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Human Resource Managem


Submitted By fxfleon
Words 4678
Pages 19

CHUKWUNONSO Franklyn, +234 8038765452, 8052829700

Department of Information Technology,
Federal University of Technology, Yola


This paper introduces the development of Human Resource Management (HRM) from a historical perspective and explains the debate between HRM and personnel management. Thus, the paper identifies the historical developments and their impacts on HRM, outlines the development and functions of HRM, explains the differences between HRM and Personnel Management, evaluates ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ approaches to HRM, illustrates how diversity is an issue in Human Relations (HR) practice and finally considers HRM as an international issue. It concludes with a discussion about ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ models of HRM and its implications for the human resource manager.


The term "human resource management" has been commonly used for about the last ten to fifteen years. Prior to that, the field was generally known as "personnel administration." The name change is not merely cosmetics.

Personnel administration, which emerged as a clearly defined field by the 1920s (at least in the US), was largely concerned the technical aspects of hiring, evaluating, training, and compensating employees and was very much of "staff" function in most organizations. The field did not normally focus on the relationship of disparate employment practices on overall organizational performance or on the systematic relationships among such practices. The field also lacked a unifying paradigm.

HRM developed in response to the substantial increase in competitive pressures American business organizations began experiencing by the late 1970s as a result of such factors as globalization, deregulation, and

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