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Mecanisme de Defense

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Dollyazzi
Words 769
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Mécanisme 1 : Activisme
Gestion des conflits psychiques ou des situations traumatiques externes, par le recours à l’action, à la place de la réflexion ou du vécu des affects.
Mécanisme 2 : Affiliation
Recherche d’aide et soutien d’autrui quand on vit une situation qui engendre de l’angoisse.
Mécanisme 3 : Affirmation de soi par expression des sentiments
En proie à un conflit émotionnel ou à un événement extérieur stressant, la personne qui utilise ce mécanisme de défense communique sans détour sentiments et pensées, d’une façon qui n’est ni agressive ni manipulatrice.
Mécanisme 4 : Altruisme
Dévouement à autrui qui perme au sujet d’échapper à un conflit.
Mécanisme 8 : Clivage
Action de séparation, de division du Moi (clivage du moi), ou l’objet (clivage de l’objet) sous l’influence angoissante d’une menace, de façon à faire coexister les deux parties ainsi séparées qui se méconnaissent sans formation de compromis possible.
Mécanisme 10 : Dénégation * Refus de connaître comme siens, immédiatement après les avoir formulés, une pensée, un désir, un sentiment qui sont source de conflit ; * Refus par le sujet d’une interprétation exacte le concernant, formulée pas un interlocuteur.

Mécanisme 11 : Déni
Action de refuser la réalité d’une perception vécue comme dangereuse ou douloureuse pour le moi.
Mécanisme 13 : Humour
Consiste à présenter une situation vécue comme traumatisante de manière à en dégager les aspects plaisants, ironiques, insolites. C’est le cas seulement (humour appliqué à soi même) qu’il peut être considéré comme un mécanisme de défense.
Mécanisme 14 : Identification
Assimilation inconsciente, sous l’effet du plaisir libidinal et/ou de l’angoisse, d’un aspect, d’une propriété, d’un attribut de l’autre, qui conduit le sujet, par similitude réelle ou imaginaire, à une transformation totale ou partielle sur le modèle de celui auquel il s’identifie. L’identification est un mode de relation au monde constitutif de l’identité.
Mécanisme 19 : Isolation
Le terme isolation recouvre deux sens. Il peut désigner : * Une élimination de l’affect lié à une représentation (souvenir, idée, pensée) conflictuelle, alors que la représentation en question reste consciente ; * Une séparation artificielle entre deux pensées ou deux comportements qui en réalité sont liés, leur relation ne pouvant être reconnue sans angoisse par la personne.

Mécanisme 20 : Mise à l’écart
Tentative de rejet volontaire, hors du champ de la conscience, de problèmes, désirs, sentiments, ou expériences qui tourmentent ou inquiètent un sujet.
Mécanisme 21 : Projection
Opération par laquelle le sujet expulse dans le monde extérieur des pensées, affects, désirs qu’il méconnait ou refuse en lui et qu’il attribue à d’autres, personnes ou choses de son environnement.
Mécanisme 22 : Rationalisation
Justification logique, mais artificielle, qui camoufle, à l’insu de celui qui l’utilise, les vrais motifs (irrationnels et inconscients) de certains de ses jugements, de ses conduites, de ses sentiments, car ces motifs véritables ne pourraient être reconnus sans anxiété.
Mécanisme 23 : Refoulement
Rejet dans l’inconscient de représentations conflictuelles qui demeurent actives, tout en étant inaccessibles à la prise de conscience. Le retour du refoulé, dont les conséquences peuvent être anodines ou pathologiques, intervient en cas d’échec ou d’insuffisance du refoulement.
Mécanisme 24 : Refuge dans la rêverie
Mécanisme qui consiste en un recours – dans une situations de conflit psychologique ou lorsque le sujet est confronté à des facteurs stressants – à une rêverie diurne excessive se substituant à la poursuite de relations interpersonnelles à une action en principe plus efficace ou à la résolution des problèmes.
Mécanisme 25 : Régression
Retour – plus ou moins organisé et transitoire – à des modes d’expression antérieurs de la pensée, de conduites ou des relations objectales, face à un danger interne ou externe susceptible de provoquer un excès d’angoisse ou de frustration.
Mécanisme 26 : Renversement dans le contraire
Mécanisme où une pulsion conflictuelle est, non seulement refoulée, mais aussi remplacée par la pulsion opposée.
Mécanisme 27 : Retournement contre soi-même
Refus inconscient par un sujet de sa propre agressivité, qu’il détourne d’autrui pour la reporter contre lui même. Ce mécanisme de défense peut être à la source de sentiments de culpabilité, d’un besoin de punition, d’une névrose d’échec, de tentative d’autodestruction.
Mécanisme 28 : Retrait apathique
Détachement protecteur, fait d’indifférence affective, de restriction des relations sociales et des activités extérieures, et de soumission passive aux événements, qui permet à une personne de supporter une situation très difficile.
Mécanisme 29: Sublimation * désexualisation d’une pulsion s’adressant à une personne qui pourrait (ou qui a pu) être désirée sexuellement. La pulsion, transformée en tendresse ou en amitié, change de but, mais son objet reste le même ; * dérivation de l’énergie d’une pulsion sexuelle ou agressive vers des activités valorisées socialement (artistiques, intellectuelles, morales). La pulsion se détourne alors de son objet et de son but (érotique ou agressif) primitifs, mais sans être refoulée. C’est le plus habituel.

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