Free Essay

Objective Selection

In: Science

Submitted By tadao
Words 4530
Pages 19
Objective selection criteria and mating strategy of indigenous Nguni cattle under low-input in-situ conservation programs

O Tadaa*, V Muchenjeb and K Dzamac aDepartment of Animal Production and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi, South Africa. bDepartment of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. cDepartment of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P. Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
*Corresponding Author: Tel: +263 772 116 441, Email:


Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques were employed to determine the breeding objectives of Nguni cattle under community-based management of indigenous livestock genetic resources. Six groups each composed of nine representative farmers from communal and small-scale conservation enterprises participated in deriving the objective selection criteria of breeding animals using data on economic weights of preferential traits. The shuffled focus groups brainstormed on the mating strategy and management of breeding animals within low-input conservation enterprises. An economic-weight dependent culling method (EWCM) and two-tier open nucleus breeding scheme were conceptualized. The Nguni breeding animals ideally need to maintain optimum body condition score (4 - 6) and low tick counts across seasons under low-input production system. The indigenous breeding bulls need to have high reproductive efficiency while breeding cows must have calved before reaching 27 month age. The farmers set a two-and-half-year service period of breeding bulls in the in-situ conservation enterprise before culling. Farmers are recommended to objectively assess breeding animals and maintain an updated performance data and information recording system.

Keywords: economic weight-dependent culling, focus group discussion, preferred traits, two-tier open nucleus breeding


Quantification of the levels of economic benefit associated with growth, fertility and adaptability traits expressed by farmed livestock has been a central issue in the development of breeding objectives (Roessler et al., 2008; Kassie et al., 2010). Furthermore, it was noted that in developing countries where animal production is still mostly subsistence-oriented and livestock fulfil many functions (Tada et al., 2012), a considerable number of breeding programs have failed due to lack of smallholders' participation in the planning and designing phase (Kosgey et al., 2006). This necessitates the input of the rural cattle producers in formulating the breeding objectives of a conservation program intended to benefit them.

The in-situ conservation program of the indigenous Nguni cattle, pioneered by the University of Fort Hare, has been in place for two cattle generations (6-7 years) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Efforts by the Industrial Development Cooperation, Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform and other academic institutions resulted in active participation of other provinces in preserving the Nguni cattle (IDC, 2010). A high number of young bullocks are erupting in the conservation enterprises because of the balanced birth sex ratio observed by Tada et al. (2013a). This also resulted in a high ratio of breeding male to breeding female animals (17%) and a high bulling rate in communal and small-scale conservation enterprises (Tada et al., 2013a). A selection model based on the knowledge of the farmers on preferential traits is justified to identify potential productive young breeding bulls for marketing within and outside the rural areas. Selection is possible because genetic and phenotypic variation exist as observed in other studies on health, reproductivity, growth and adaptability of this indigenous breed (Reed, 2008; Nqeno et al., 2010; Scholtz and Theunissen, 2010).

The low-input Nguni conservation enterprises are characterised by random mating and a high inbreeding rate has been postulated (Mapiye et al., 2009; Tada et al., 2012). A proper mating strategy may address these breeding concerns as well as other effects of low effective population sizes so as to sustainably maintain the overall goal of community-based in-situ conservation of the indigenous cattle. Some schools of thought had long established that improving food security and alleviating poverty through the conservation of farm animal genetic resources in Africa, as well as utilization of local farm animal populations depends on the ability of communities to decide on and implement appropriate breeding strategies (Wollny, 2003; Gizaw et al., 2010). The selection criteria can be influenced by socio-economic and biophysical conditions of an area. Hence, different communities may have different criteria or same criteria but different strengths of selection parameters. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine a farmer-derived selection criteria and mating strategy for young breeding Nguni cattle under low-input production systems. It was hypothesized that, given the proper tools, low-input Nguni cattle farmers are able to make recommendations on the breeding objectives of their enterprises.

Materials and Methods

Description of the study sites and selection of participants
The study was conducted in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa in form of a group discussion with 54 farmers from 54 Nguni cattle conservation enterprises representing 75% of the target population. The farmers who participated in the preliminary study on the use of choice experiments to determine economic weights of most preferred traits in young breeding Nguni animals were considered (Tada et al., 2013b). Thirty participants represented communal enterprises while 24 were from small-scale enterprises. The criteria involved selecting a representative farmer, literate and willing to implement cattle recording system. Farmers were first exposed to interactive discussions on the value of animal records, traits of economic importance and recording.

Data and information collection
Focus group discussions were used to elicit responses from the farmers on the derivation of the selection model and mating strategy of breeding animals. The discussions were conducted in Xhosa vernacular. Six groups of nine individuals each were randomly created composed of five and four farmers representing communal and small-scale enterprises, respectively. The small-scale enterprises were defined as livestock holdings with less than 100ha farm sizes and not exceeding 500 cattle. With the assistance of trained moderators, groups of farmers were presented with economic weights and values of the most preferred trait levels from the previous study involving choice experiments (Table 1 and 2) (refer to Tada et al., 2013b). The traits used in the study were; tick infestation (TI), body condition score (BCS), aggression and mating behaviour (AMB) of bulls, and age at first calving (AFC) of cows.

Table 1 Estimates of economic weights and values of traits level in young breeding Nguni bulls
|Trait Level |Economic |p-value |Economic values |
| |weight ± s.e | | |
|Poor Body Condition Score (1 - 3) |-0.987±0.095 |p < 0.05 |-R8 494.00 |
|Good Body Condition Score (4 - 6) |0.447±0.073 |p < 0.05 |R3 849.00 |
|Over Body Condition Score (7 - 9) |Base level |R4 645.00 |
|Low Tick Infestation (visible ticks < 10) |0.573±0.103 |p < 0.05 |R4 927.00 |
|Medium Tick Infestation (tick count of 10 - 30) |0.581±0.084 |p < 0.05 |R5 001.00 |
|High Tick Infestation (tick count of > 30) |Base level |-R9 928.00 |
|High Aggression and Mating Behavior |4.408±0.095 |p < 0.05 |R37 939.00 |
|Average Aggression and Mating Behavior |2.534±0.094 |p < 0.05 |R21 807.00 |
|Low Aggression and Mating Behavior |Base level |-R59 746.00 |
|Price |-0.001±0.0017 |p < 0.05 | |
|Constant |10.106±0.375 |p < 0.05 | |

NB: Economic value of trait level used as a base is zero (0). US$1.00 = R7.80 (South Africa Reserve Bank, 2011

Table 2 Estimates of economic weights and values of traits level in first parity Nguni cows
|Trait Level |Economic |p-value |Economic value |
| |weight ± s.e | | |
|Poor Body Condition Score (1 - 3) |-0.057±0.055 |p> 0.05 |-R 413.00 |
|Good Body Condition Score (4 - 6) |1.080±0.061 |p< 0.05 |R7 834.00 |
|Over Body Condition Score (7 - 9) |Base level |-R7 421.00 |
|Low Tick Infestation (visible ticks < 10) |1.496±0.059 |p < 0.05 |R10 859.00 |
|Medium Tick Infestation (tick count of 10 - 30) |0.829±0.067 |p < 0.05 |R6 015.00 |
|High Tick Infestation (tick count of > 30) |Base level |-R16 874.00 |
|Age at First Calving ≤ 27 months |2.368±0.068 |p < 0.05 |R17 185.00 |
|Age at First Calving 27 – 36 months |1.303±0.076 |p < 0.05 |R9 454.00 |
|Age at First Calving > 36 months |Base level |-R26 638.00 |
|Price |-0.001±0.0002 |p < 0.05 | |
|Constant |8.973±0.310 |p < 0.05 | |

NB: Economic value of trait level used as a base is zero (0). US$1.00 = R7.80 (South Africa Reserve Bank, 2011).

The group activity involved the objective determination of trait levels that brings the most perceived retains to the enterprise. An independent culling method was “modified” to an Economic Weight-dependent Culling Method (EWCM). The EWCM caters for only the positive and significant economic weights of trait levels in the selection criteria for the breeding animals. Ranking according to the part worth values was done in descending order on the trait levels under consideration. The group activity also involved discussions on the economically acceptable threshold trait level to be included in the selection model. The effect of the seasonal differences on body condition scores and tick infestation challenge were also discussed by the farmers. Each group made a short presentation of their task to all the participants.

Derivation of a mating strategy was achieved through another interactive discussion with randomly shuffled group members. Each group behaved as Nguni conservation enterprise and needed to; (1) identify sources of breeding stock, (2) determine the duration of the breeding bull in the herd, (3) determine methods of identification and culling the breeding animals, and (4) device a sound recording and record keeping system. The groups made a presentation of their work and with the help of the workshop moderator the business linkages were formed between the “Nguni conservation enterprises” i.e. participant focus groups. The linkages between “Nguni conservation enterprises” formed through common sources of breeding stock, record keeping system, and destination of culled animals were the basis of formulating a systematic open-nucleus breeding scheme.

Statistical analyses
All the descriptive statistics of the demographic factors, frequencies of choices, method of cattle identification, duration of breeding bulls in an enterprise, and information on sources of breeding stock, culling and record keeping system were analysed using GenStat 7.2.2 (2008). The trait levels of Nguni breeding cattle were ranked using Kruskal-Wallis test for the order of inclusion in the breeding objective. This was done for the two selection models i.e. first parity cows and young breeding bulls.


A significant majority (>50%) of the farmers were above 50 years of age in both communal and small-scale enterprises. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in the education levels attained by farmers in communal and small-scale enterprises although primary (42%) and secondary education (46%) had significantly high frequencies than college education (12%). It was also observed that 21% of the respondents were females while 79% were males.

Criteria of selecting young breeding Nguni bulls
The criteria of selecting young breeding Nguni bulls were farmer-derived and followed an economic weight-dependent culling method (EWCM) in three steps as explained below and illustrated schematically on Figure 1;
Step One: The young Nguni bulls need to have a high score on Aggressiveness and Mating Behavior (AMB). A medium AMB score is only acceptable given that Tick Infestation (TI) score is low and the Body Condition Score (BCS) is good i.e. 4 to 6 on a scale of 1 to 9.

Step Two: The TI score need to be medium or low depending on the season where a medium score may be acceptable under hot-wet and post-rain season unlike during the hot-dry and cold-dry season.

Step Three: The acceptable BCS need to be in the range of 4 to 6 depending on the season where a score of 4 is acceptable during the hot-dry and cold-dry season, and a score of 6 in the post rain and hot-wet season.

Criteria of selecting first parity breeding Nguni cows
The criteria followed a three-step procedure presented below and schematically on Figure 2.
Step One: The age at first calving need to be less than 27 months. First-calvers of 27 – 36 months are acceptable only if the TI is low and the BCS is good (4 – 6).

Step Two: The TI need to be low. A medium score of TI is only acceptable (a) in the hot-wet and post-rain season, (b) when the age at first calving is below 27 months and (c) the BCS is 4 – 6 depending on the season i.e. a score of 4 is acceptable during the hot-dry and cold-dry season, and a score of 6 in the post rain and hot-wet season.

Step Three: The acceptable BCS need to be in the range of 4 to 6 depending on the season with a score of 4 is acceptable during the hot-dry and cold-dry season, and a score of 6 in the post rain and hot-wet season.


Figure 1 Selection criteria of young breeding Nguni bulls in communal conservation enterprises


Figure 2 Selection criteria of first parity breeding Nguni cows in communal conservation enterprises

Mating strategy and management of Nguni cattle conservation enterprises
The farmers concurred on a two-tier open-nucleus breeding scheme with a minimum of three enterprises as a mating strategy of the in-situ conservation program. The linkages were formed from common sources of breeding stock. The schematic representation of the breeding scheme is in Figure 3. A continuous breeding season was also highlighted by all farmers. The maximum service period of the breeding bull in the herd of an enterprise was set at two-and-half years.

Furthermore, to increase the accuracy of selection, branding was the method of identification favoured by most farmers (86%) while others preferred ear-tagging (14%). Farmers agreed when culling the breeding animal to follow the selection criteria of an economic weight-dependent culling method (EWCM) (Figure 1 and 2). All the farmers (100%) indicated a need for a sound record keeping system in form of a booklet in order to implement the selection criteria and mating strategy. The data and information to be captured include; pedigree, sex, phenotypic characteristics, husbandry practices, animal dynamics, reproductive efficiency, and product quantification (Figure 4).


The communal low-input Nguni cattle production is characterised by lack of pedigree records and standard performance data, and information recording (Mapiye et al., 2009; Tada et al., 2012). This makes it difficult to compute genetic parameters (i.e. phenotypic and additive genetic variances and covariances) of the preferred traits by the farmers in the hope of coming up with a selection index. The independent culling level method was modified to cater for the limitation of relative economic values of traits and trait levels using results from a preliminary study on choice experiment. The culling levels considered were based on positive and significant economic weights to give the name “Economic Weight-dependent Culling Method”. Only three traits were considered in the formulation of the breeding objectives in an effort to maximize genetic progress in any one trait (Hazel and Lush, 1943; Hazel et al., 1994).

Enterprise exists include; Productive breeding bulls (Y), Infertile heifers, cull cows and unproductive breeding bulls (X).
Enterprise entries include; Productive breeding bulls and cows and heifers from genetically distant commercial stud herds (R, S, T e.t.c), and Proven animals from other enterprises (Y).

Figure 3 Schematic representation of the two-tier open nucleus breeding scheme for Nguni cattle conservation enterprises.


Figure 4 Individual animal record sheet for capturing performance data and information

Under smallholder production systems, conventional breeding methods are constrained by absence of individual animal identification and records, low level of literacy, small herd sizes per household and uncontrolled breeding (Mapiye et al., 2009; Tada et al., 2012). To design viable genetic improvement schemes under small-scale sector, the prevailing production conditions and/or systems and production goals must be fully understood. The views of the targeted communities were accounted for through focus group discussions as all farmers had an equal opportunity to express their ideas. Farmers of indigenous Sheko cattle in Ethiopia reported a success story achieved through focus group discussions (Desta et al., 2011). Because breeding and conservation programs are becoming increasingly cognisant of factors such as sustainability with many intangible benefits, the views of the farmers were considered very crucial in this low-input conservation system. Though the majority of farmers indicated preference for branding their cattle as a way of identification, this may be because it is a cheaper method compared to ear-tags and the reading is visible from a distant. This is important to the rural enterprises as it limits labour use and injuries associated with handling untamed cattle. Consideration of preferential traits that farmers understand, easily measure and record as well as derive direct economic value is seen as a way to increase the accuracy of selection on those traits and overall genetic progress.

The involvement of farmers in the determination of the EWCM and a two-tier open nucleus mating strategy in upgrading the rural livestock and in-situ conservation of Nguni cattle is an approach to increase the adoption level of the intervention. It has been established that livestock development interventions in the smallholder sector of developing countries had been missing the farmer participatory component (Wollny, 2003; Kosgey et al., 2006; Roessler et al., 2008). Such participation in the planning and design of breeding programs is set to encourage success. In a study conducted by Mapiye et al. (2009) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa in communal and small-scale sector, farmers revealed that adaptability and growth traits are the most treasured traits in selecting beef breeds and breeding stock. Therefore, involving farmers in selecting traits for genetic improvement is a forward step towards the adoption of a breeding model at community level where communal property is in the hands of many.

The use of economically viable traits in the selection criteria has also been reported, through choice experiment procedures, in Vietnam where adaptive and performance traits were preferred particularly in resource-driven/subsistence production systems (Roessler et al., 2008). These findings had similar meaning under this study where reproductive efficiency, tick and disease resistance and animal body condition have positive implications on the breeding objectives.

Animal performance recording systems have been known for long to affect genetic improvement programs (Kahi et al., 2003). An establishment of performance data and information recording system for these rural enterprises is seen as a basis of formulating a database for animal evaluation. For accurate performance evaluation in terms of genetic and phenotypic trends, computation of genetic parameters, selection criteria and mating system designs, the cattle records are fundamental. In many cases, breeding programs are only implemented successfully where accurate recording is possible. This accurate record keeping requires money, expertise and a well-developed infrastructure, which is partially or completely lacking in most rural areas of developing countries (Rege et al., 2001). The UFH Nguni cattle restoration program assisted the rural farmers on that regard. In Kenya, nucleus breeding schemes were developed to circumvent the high costs arising from performance recording and selection (Rege et al., 2001). Therefore this open nucleus scheme can be a good strategy for genetic improvement in the rural areas of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa where the expertise and structures required for operating an efficient genetic improvement program are minimal.

Bondoc and Smith (1993) recommended the establishment of two-tier open nucleus breeding systems to maximise genetic improvement, reduce inbreeding rate and reduce the total cost of recording in the participating herds. Open nucleus systems provide approximately 10% more genetic gain than a closed system because there are more animals which are potential candidates for selection. This system has potential to integrate farmers’ resources, reduce overhead costs and encourage more farmer participation (Bondoc and Smith, 1993; Wollny, 2003). The advantages of a two-tier open nucleus include; 1) generation of genetic gain with sire selection as the main activity, 2) movement of bulls from the nucleus to sire progeny in the other communal and or small-scale conservation enterprises, 3) introduction of dams born in the participating enterprises selected objectively on easily and cheaply measured traits, and 4) selection in the participating enterprises i.e. bulls born in the nucleus are used to produce cows and breeding bulls in other genetically distant enterprises while dams in the herds are used to produce both bulls and cows in this and other production systems.

The groups of farmers concurred with each other and set a two-and-half year service period limit for a breeding bull in an enterprise. This was because the average age at first calving of the Nguni breed was observed by the farmers to be 31 months and the breed standards accept 39 months (Nguni Cattle Breeders Society, 2011), an approximate period that would preclude the breeding bull to mate its daughters. The breeding bull would leave the enterprise at the time when its first crop of heifers are about to be serviced. In this way, formation of inbred lines is discouraged as mating is controlled despite the absence of a defined breeding season. Farmers amicably defended the idea of continuous roaming of breeding bulls and breeding cows given the nature of the community resources as well as the difficulty in maintaining camps and separating breeding bulls. Cattle dipping frequency ranged from 1-2 times per month, farmers dipped their cattle more in the hot–wet and hot–dry seasons than the post-rain and cold–dry seasons (Tada et al., 2013a).

Conclusions and Recommendations

Farmers managed to define the enterprise breeding objective in terms of economic-weight dependent culling method and a two-tier open nucleus breeding scheme. The selection method is an improved version of the independent culling method and it is closer to a selection index. The basis of identification of superior breeding animals was the performance records of individual animals using preferential traits that farmers understand, easily measure and see a direct economic value. The farmers set a two-and-half year maximum service period for breeding bulls in an enterprise before exchanging or culling. The farmer-determined breeding objectives form an enabling policy for a sustainable community-based management of indigenous cattle genetic resources. It is recommended for farmers to implement cattle recording system and objectively assess livestock performance. The economic-weight dependent culling method and a two-tier open nucleus breeding schemes are available tools for in-situ conservation of Nguni cattle in the rural enterprises.

The authors are grateful to the farmers under the UFH Nguni Cattle Program in the Eastern Cape Province for cooperation during the study period. The project was funded by Adam Fleming through the Nguni Project Operations (P329) of the University of Fort Hare.


Bondoc, O.L., Smith, C. (1993). Deterministic genetic analysis of open nucleus breeding schemes for dairy cattle in developing countries. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 110: 194 – 208.
Desta, T.T., Ayalew, W., Hegde, B. P. (2011). Breed and trait preferences of Sheko cattle keepers in south-western Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 43(4): 851 – 856.
GenStat Release 7.2. (2008). Discovery Edition 3, VSN International Ltd, UK.
Gizaw, S., Komen, H. and van Arendonk, J.A.M. (2010). Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems. Livestock Science 128 (1): 67 – 74.
Hazel, L.N., Lush, J.L. (1943). The efficiency of three methods of selection. Journal of Heredity 33: 393 - 399.
Hazel, L.N., Dickerson, G.E., Freeman, A.E. (1994). Symposium: Selection index theory. The selection index – Then, now and for the future. Journal of Dairy Science 77: 3236 - 3251.
Industrial Development Cooperation. (2010). IDC Newsletter. Available at Accessed on 21August 2011.
Kahi, A.K., Barwick, S. A., Graser, H.U. (2003). Economic evaluation of Hereford cattle breeding schemes incorporating direct and indirect measures of feed intake. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research 54: 1039 - 1055.
Kassie, G.T., Abdulai, A., Wollny, C. (2010). Implicit Prices of Indigenous Bull Traits in Crop-Livestock Mixed Production Systems of Ethiopia. African Development Review 22 (4): 482 – 494.
Kosgey, I.S., Baker, R.L., Udo, H.M.J., van Arendonk, J.A.M. (2006). Successes and failures of small ruminant breeding programs in the tropics: a review. Small Ruminant Research 61: 13 – 28.
Mapiye, C., Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K., Raats, J.G., Mapekula, M. (2009). Opportunities for improving Nguni cattle production in the smallholder farming systems of South Africa. Livestock Science 124: 196 - 204.
Nguni Cattle Breeders Society. (2011). Nguni 2011 25 Years – Breed from the past for the future. Nguni Cattle Breeders Society. Bloemfontein, South Africa. Page 35.
Nqeno, N., Chimonyo, M., Mapiye, C., Marufu, M.C. (2010). Ovarian activity, conception and pregnancy patterns of cows in the semiarid communal rangelands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Animal Reproductive Science 118: 140 – 147.
Reed, D. (2008). Does size count; in Nguni 2008, Pendulum Visual Communication, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 89.
Rege, J.E.O., Kahi, A.K., Okomo-Adhiambo, M., Mwacharo, J., Hanotte, O. (2001). Zebu cattle of Kenya: Uses, performance, farmer preferences, measures of genetic diversity and options for improved use. Animal Genetic Resources Research 1. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 103 pp. Date accessed: 29 June 2012.
Roessler, R., Drucker, A.G, Scarpa, R., Markemann, A., Lemke, U., Thuy, L.T., Zárate, A.V. (2008). Using choice experiments to assess smallholder farmers' preferences for pig breeding traits in different production systems in North–West Vietnam. Ecological Economics 66: 184 – 192.
Scholtz, M.M., Theunissen, A. (2010). The use of indigenous cattle in terminal cross-breeding to improve beef cattle production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Animal Genetic Resources 46: 33 – 39.
Tada O, Muchenje V., Dzama K. (2012). Monetary Value of Nguni cattle and socio-economic profiles of farmers in the low-input communal production system of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. African Journal of Business Management 6 (45): 11304 – 11311.
Tada O, V. Muchenje and K. Dzama. (2013a). Reproductive efficiency and herd demography of Nguni cattle in village-owned and group-owned enterprises under low-input communal production systems. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45 (2). DOI 10.1007/s11250-013-0363-x. ISSN 0049-4747.
Tada O, Muchenje V, Madzimure J and Dzama K. (2013b). Determination of economic weights for breeding traits in indigenous Nguni cattle under in-situ conservation. Livestock Science 155 (1): 8-16.
Wollny, C.B.A. (2003). The need to conserve farm animal genetic resources in Africa: should policy makers be concerned? Ecological Economics 45 (3): 341 – 351.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Performance Appraisal

...Techniques in Performance Appraisal Encourage Discussion Research studies show that employees are likely to feel more satisfied with their appraisal result if they have the chance to talk freely and discuss their performance. It is also more likely that such employees will be better able to meet future performance goals. Employees are also more likely to feel that the appraisal process is fair if they are given a chance to talk about their performance. This is especially so when they are permitted to challenge and appeal against their evaluation. Constructive Intention It is very important that employees recognize that negative appraisal feedback is provided with a constructive intention, i.e., to help them overcome present difficulties and to improve their future performance. Employees will be less anxious about criticism, and more likely to find it useful, when the belief is that the appraiser's intentions are helpful and constructive. In contrast, other studies have reported that "destructive criticism" - which is vague, ill- informed, unfair or harshly presented - will lead to problems such as anger, resentment, tension and workplace conflict, as well as increased resistance to improvement, denial of problems, and poorer performance. Set Performance Goals It has been shown in numerous studies that goal-setting is an important element in employee motivation. Goals can stimulate employee effort, focus attention, increase persistence, and encourage...

Words: 4601 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Consumer Studies

...MDSE 3750 Consumer Studies Semester Project Objectives: * To provide students with the opportunity to apply course concepts and ideas to a specific brand/product * Develop your team building, * Refine time management skills, * Apply written and oral communication skills. Procedures: Groups and Brand Selection 1. Groups of three people will be formed. You will have a window of opportunity to select your own group; students not selecting a group will be placed in one. * Sign-up Deadline: Midnight, September 24 * All student not in a group by the time Dr. Kinley logs on September 25 will be placed into a group. 2. You will be asked to select a brand (of product or store) to focus on for the semester. 3. Once groups are formed, students will submit their “top 3” list in the Bb Discussion Board, which will open on September 25. Dr. Kinley will make the final selections for each group. Your Top 3 should be in order of preference. **** NOTE: This discussion board will be in the “Discussion” menu-item on the left-menu of Bb. DO NOT POST YOUR PREFRENCES IN YOUR GROUP DISCUSSION BOARD. Project: After the brand/product is selected, your group will focus on that specific product and relate it to all concepts we discuss in class. Your team will keep a running wiki of how each chapter’s materials relate to the product (starting with Text Chapter 3). In some chapters, there will be more to discuss than others. Your...

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Participative Management

...1. Self-Managed/ Directed Team Self-directed work teams, also known as self-managing teams, represent a revolutionary approach to the way work is organized and performed. It is a group of people working together in their own ways toward a common goal which is defined outside the team for example - James River Corporation’s Kendallville Plant ALPHA team. They manufacture cardboard boxes as defined by executive leadership. Team does their own work scheduling, training, rewards and recognition, etc. Minnesota-based 3M is among an increasing number of companies that involve employees in the daily management of their business through work teams. These teams are empowered to take corrective actions to resolve day-to-day problems. They also have direct access to information that allows them to plan, control and improve their operations. In short, employees that comprise work teams manage themselves. At 3M, the movement toward self-managed or directed work teams has been driven more by initiative and need than by corporate directive. Now most of 3M's manufacturing facilities, while at different levels of empowerment and different degrees of involvement, employ a team-based approach. In 1994, 3M's new Brockville, Ontario, facility came on-line as the organization's first "greenfield" site. It was designed and built to operate with self-directed work teams. Many work groups in line divisions and staff groups are moving more and more into self-direction. 3M's commercial office...

Words: 3679 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay


...development 3. Post advertisement on the news paper 4. Call the people for interviews 5. Conducts interviews 6. Select the people which best match the requirement 7. Further skim them 8. Conduct another interview 9. Upon approval select the final people for hiring 10. Conduct the physical examination 11. Hire people that pass the final test. c,how information collected during job analysis helps manager in performing various functions of human resource? Ans, 1. Gives a clear outline of the functions for performing the job 2. Also outlines the skills needed to perform the job 3. Determines importance of different skills and abilities 4. Helps establishing training requirement and objectives 5. Helps in...

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Objective-C Research Paper

...Research of Objective-C October 9, 2012 Introduction There is little doubt in today’s dynamic and fast moving technology market that Objective-C is a powerful, high-level, flexible programming language that has been around since the early 1980s and has the staying power to last a long time. Objective-C is an extension of the programming language C developed by Brad Cox and Tom Love to support the object oriented features of Smalltalk another programming language. Objective-C is the main language from which Apple’s MAC OS X for Desktops and laptops and iOS for iPhones and iPads are derived. There have been variants to this language as well, Objective-C++ and Objective-C 2.0 which proves the sustainability of this language. Due its portability, Objective-C has shown its flexibility and the ability to adapt to the ever changing and fast moving arena of mobile devices especially from Apple. What is Objective-C? Objective-C is a reflective programming language which aims to provide object orientated concepts and Smalltalk messaging to C. GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) provides a compiler for Objective-C, however due to the rich library support on OpenStep based operating systems (Mac OS X, IPhone, GNUstep) it is typically only used on these platforms. Objective-C is implemented as an augmentation to the C language. It is a superset of C which means that any Objective-C compiler can also compile C. To illustrate what Objective-C looks like as a language I will show you...

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Business Economics

...| Peter F. Drucker is the management scholar. He is thought to be the establishing father of current management. Peter Drucker, whose life crossed the previous century (1909 – 2005), was an exceedingly instructed native of the world: an innovative soul who composed thirty-nine books including numerous fantastic chips away at business management. He was a man of numerous parts: a sharp eyewitness, a long lasting understudy, an educator, mentor of eminent corporate pioneers, and the organizer of an official school in Claremont, California, that bears his name. Peter Ferdinand Drucker was an author, management advisor and college teacher. His written work concentrated on management related writing. Peter Drucker made well known the term information specialist and is thought to have unknowingly introduced the learning economy, which viably challenges Karl Marx's reality perspective of the political economy. George Orwell credits Peter Drucker as one of the main journalists to foresee the German-Soviet Pact of 1939. Much has been said and composed of his accomplishments, but then there is a lesser-known side to Peter Drucker; that other side is the subject of this paper. He was hesitant about his own reasoning of life. He additionally emphatically protested being known as a ‘management master’ – a sobriquet frequently attached to him. As opposed to being a supplier of answers, Drucker constantly remained an examiner: his showing strategy was Socratic. What mattered most was the...

Words: 3933 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Employment Skills Testing

...Pre-Employment Skills Testing and the Law Karen VanKampen April 2009 Table of Contents |Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………. | | |The Laws That Apply to Pre-Employment Skills Testing………………………………….. | | |The Benefits in Pre-Employment Skills Testing……………………………………………. | | |The Controversy / Risk in Pre-Employment Skills Testing………………………………… | | |Cases / Examples…………………………………………………………………………… | | |Recommendations………………………………………………………………………….. | | |Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….. | | Introduction When seeking the best candidates for open job positions, employers (private and public sector) use a variety of legal means to screen and select viable candidates. Many employers use tests to identify the most suitable candidate to perform the job. The types of tests used by employers may include skills tests, psychological tests, strength tests, medical tests, personality...

Words: 3758 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Performance Management

...Performance Management Byron S. Salter HRM/531 April 26, 2015 Dr. Deborah Burgess TO: Traci Goldman, Manager, Atwood and Allen Consulting FROM: Byron S. Salter DATE: April 26, 2015 SUBJECT: Performance Management Hello Traci, I am delegated with the duty of developing a performance management plan, using the current organizational strategy to increase performance and identify performance gaps. Landslide Limousine is anticipating to have a -$50,000 revenue for the first year and expecting revenue growth of 5% each year. With 25 employees, Mr. Stonefield is estimating a 10% turnover rate annually for the business. It is essential to develop a performance plan to maximize performance and minimum the turnover rate. To develop a strategic performance plan, I will expound on the alignment of the performance management framework to the organizational business strategy and the organizational performance philosophy. I will also complete a job analysis process to identify the skills needed for the employees and define the methods for measuring the employee’s skills. Additionally, the performance management plan will include a process for addressing skill gaps and develop the approach for delivering effective performance feedback. Performance Management Framework to the Organizational Strategy According to Cascio (2013), “[p]erformance management requires willingness and a commitment to focus on improving performance at the level of the individual or team every day” (p...

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...project to all sectors of the target population. * Monitor the efficiency with which the different components of the project are being implemented and suggest improvements. * Evaluate the extent to which the project is able to achieve its general objectives. * Provide guidelines for the planning of future projects (Bamberger 4). * Influence sector assistance strategy. Relevant analysis from project and policy evaluation can highlight the outcomes of previous interventions, and the strengths and weaknesses of their implementation. * Improve project design. Use of project design tools such as the logframe (logical framework) results in systematic selection of indicators for monitoring project performance. The process of selecting indicators for monitoring is a test of the soundness of project objectives and can lead to improvements in project design. * Incorporate views of stakeholders. Awareness is growing that participation by project beneficiaries in design and implementation brings greater “ownership” of project objectives and encourages the sustainability of project benefits. Ownership brings accountability. Objectives should be set and indicators selected in consultation with stakeholders, so that objectives and targets are jointly “owned”. The emergence of recorded benefits early on helps reinforce ownership, and early warning of emerging problems allows action to be taken before costs rise. * Show need for mid-course corrections. A reliable flow of...

Words: 264 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Lol Girl

...Blue Pelican Java by Charles E. Cook Version 3.0.5h Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Charles E. Cook; Refugio, Tx (All rights reserved) 1-1 “Blue Pelican Java,” by Charles E. Cook. ISBN 1-58939-758-4. Published 2005 by Publishing Inc., P.O. Box 9949, College Station, Tx 77842, US. ©2005, Charles E. Cook. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Charles E. Cook. Manufactured in the United States of America. Preface You will find this book to be somewhat unusual. Most computer science texts will begin with a section on the history of computers and then with a flurry of definitions that are just “so many words” to the average student. My approach with Blue Pelican Java is to first give the student some experience upon which to hang the definitions that come later, and consequently, make them more meaningful. This book does have a history section in Appendix S and plenty of definitions later when the student is ready for them. If you will look at Lesson 1, you will see that we go right to work and write a program the very first day. The student will not understand several things about that first program, yet he can immediately make the computer do something useful. This work ethic is typical of the remainder of the book. Rest assured that full understanding...

Words: 31284 - Pages: 126

Free Essay

Peter Drucker

...Peter Drucker is generally regarded as the godfather of modern management. Drucker’s major contribution to management is not a single idea, but rather an entire body of work that has one massive advantage: virtually all of it is fundamentally right. The third question in “The Five Most Important Questions by Peter Drucker” is ‘What Does Your Customer Value?’ You cannot arrive at the right definition of results without significant input from your customers. (Drucker, 1998) What satisfies their needs, wants and aspirations is so complicated that it can only be answered by customers themselves. (Economy, 2013) There are no unfair customers, at least in terms of their own reality and situation. Customer needs are material and psychological well-being. Wants are when, where and how service is supplied. Aspirations are preferred long-term outcomes. What does the customer value, is the least often asked question yet it is most important to know. Providing value to the customers includes making products or delivering services that offer solutions to their problems. The better the solution is the more value that can be produced. (Kloeber, 2011) People are so convinced that they are doing the right things. Instead of asking ‘Does it deliver value to our customers?’ they ask, ‘Does it fit our rules?’ And that not only reduces performance but also destroys vision and dedication. Methods of understanding what customers value involve collecting or analyzing customer information, gathering...

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Job Analysis

...Job Analysis Deborah Fischer-Hansen PSY/435 April 16, 2013 Deborah Hesselbein Job Analysis Job analysis refers to an approach for explaining a specific job and the tacks necessary to fulfill the requirements of the job. One of the main goals is to define the requirements and characteristics of a particular job. The job analysis needs to consider who, what, where, when, and how the job might relate to an individual. Many methods provide different types of information about the jobs and human attributes needed for jobs (Spector, 2012). There are two different categories of job analysis; they are job oriented and person oriented (Spector, 2012). Job oriented emphasizes the responsibilities needed for a job, whereas, person oriented concentrates on the individual particular characteristics needed for the job. The author will further discuss a job with Trinity Teen Solutions, specifically life coach for struggling teen girls and young women. Life Coach Job Analysis Life Coaching is a profession that compliments consulting, mentoring, therapy, and counseling. According to "What Is Life Coaching?" (2012), the coaching process addresses specific personal projects, business successes, general conditions and transitions in the client's personal life, relationships or profession by examining what is going on right now, discovering what your obstacles or challenges might be, and choosing a course of action to make your life be what you want it to be. The...

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Research Assignment 1

...14882: 1998. The standard was amended by the 2003 This language is an essential part of the .NET framework, so developers who use Microsoft heavily will find it critical, according to Duqaine. 2. Java  An object-oriented programming language developed in the late 1990s by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems. This “beautiful” programming language is central for any non-Microsoft developer, i.e. any developer who focuses on the non-.NET experience. It is mostly derived from C and C++ but has a more basic object model. It ranked first on TIOBE’s list of most popular programming languages. 3. Objective-C This object-oriented programming language created first by Brad Cox and Tom Love at their company Stepstone in the early 1980s, adds Smalltalk-like messaging to the C programming language. This language is most used on the Apple iOS and Mac OS X. Objective-C is the principal language used for Apple's Cocoa API as well. 4. C++ is a general purpose multi-paradigm spanning compiled language that has both high-level and low-level languages’ features. It was started as an enhancement to the C programming language, Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979. It is one of the most popular programming languages, winning fourth place on the list, with application domains including systems software, application software, server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.  The...

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Objective C

...The Objective-C environment, a growing collection of tools and reusable components (Software-ICs) for large-scale production system-building is discussed. Its goal is to make it possible for its users to build software systems in the way that hardware engineers build theirs, by reusing Software-ICs supplied by a marketplace in generic components rather than by building everything from scratch. The environment is based on conventional technology (C and Unix-style operating systems), which it includes and extends. The extensions presently include a complied and an interpreted implementation of Objective-C (an object-oriented programming language based on C) and several libraries of reusable components (ICpaks). Smartphones provide applications that are increasingly similar to those of interactive desktop programs, providing rich graphics and animations. To simplify the creation of these interactive applications, mobile operating systems employ highlevel object-oriented programming languages and shared libraries to manipulate the device's peripherals and provide common userinterface frameworks. The presence of dynamic dispatch and polymorphism allows for robust and extensible application coding. Unfortunately, the presence of dynamic dispatch also introduces significant overheads during method calls, which directly impact execution time. Furthermore, since these applications rely heavily on shared libraries and helper routines, the quantity of these method calls is higher than...

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Decisions of Uncertainity

...Decisions of Uncertainty Introduction The Decision What is the probability of hiring a qualified employee upon selecting one from 52 applicants 26 are male and 26 are female? Probability Concepts The probability of the event –hiring a qualified male employee—is the proportion of times the company would expect to obtain a qualified male employee over the long run if the HR managers selected applicants many times. I will refer to each repetition of the situation – in this case the selection of a qualified male future employee—as a sampling experiment. The probability of the event is the proportion of times we would expect the event to occur in an infinitely long series of identical sampling experiments. The Outcome In this case, the probability of selecting a qualified male employee is 0 .50 or 50%. I arrived at this conclusion by using the knowledge that there are 52 applicants who areapplying for the open position, 26 are female and 26 are male. If the company assume that each of the 52 possibilities is equally likely, it is reasonable to expect that the company would select a male applicant that is qualified for the open position 0.50 of the time of a period of time ( 26/52 = ½ = 0.50 ). This illustrates the basic rule for obtaining probabilities in situations in which each of the possible outcomes is equally likely, the probability of the occurrence of an event is equal to the proportion of the possible outcomes characterized by the event. In the case of...

Words: 341 - Pages: 2