics Human Capital and Education -----------The use of IV based on AK-91’s paper Content 1. Overview of the Human Capital……………………………………………3 (1) Origin of Human Capital…………………………………………………..3 (2) Theory of Human Capital………………………………………………….4 2. The methodology used in the paper………………………………………...5 (1) Ability Bias/Selection Bias………………………………………………….5 (2) Instrument Variables……………………………………………………….6 3. AK-91’s Paper………………………………………………………………...9 (1) Seansonal Pattern………………………………………….…………………….9 (2) Estimating the Return to Education………………..…………………….……….12 4. Conclusion……………………………………………………..……………...15 5. Reference……………………………………………………………………...16 1. Overview of the Human Capital It is obvious that human capital becomes a vital part in our real life. In order to improve the productivity, people want to invest in the human capital more than before. From the Wikipedia, it defines human capital as the stock of competencies, knowledge, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value. In a simply word, I think human capital is the set of skills which an employee acquires on the job, through training and experience, and which increase that employee's value in the market place. (1) Origin of Human Capital In fact, no one realized the human capital before A.W.Lewis wrote his paper "Economic Development with...

Words: 2918 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Entrepreneur & Role Model

...TI 2011-061/3 Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper Entrepreneurship and Role Models Niels BosmaA Jolanda HesselsB,C Veronique SchutjensA Mirjam van PraagD Ingrid VerheulE Utrecht University; B EIM Business and Policy Research, Zoetermeer; C Erasmus School of Economics, Rotterdam; D Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam; E Rotterdam School of Economics; all in the Netherlands. A Tinbergen Institute is the graduate school and research institute in economics of Erasmus University Rotterdam, the University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam. More TI discussion papers can be downloaded at http://www.tinbergen.nl Tinbergen Institute has two locations: Tinbergen Institute Amsterdam Gustav Mahlerplein 117 1082 MS Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel.: +31(0)20 525 1600 Tinbergen Institute Rotterdam Burg. Oudlaan 50 3062 PA Rotterdam The Netherlands Tel.: +31(0)10 408 8900 Fax: +31(0)10 408 9031 Duisenberg school of finance is a collaboration of the Dutch financial sector and universities, with the ambition to support innovative research and offer top quality academic education in core areas of finance. DSF research papers can be downloaded at: http://www.dsf.nl/ Duisenberg school of finance Gustav Mahlerplein 117 1082 MS Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel.: +31(0)20 525 8579 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ROLE MODELS Niels Bosma A, Jolanda Hessels B, C, Veronique Schutjens A, Mirjam van Praag D, Ingrid Verheul E A Faculty of Geosciences,......

Words: 11822 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Afvdbgxdn

...THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF IMMIGRANTS The Role of Human and Social Capital AGNIESZKA KANAS Kanas, A.M. The Economic Performance of Immigrants. The Role of Human and Social Capital Dissertation, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Cover illustration: Krzysztof Wodiczko, Goscie/Guests, 2009, instalacja wideo/video installation, 17,17 min./minutes. Dzieki uprzejmosci artysty i Fundacji Profile/courtesy of the artist and Profile Foundation, Warsaw. Cover design: Agnieszka Kanas & Sebastian Gryglewicz Printed by: Wöhrmann Print Service ISBN: 978-90-393-5550-3 © Agnieszka Kanas, 2011 All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrival system of any nature, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electrnically, mechanically, by photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission from the author. THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF IMMIGRANTS The Role of Human and Social Capital DE ECONOMISCHE POSITIE VAN IMMIGRANTEN De rol van menselijk en sociaal kapitaal (met een samenvatting in het Nederlands) Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit Utrecht op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof.dr. G.J. van der Zwaan, ingevolge het besluit van het college voor promoties in het openbaar te verdedigen op dinsdag 28 juni 2011 des middags te 2.30 uur door Agnieszka Małgorzata Kanas geboren op 3 februari 1980 te Trzcianka, Polen Promotoren: Prof. dr.......

Words: 12298 - Pages: 50

Free Essay

Human Capital

...WHY IS THE HUMAN CAPITAL SO IMPORTANT FOR THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MAURITIUS? Introduction This assignment aims to look at the special importance of human capital to the economy of Mauritius. First, we go about defining the concept of human capital. Afterwards, there will be a section which talks a bit about the history of the economy of Mauritius. Then we will move on to another section which tries to explore the different factors as to why and how human capital is important to Mauritius. We will then have a concluding remark. We will end by some possible recommendations.   What is human capital? Adam Smith defined human capital as follows: “Fourthly, of Justin Slay’s types of capital which is of the acquired and useful abilities of all the inhabitants or members of the education, study, or apprenticeship, always costs a real expense, which is a capital fixed and realized, as it were, in his person. Those talents, as they make a part of his fortune, so do they likewise that of the society to which he belongs. The improved dexterity of a workman may be considered in the same light as a machine or instrument of trade which facilitates and abridges labour, and which, though it costs a certain expense which certainly repays afterwards. The use of the term in the modern neoclassical economic literature dates back to Jacob Mincer's article "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution" in the Journal of Political Economy in 1958. Theorists......

Words: 4728 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Theoretical Review of Labour in Agriculture

...the first wide scale economic activity. It serves as the sustenance of mankind, the oldest most reliable energy source for human beings; food production. Throughout the ages agriculture as we know it has changed. As economies developed from subsistence to trade and developed trading economies so has agriculture. Currently, in today’s world, we see agriculture as an important industry to any nation. It serves as one of, if not the most, powerful poverty reduction sectors in any nation. This is so because agriculture dominates the rural areas; which are notorious for being resource immobile, isolated and poverty stricken. Henceforth, implications for agriculture and its development becomes an important concern for every nation. Labour being an important factor of production, and one which is most variable in the short run, an analysis on its influence in agricultural production seems almost mandatory. In this sector of interest, the labour available tends to diverge from those of other sectors, in terms of characteristics. Labour in agricultural production is characterized by “a high age of agricultural workers & low levels of educational attainment”(A.Bailey, 2012). This signifies relatively low levels of human capital in the industry and hence restricts the sector from utilizing skilled labour. What is human capital? Human capital can be referred to as the set / stock of skills an individual possess that can be rented out to employers. These......

Words: 1077 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Human Capital

...Human Capital Human Capital is a set of skills which an employee acquires on the job, through training and experience, and which increase that employee's value in the marketplace. It is also the skills and knowledge acquired thru education. A computer training course, schooling and lectures on the virtues of punctuality and honesty are also capital because they raise earnings, improve health, or add to a person’s good habits over much of his lifetime. Therefore, economists regard expenditures on EDUCATION, training, medical care, and so on as investments in human capital. They are called human capital because people cannot be separated from their knowledge, skills, health, or values in the way they can be separated from their financial and physical assets. Human capital can be viewed in general terms, such as the ability to read and write, or in specific terms, such as the acquisition of a particular skill with a limited industrial application. Critics of the theory argue that it is difficult to separate human capital investment from personal consumption. I think in my opinion there is is no difference between human capital investment and personal consumption because both help in improving a person’s life. For example a skill in particular field could help a person get a job and that brings in money which could be used to feed the family. Adam Smith a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy defines four types of fixed capital (which is......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Quality Management – Signing Off on a Substandard Product

...TURNOVER INTENT DIPLOMA THESIS Department: Strategie- und Unternehmensökonomik University of Zurich Human Resource Management Professor Dr. Bruno Staffelbach Supervising tutor: Dorothea Brunner Subject area: BWL I Subject: Human Resource Management Author: Mylene Perez Schüracherstr. 14a, 8306 Brüttisellen myleneperez82@yahoo.de Student ID Number: 02-728-285 Field of Study: BWL (Business Administration) Number of Semester: 10 Brüttisellen, 18.06.2008 Turnover Intent ABSTRACT Voluntary employee turnovers incur significant cost for an organization. Thus it is important to identify turnover intents as early as possible in order to enable planners to help implement courses of action. Within the scope of this diploma thesis a review of literature on turnover intent is offered. Initially the importance of the phenomenon is established and exact definitions of the subject area are presented. Subsequently the potentially critical impact of turnover behavior on organizational effectiveness is discussed. Several theoretical concepts that explain the occurrence of the turnover intent, and five key models that shaped the research on turnover, are presented and partially critiqued. This study also analyzes the effect of various factors on turnover intent using data from the HR-Barometers 2007. These factors were categorized into psychological, economical and demographic determinants, as well as moderating factors. The results revealed that the......

Words: 17878 - Pages: 72

Free Essay

Profitability of Investments in Education. Evidence from Spanish Regions

...Author manuscript, published in "Regional Studies (2011) 1" Regional Studies DOI : 10.1080/00343404.2010.543893 rP Fo PROFITABILITY OF INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION. EVIDENCE FROM SPANISH REGIONS Journal: Manuscript ID: Manuscript Type: JEL codes: Keywords: peer-00677964, version 1 - 11 Mar 2012 http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/cres Email: regional.studies@fm.ru.nl ee Regional Studies CRES-2009-0336.R1 Main Section O18 - Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses < O1 - Economic Development < O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth, O47 - Measurement of Economic Growth|Aggregate Productivity < O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity < O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth, R11 - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes < R1 - General Regional Economics < R - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics economic development, education, productivity, rate of return rR ev ie w On ly Page 1 of 37 Regional Studies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 PROFITABILITY OF INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION. EVIDENCE FROM SPANISH REGIONS Enrique López-Bazoa Fo rP a Rosina Morenob University of Barcelona peer-00677964, version 1 - 11 Mar 2012 European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), C/ Inca Garcilaso......

Words: 13189 - Pages: 53

Premium Essay

Human Captial Development

...Development of Human Capital in Organizations [First name of the author appears here] [Name of the course appears here] [Date of submission appears here] Human Capital Development: Issue of Reducing Income Inequality Introduction Human capital is the set of skills, talents, skills, experiences accumulated by an individual which determine their ability to produce for themselves or for others. Human capital theory works by analogy to that of financial or physical capital. It is considered that human capital is composed of three elements that together determine a certain ability of an individual to work: namely, skills, experiences and knowledge. Human capital can be developed through continuing education and attention to the health of an individual. The inclusion of human capital in the economic analysis is an important step. It is generally theorized that accumulation of human capital is a key driver of economic growth. According to economists, dissemination of knowledge to general population allows increasing returns and generates positive externalities. Therefore, it is a central concept of development economics that investment in human capital should be the foremost priority of developing countries. Foreign direct investment refers to international movement of capital across national boundaries. This may take the shape of creation of a subsidiary abroad or to exercise control on the management of a company in another country. The effects of FDI are generally......

Words: 2617 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Hr Management

...pay are not. The study examined both the determinants and consequences of organizational differences in pay level and pay mix among a national group of top and middle level managers. There are three components determine the level of compensation, such as pay mix, or the extent of variable pay, in terms of the relative amounts of short-term bonuses, long-term incentives, and base salary in an individual’s pay. Determinants of Compensation: Employee and Job Characteristics: Consistent with Human capital theory, there is empirical evidence that the number of years of education and labor market experience have explained much of the variance in their pay levels. The higher in an organizational performance hierarchy a job is the greater potential impact on organizational performance its incumbent is likely to have. Level of base pay is positively related to an employee’s human capital investment and level of job responsibility. Pay mix is positively related to an employee’s human capital investment and level of job responsibility. Organizational Variables: More recent examinations of organizational differences in pay levels have sought to mprove on the early case studies by more systematically estimating the relative influence of organization, job, and employee on pay. Organizations exhibit differences in levels of base pay with employee’s personal and job characteristics controlled. Organizations exhibit differences in pay mix employees’ personal and job......

Words: 755 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Advances in Developing Hr

...Advances in Developing Human Resources http://adh.sagepub.com/ National Human Resource Development: What in the World Is It? Gary N. McLean Advances in Developing Human Resources 2004 6: 269 DOI: 10.1177/1523422304266086 The online version of this article can be found at: http://adh.sagepub.com/content/6/3/269 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Academy of Human Resource Development Additional services and information for Advances in Developing Human Resources can be found at: Email Alerts: http://adh.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://adh.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://adh.sagepub.com/content/6/3/269.refs.html >> Version of Record - Aug 1, 2004 What is This? Downloaded from adh.sagepub.com at Anglia Ruskin University on May 2, 2014 Issue Overview 10.1177/1523422304266086 Advances in Developing Human Resources McLean / INTRODUCTION TO NHRD National Human Resource Development: What in the World Is It? Gary N. McLean The problem and the solution. Recent exploratory research has affirmed the variations in understanding of the meaning of human resource development (HRD) from country to country based on a number of identifiable characteristics of the country. One area identified in the definitions of some countries, which was different from that found in the United States and in some other......

Words: 3150 - Pages: 13