Free Essay

Implication of Outsider Drama

In: Social Issues

Submitted By fazellah
Words 666
Pages 3
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1. Background of Study

According to the Wendy Karen Mages (2008), drama is something that inherently possesses the characteristics and play in the television station.

While for the drama practitioners, according to the Fox (1987), Heathcote (1984) McCaslin (1996) and O'Neill & Lambert(1982) its contend that drama promotes development and note that drama is particularly beneficial for fostering language development.

Davis and Behm (1987) explain that the spectrum of activities involving children and the drama/theatre is established on the classic definitions of drama (a thing done) and theatre (to gaze on). The natural dramatic propensities of children, located at the far left on the continuum, are seen to be the bases of, and to infuse, all the forms of drama and theatre. Jyoti thottam says that, a typical telenovela which is an example of drama is that runs daily for months could require more than 100 episodes, in contrast to two dozen weekly episodes for a season of a prime-time network drama.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Television Drama

Television dramas will force networks and viewers to change their habits. Love, betrayal and cleavage all have starring roles in the plot of a typical of television drama which make people love to watch it. Jyoti Thottam(2006).
Telenevola An Example Of Drama A typical telenovela that runs daily for months could require more than 100 episodes, in contrast to two dozen weekly episodes for a season of a prime-time network drama. Jyoti Thottam(2006). With so many episodes to produce, telenovela are shot on the cheap. They use video, not film, and an entire run might take place on just a handful of sets. Jyoti Thottam(2006).
Malaysian Drama The term Malaysian drama could simply mean drama written by Malaysians in any language. (Nur Niha Zuhra) (1999). Since its inception during the 1930s, modern Malay drama has evolved through three major phases which is drama, modern drama, and also experimental theatre. (Nanney, Nancy Kathleen) (1983) Each phase was affected by important political, social, economic, cultural, and educational factors present in Malaysia and manifests distinctive characteristics of theme, character, dramatic structure, and performance style. (Nanney, Nancy Kathleen) (1983) Drama playwrights reacted against the embellishments, interludes, and improvisational techniques of bangsawan, which is a commercial theatre form popular during the first half of this century. Drama themes deal mainly with historical subject matter and contemporary life and contributed to the cause of Malay nationalism during the 1950s. Characters are mortal beings, often of a stereotypic or symbolic nature. Stylistically, drama playwrights were inspired by Shakespeare and the Greek tragedies ad modified certain conventions of bangsawan and traditional theatre. At the same time, drama plays reflect an overall trend toward realism. (Nanney, Nancy Kathleen) (1983) While for the modern drama, the playwrights pursued a stricter course of realistic drama than found in drama. Their works address the problematic consequences of progress during the 1960s post-Independence era of nation-building. Characters are drawn from everyday life and speak colloquial Malay language. The dramatic form is modeled on Indonesian and Western realistic plays. Early modern drama tends to be critical but optimistic; these works set the standard for the period. Later in the period, certain atypical plays are more open-ended, pluralistic, and less optimistic. (Nanney, Nancy Kathleen) (1983) Lastly, for the experimental theatre, it was a reaction against realism and the idea that theatre should be an illusion of real life. Themes address not only social issues, but existential and universal concerns and the nature of drama itself. Characters are drawn from local history and legends, along with contemporary life. They are not bound to the demands of realistic portrayal. Dreams, illusions, fantasy, visions, and death feature prominently in many 1970s plays. Staging is abstract, and playwrights often experiment with traditional theatre forms. Experimental theatre reflects the 1970s era of increased governmental policy-making in the social, cultural, and economic spheres of Malaysian life. (Nanney, Nancy Kathleen) (1983).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Age of Innocence

...Laboratory but Affettuoso Naturalism in literature, still popular and widely appreciated nowadays, is a crucial part of the evolution of American literature. In this essay, I’ll explain naturalism from my point of view by referring to some information I found and analyze a few clips of The Age of Innocence in depth to seek the naturalistic technique in it. Naturalism, a prominent literary movement in the mid-19th-century France, spread all its way to many countries’ literature circle and exerted profound effect on the development of the later literature. It is a completely different tune from literally realism while it provided warm-bed for the emergence of the later literal category, temporary literature in America. Though it didn’t last for a long time, plus no systematic formula for it was created, its influence and how popular it was with the readers and critics can be easily seen nowadays. As one of the most well-known naturalists, Zola, once said, “Naturalism, in literature…is the return to nature and to man, direct observation, correct anatomy, the acceptance and the depiction of that which is. The task is the same for the scientist as for the writer. Both have to abandon abstractions for realities, ready-made formulas for rigorous analysis. Hence no more abstract characters in our words, no more history of everyone, the web and woof of the daily life…” We could clearly see that naturalists tend to depict the society and people in the most objective way, trying......

Words: 2253 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Integration Paper on: “Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight” Clifford Geertz

... 04 September 2013 Integration Paper on: “Deep play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight” CLIFFORD GEERTZ Clifford Geertz in his article entitled “Deep play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight”, uses interpretative analysis in the context of cultures as symbolic systems or a set of texts consisting of practices which create shared cultural meaning that is to be read by the anthropologist. Using direct observation of cockfighting and its significance within Balinese society, Geertz makes assertions of its symbolic meaning and relation to Balinese culture, concentrating largely on its social implications and masculine symbolism. To the outsider, one may mistakenly see Balinese cockfighting as simply placing a bet on an animal fight like many other sports concerning animal matches, but there is more to the cockfighting tradition than just that. Cockfighting was firstly shown more than a sport and somewhat of a rite of passage into the Balinese social group/life when an incident concerning Geertz, along with the community, runs away during a police raid of an illegal cockfight instead of simply pulling out their papers and asserting their Distinguished Visitor status. Geertz, before this incident, was treated, along with his wife, as if they were but ghosts in the village that they were observing, thus he portrays this incident as the juncture of his......

Words: 2295 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Uuytuuyiiuo

...The theory of individualism/collectivism developed by Harry Triandis (1990, 1995) emphasizes individual differences and cross-cultural differences in many of the same tendencies discussed by social identity theory. The theory of individualism/collectivism describes cross-cultural differences in the extent to which emphasis is placed on the goals and needs of the in group rather than on individual rights and interests. For individuals highly predisposed to collectivism, ingroup norms and the duty to cooperate and subordinate individual goals to the needs of the group are paramount. Collectivist cultures are characterized by social embeddedness in a network of extended kinship relationships. Such cultures develop an “unquestioned attachment” to the ingroup, including “the perception that ingroup norms are universally valid (a form of ethnocentrism), automatic obedience to ingroup authorities [i.e., authoritarianism], and willingness to fight and die for the ingroup. These characteristics are usually associated with distrust of and unwillingness to cooperate with outgroups” (Triandis, 1990:55); collectivist cultures are more prone to ingroup bias (Heine and Lehman, 1997; Triandis and Trafimow, 2001). Like social identity processes, tendencies toward collectivism are exacerbated in times of external threat, again suggesting that the tendency toward collectivism is a facultative response that evolved as a mechanism of between-group conflict. Groups: Process &......

Words: 3243 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Are the Media the 'Terrorists Best Friends' (Laqueur 1976)

...Are the media the “terrorists’ best friends”? (Laqueur, 1976) This essay will propose that the media coverage of acts of terror occurs for the main purpose of reporting on the news, it heightens the public’s awareness of such incidents and aids in counterterrorism, thus having a detrimental effect on the terrorists and their cause. Laqueur’s statement that the media are the terrorists’ best friends implies that their coverage of terrorism aids the terrorists. We will examine and disprove the hypotheses that coverage of terrorism in the media, and the publicity and attention terrorists gain through media reporting of their acts of terror are beneficial to their cause. For the purposes of this essay media will be used as a “…generic term meaning all the methods or channels of information and entertainment” (P.Wilkinson, 1997:51) and as found within majority of the theories and concepts discussed, the term terrorism, and therefore terrorist, is used to describe violence carried out in the name of a political, ideological or racial cause by a person who wishes to influence the government and, or, intimidate the public. (www.mi5.gov.uk) Terrorism is a psychological weapon (P.Wilkinson, 1997:54), which is dependent upon communication of its threat. The easiest way terrorists can disseminate their messages of threat is through the manipulation of the media. When using the media, the terrorists’ have four core objectives; communicate propaganda; mobilise support from the......

Words: 3143 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Racism Jealousy, and a Doomed Marriage in Othello

...Racism Jealousy, and a Doomed Marriage in Othello Almost everyone, in his or her lifetime, may experience alienation or racism at least one time. In the play Othello by William Shakespeare, Othello has done a considerable amount for the city of Venice in which he lives whether it is his military victories or other services he has for the city. However, during the time of the play, which is the very early 17th century, minorities were irrelevant and ignored by many on society. Despite the role of a minority in the time, Othello is a black man who rises to power as a general in the military and is respected by the other white people in power. However when he marries a young beautiful woman named Desdemona, who is the daughter of Senator Barbantio, the effects of racism are in full effect. Characters get jealous and use his race as a means of trying to break up the marriage of Othello and Desdemona. Othello is known as the Moor and is called the name by other characters in the play, which signal that he is from African decent. In Othello, the conflict of racism toward a minority ultimately ends up in the ending of the marriage in a tragic way. The play, Othello, is concerned with one of the major anticipated disgraces and embarrassments of Western Civilization and tradition, i.e. the martial union of a black man and a white woman of superior social status (Toker 31). Once the marriage between Desdemona and Othello was complete, the man who was once respected by......

Words: 2246 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Medea

...MEDEA Part 1 Analysis The first purpose of this section is to offer background information for the action about to unfold. It's important to note that at the time the play was first produced, most people in the audience would have known the story of Medea and Jason when they came into the theatre. The myth was part of Greece's cultural and societal heritage. The interest in coming to the theatre, for the Greeks, was to see how the playwright illuminated larger questions of human existence by telling the story in his particular way. This particular playwright's viewpoint appears in the conversation between the Tutor and the Nurse, specifically the Tutor's reference to selfishness ("everyone loves himself more than his neighbor"). The two main characters in this play, Medea and Jason, are models of selfishness. Both of them are concerned with meeting their own needs, acting on their own desires and doing what they think is right without any consideration for anyone else. They both take their selfishness to extremes. Jason leaves his wife for a younger, prettier and richer woman just because he wants to, and the excuses he gives for doing so in Part 2 are just that - excuses. Medea sacrifices four innocent lives because she so desperately wants to cause Jason pain. The question of whether she's justified in that desire will be examined later. Note that this is a different question from whether she's justified in killing her children. The Chorus functions in a similar...

Words: 2472 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Mnasd

...Specimen Papers and Mark Schemes for English Literature For first AS Examination in 2009 For first A2 Examination in 2010 Subject Code: 5110 Contents Specimen Papers Assessment Unit AS 2 Assessment Unit A2 1 Resource Booklet Assessment Unit A2 2 1 3 9 15 25 Mark Schemes Assessment Unit AS 2 Assessment Unit A2 1 Assessment Unit A2 2 29 31 61 95 Subject Code QAN QAN 5110 500/2493/0 500/2421/8 A CCEA Publication © 2007 Further copies of this publication may be downloaded from www.ccea.org.uk Specimen Papers 1 2 ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education 2009 English Literature Assessment Unit AS 2 assessing The Study of Poetry Written after 1800 and the Study of Prose 1800-1945 SPECIMEN PAPER TIME 2 hours INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Write your Centre number and Candidate Number on the Answer Booklet provided. Answer two questions. Answer one question from Section A and one question from Section B. Section A is open book. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The total mark for this paper is 120. All questions carry equal marks, ie 60 marks for each question. Quality of written communication will be assessed in all questions. 3 Section A: The Study of Poetry Written after 1800 Answer one question on your chosen pairing of poets. Heaney: Opened Ground Montague: New Selected Poems 1 John Montague and Seamus Heaney both write about the Irish past. Compare and contrast the two......

Words: 25332 - Pages: 102

Premium Essay

Childhood Emotions

...|CHILDHOOD EMOTIONS | | | |ESSAY-01 | | | |7/23/2009 | | | |Ms Riddhita Shah | ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LETTER THIS IS TO ACKNOWLEDGE THANKS TO MY RESPECTED GUIDE DR IMTIYAZ SIR FOR HIS INVALUABLE GUIDANCE, HELP, ENCOURAGEMENT FOR COMPLETING MY ESSAY -01 IN SUBJECT SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY IN ITS CURRENT FORM. THANKING YOU YOURS SINCERELY (Ms RIDDHITA SHAH ) ID NUMBER :- JUPG009SP105. SUBJECT NAME:- SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY COURSE NAME:- PG DIPLOMA IS SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY NAME OF INSTITUTION:- IHMH Chapter 8 :- Development of Emotions INTRODUCTION: Emotion is the magic word that makes human life dynamic and makes him a multi-colored shell on the shore of......

Words: 2953 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Mass Communication and Para-Sicial Interaction

...Mass Communication and Para-social Interaction Donald Horton and R. Richard Wohl Extract from Horton, Donald and R. Richard Wohl (1956): 'Mass Communication and Para-social Interaction: Observations on Intimacy at a Distance', Psychiatry 19: 215-29 This is a classic paper which is very widely cited but hard to locate. It introduced the notion of 'parasocial interaction' between viewers and those whom they watch on the television screen. Although the paper is now very old it is useful to reflect on current television programmes to consider the relevance of Horton and Wohl's observations. The original page numbering has been noted to facilitate citation. Please refer to the pagination provided and the source shown above (Horton and Wohl 1956) rather than citing this online extract. [start of p. 215] One of the striking characteristics of the new mass media - radio, television, and the movies - is that they give the illusion of face-to-face relationship with the performer. The conditions of response to the performer are analogous to those in a primary group. The most remote and illustrious men are met as if they were in the circle of one's peers; the same is true of a character in a story who comes to life in these media in an especially vivid and arresting way. We propose to call this seeming face-to-face relationship between spectator and performer a para-social relationship. In television, especially, the image which is presented makes available nuances of......

Words: 6814 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Aavvvvvvva

...education had not prepared him for it. Despite his mother’s attempts to get him to return to Catholic Church, Joyce remained unmoved even after her death. Joyce studied at Clongowes Wood College from 1888 until 1892. When the family’s financial state devolved, Joyce had to leave the school. After a brief time at Christian Brothers School, Joyce was enrolled at Belvedere College in 1893. In 1898, Joyce began studying Italian, English and French at University College Dublin. At this time, Joyce also began his entry into the artistic life of Dublin. His literary reviews appeared in Fortnightly Review. His review of Henrik Ibsen received a positive personal response from Ibsen himself. In addition to his reviews, he also wrote some pieces of drama that have since been lost. The writings of James Joyce include Chamber Music, Dubliners, The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses, Exiles, Finnegan’s Wake. 1914...

Words: 9723 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Redemption as a Means to Salvation

...Redemption as a means to Salvation Is the story of Jesus mainly about his death and a life that leads to it, or is the story of Jesus mainly about his life and a death that flows from it? On one view, it hardly matters: these are just two ways of looking at the same thing. On a more combative view, the difference is as great as night and day. Does the cross belong on the sleeves (and hearts) of Christians, as the glorious core of their faith, or does it belong in the repair shop, in need of drastic repairs, the primary Christian embarrassment for believers and an offense to outsiders? The disagreement is not over Jesus’ death as a fact. Both sides largely agree about the reality and circumstances of the crucifixion and, for that matter, of the resurrection. At least, the disagreement within one side on these issues is as great as the disagreement between the sides. No, the conflict revolves around a theology of the cross, a theology that says Jesus’ death is the supreme saving act, and that the equation of guilt, punishment and grace worked out through the execution of the innocent, divine victim in place of a rightly condemned humanity provides the essential sum of Christianity itself. This theology is composed of many elements in scripture and tradition -- references to Jesus’ death as a sacrifice, ideas of redemptive suffering, and a deep tradition of eucharistic remembrance that Jesus died "for us." These elements appear in all branches and eras of Christian......

Words: 2873 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Cross Culture

...Cultural diversity in Britain A toolkit for cross-cultural co-operation Phil Wood, Charles Landry and Jude Bloomfield With the current debate about ‘multiculturalism’, this study sets out a new approach to cultural diversity. It explores ways of unlocking the potential in diversity and identifies strategies to aid greater exchange between different cultural groups. The authors examine the connections between cultural diversity, innovation and thriving, prosperous urban communities, in relation to the economic, social and cultural mix of Britain’s population. They developed tools to harness the potential of diverse communities, and their powers of innovation, for use by policymakers, planners and practitioners. These include a set of indicators of openness to check the readiness of a city to take advantage of diversity, and the intercultural lens through which professionals can examine the familiar in a new light. The study evaluated six aspects of local activity: public consultation and engagement urban planning and development business and entrepreneurship schools the arts and creative industries sport. The project went further by helping participating cities to develop specific economic, social, cultural and planning policies and so to become role models for others. The study draws on local case studies and in-depth interviews with 33 intercultural innovators in seven UK cities, with comparative analysis also conducted in Europe, North America and Australasia. It is......

Words: 31833 - Pages: 128

Free Essay

States

...States 1 Caught in a meager, anonymous space outside a drab Arab city, outside a refugee camp, outside the crushing time of one disaster after another, a wedding party stands, surprised, sad, slightly uncomfortable. Palestinians — the telltale mixture of styles and attitudes is so evidently theirs — near Tripoli in northern Lebanon. A few months after this picture was taken their camp was ravaged by intra-Palestinian fighting. Cutting across the wedding party’s path here is the ever-present Mercedes, emblazoned with its extra mark of authenticity, the proud D for Deutschland. A rare luxury in the West, the Mercedes — usually secondhand and smuggled in — is the commonest of cars in the Levant. It has become what horse, mule, and camel were, and then much more. Universal taxi, it is a symbol of modern technology domesticated, of the intrusion of the West into traditional life, of illicit trade. More important, the Mercedes is the all-purpose conveyance, something one uses for everything — funerals, weddings, births, proud display, leaving home, coming home, fixing, stealing, reselling, running away in, hiding in. But because Palestinians have no state of their own to shield them, the Mercedes, its provenance and destination obscure, seems like an intruder, a delegate of the forces that both dislocate and hem them in. “The earth is closing on us, pushing us through the last passage,” writes the poet Mahmoud Darwish. Tripoli, Badawi camp, May 1983. 2 The paradox of......

Words: 8577 - Pages: 35

Free Essay

Tadition and Modernity

...innovation for individuals and groups; Tradition functions, partly and at times largely, as a mythological state which produces the sensation of larger connectedness and stability in the face of shockingly massive social change over the last half-century. One might also say that Modernity is an economic force with social, cultural, and political correlatives; Tradition is a cultural force with social, economic, and political correlatives. Satisfyingly asymmetrical in their relation, they require us, in talking of one, to talk also of the other, just as they induce us to move as nimbly as possible between theoretical abstraction and experiential reality. But their separation is itself part of the mythological drama in current Indian thought, just as their mutual implication is the import of the same ironic smile that brings to an effective close any conversation one hears here about them. And so we take them in turn only, finally, to see them speaking to each other through the lives of acquaintances, informants, and fictional protagonists. Tradition: what is this nonwestern culture? It is a very western question to ask what is the Indian tradition, and finally we will shift to the more pertinent question of what Tradition in fact does. To play the two questions against each other, however, may be the most...

Words: 21056 - Pages: 85

Premium Essay

Is Television Addictive

...Abstract This study explores how and why people get addicted to television using a survey asking people about their viewing habits, and getting their opinions on television and television programs. It will explore topics such as why people watch television, what types of programs people watch, and how much television people watch on average. The study will define addiction through people's answers in the survey, if they think of themselves as television addicts, and what individuals want to get out of watching television (social interaction or to escape reality for a brief period.) The interviewees will add insight into the direction of the study and they will define television addiction and the level of television that will be a concern (addiction). Through the study more than half the subjects agreed that television has addicting powers, but it lacks withdrawal affects and it doesn't cause harm instantly it should be classified separately from other addictions. Through the results of the study were not conclusive. The people who thought of themselves as addicted the types of programs they watched varied along with their backgrounds. Further studies will have to be done to draw any correlations. Introduction With the amount of television stations broadcasting in the United States alone, there is no lack of programming or genre to watch. With how society views television as a norm and how individuals watch television every day it is important to understand why......

Words: 4668 - Pages: 19