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P1 Unit 4 Health and Social Care

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P1 Describe physical, intellectual, emotional, social development for each of the life stages of an individual.

Life expectancy this is the number of years that remain within the life time of an individual, this is estimated by statistics. This depends on the Population on several variables such as their lifestyle, access to healthcare, diet, economical status and the relevant mortality and morbidity data. However, as life expectancy is calculated based on averages, a person may live for many years more or less than expected.
P.I.E.S this is the breakdown of the Physical, Intellectual, Emotional and Social developments through all the life stages
Life coursethis is a course it is culturally defined sequence of age categories that people are normally expected to pass through as they develop from birth to death. This Includes the cultural conceptions of the life course is some idea of how long people are expected to live.
Growth A gradual process which occurs from birth until a point in early adulthood when you reach your maximum height. It involves both height and weight gain
Development this is a change in a person's skills and capabilities, for instance an individual’s development intellectually, emotionally etc.
Maturation this is the gradual process of becoming physically mature or fully developed this is part of adolescent when a male and female go through changes as they are going through puberty. For example females in adolescence will start to grow breast however males will start to grow facial hair.
Development norms this is the process of human growth and development follows a fairly predictable pattern, for instance at certain ages of a child they would start developing and doing certain stuff, such as at the age of 6-9 months they are able to sit up, towards 8-10 months they are able to start crawling etc.
Delayed development this is any important lag in a child's physical, intellectual, behavioral, emotional, or social development, in comparison with norms. For example most children are able to crawl by eight months of age and walk by the middle of the 2nd year, then a child five or six months behind schedule in reaching these milestones may be classified as developmentally delayed regarding mobility.

Holistic development this is PIES development as a whole, it includes the physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs. The development is able to be examined under the person’s categories to help identify the problem.

Arrested development this means when physical development that is not complete, it has come to an end and not been complete. For instance if a child has autism this will result them in arrested development as they are not able to complete their development in life.

life stage 1 conception age: before 9 months of pregnancy
P- Every month inside the females ovaries, groups of eggs start to grow in small, fluid- filled sacs. A female’s hormones rise after the egg leaves the follicle. This follicle develops into something called corpus legume, this releases the hormones that help thicken the lining of the uterus. From this the eggs travel to the fallopian tube, the egg stays there for about 24 hours, it waits here for the single sperm egg to fertilizes it. However if the egg does not get fertilized it moves through the uterus and disintegrates. By this happening the hormones in the body go back to normal, and a period may start. If the egg does get fertilized one sperm makes its way to the fallopian tube, when it goes there it burrows itself into the egg, it fertilizes the egg and the egg changes so no other sperm can enter. Once fertilization has taken place the implantation takes place. This is when the egg which is carrying the sperm inside it moves to the uterus. The egg stays in the fallopian tube for about 3-4days, however within 24hours of fertilization it starting to divide fast into many cells. This keep dividing as it moves into the fallopian tube to the uterus. The next thing it needs to do is attach itself to the lining of the uterus, this step is called implantation. Once this has happen the lining of the uterus gets thicker and the cervix gets sealed by some mucus. This will stay there until the baby is born. Within 3 weeks the foetus will start to develop, nerve cells will begin to produce.

life stage 2 pregnancy
Age: 9months to birth
P- During pregnancy there are 3 trimesters, the first trimester is from week 1-13, your body is going through huge changes as it accommodates a growing fetus. In the first few weeks following conception, your hormone levels change significantly. Your uterus begins to support the growth of the placenta and the fetus, your body adds to its blood supply to carry oxygen and nutrients to the developing baby, and your heart rate increases. These changes accompany many of the pregnancy symptoms, such as fatigue, morning sickness, headaches, and constipation. During this period of time The fetus will develop all of its organs by the end of the third month, so this is a vital time. It's important to maintain a healthy diet, including adding an satisfactory amount of folic acid in order to help prevent neural tube defects. Cut out any bad habits, such as smoking and alcohol, as both these bad habits lead to lacking nutrients to pass to the child. Therefore will lead to slow development to the fetus
The 2nd trimester weeks 13-27, this is often the most comfortable period of time for the majority of pregnant women. This is because due to Most of the early pregnancy symptoms will slowly disappear, and you should enjoy a more restful night's sleep. During this period of time your stomach will start to look pregnant, as the uterus will grow rapidly in size. At the end of the second trimester, your baby will be almost four times as big as it was at the end of the first trimester. While the discomforts of early pregnancy should ease off, there are a few new symptoms to get used to. Common complaints include leg cramps and heartburn. Also during this stage Screening tests are also performed in the second trimester, and this is when a diagnostic test would be performed. Therefore any issues that may be taking place will be arise and diagnosed in the correct way.
The 3rd trimester lasts from the 28th week to the birth of the baby. During this trimester you will start seeing your health care provider more frequently. Your doctor will regularly, test your urine for protein, check your blood pressure, listen to the fetal heart rate, measure your fundal height (the approximate length of your uterus), check your hands and legs for any swelling. Also during this stage your doctor will also regulate the baby's position and check your cervix in order to monitor how your body is preparing for childbirth. The third trimester is a good time to educate yourself about labor and delivery.
.
life stage 3 birth and infancy
Age: 0-3 years

P- During this time after the baby is born, the new born child is not able to digest foods. It can only digest foods such as breast milk or a substitute. Also at this birth stage they are not able to hear everything as their brain is not fully developed. However the mother is able to tell the difference between the way the child acts such as when its hungry or when it has done its nappy dirty. Also a baby is born with various reflexes, such as a new born child would turn their heads towards any touch on the cheek. This is known as rooting reflex; this helps the baby to get the nipple or the bottle into their mouth when being fed. Another reflex is when the mother places the finger in the babies palm and the baby will grasp your finger tightly, this is known as the grasp reflex. Also during infancy the baby is easily startled, due to any loud noise, when they get a little scared they will throw their hands and arms outwards, arching their back and straightening their back this is known as the startle reflex.

I- During this stage the baby is intellectually able to recognise sounds, this is because the brain of the child is growing quickly. Around 3-4 months the baby is able to make sounds such as babbling or they may laugh at things they find amusing. Also the child is born with the ability ti sense objects. They have reflexes such as sucking on toys and stuff this enables them to feed. These actions lead to the motor actions which control the body’s muscles. Language development is also included in this stage, Chomsky he was a cognitive scientist, he believed that language is biologically based cognitive capacity, and that human traits in the brain give birth to language and grammar. He introduced LAD, this is language acquisition device. The LAD is a hypothetical tool hardwired into the brain that helps children rapidly learn and understand language. Another theorist which is involved in language development is jean piaget, he was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions include a theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.

E- over a period of time a child will develop its emotions such as moving its arms and legs around when being happy, for instance many babies love having baths so by taking a bath they get excited and happy. Also during 6months+ they will show a liking to certain foods or games that they may enjoy. They would become aware of others around them and start creating bonds with close family members. Also the mother develops emotions such as feeling nervous the baby is able to tell if their mother is upset or stressed as they will result in being annoyed and cry. The theorist that is involved in emotional development in infancy is Bowlby, he believed that all children should have a primary bond which was more vital than any other, this Is usually with the mother. He argued that somehow the relationship with a mother is different compared to the others. He says that if children are not forming the right bond with their mothers they will result in long term consequences in maternal deprivation, this will include reduced intelligence, increased aggression and depression.

S- During the infancy stage the child will start to enjoy its daily routines such as bath time, feeding time etc. also they will discover new sensorimotor such as waving, copying what other adults do. Socially they will form attachments with mothers siblings and father, by forming these bonds the child get used to being in the presence of these individuals, if the child is not familiar with the faces he is being shown he may get upset and cry as he may feel scared.

life stage 4 childhood age: 4-9 years

P- During this stage the child is already gradually developing physically. Also many children at this stage have a growth spurt this happens between the ages of 5-9. Many children also become more active at this stage and take interest in activities such as football, basketballs etc. They also develop fine motor skills such as writing; some children have more of an interest at certain things then other children. Childhood stage also makes a child improve their balance skills such as less likely falling over when doing activities.

I- Intellectually at this stage the child is able to speak fluently and say sentences with a little grammar, this is because they attend primary school on a regular basis. They have improved their vocabulary from going to school and interacting with their own parents and siblings too. Also at this life stage they are aware of simple rights and wrongs. there brain is also developing at a much faster speed. By Michael Jackson attending school this help him improve his vocabulary and supported him in developing faster and helping him carry out conversations with others.

E- at this stage the child is able to develop a wide range of emotions, from happiness, frustration, negativity and nervousness. Also during this stage they will find ways to express their emotions in different ways. Also children are able to form relationships with family members, this will influence how a child feels valued, and their self-esteem will be raised at times. Teachers can also influence the emotion of the child at this stage this can cause positive or an negative impact on the child. Michael says, 'There were times when I had great times with my brothers, pillow fights and things, but I was, used to always cry from loneliness”. This shows he was feeling lonely as when he was in his childhood years as he missed playing with his brothers. (http://www.truemichaeljackson.com/childhood/)

S- at this stage children learn to share with their siblings and friends, many children also begin to make many friends as they are at primary school during this age therefore will result in making friends to pas time and hang out with. Also many children begin to compare themselves to other individuals when they reach this life stage. Children at school with make bigger groups of friends as it gives the opportunity to have sleepovers and grow a better bond with children at their school.

life stage 5 adolescence age: 10-18 years

P- During this stage the men and women develop different physical attributes. For instance the women will go through developing breast, wider hips and she will start her periods. The men start to have their voices broken, they get a broader chest, penis and testes size is also increased too. Due to Michael being a man he resulted in the physical changes that the men result in.

I- At this stage the teenager starts to attend secondary school, here they all start to gain loads of connection from other individuals. They also start to use abstract thinking therefore this leads to arguments with authorities figures, however this sometimes happen due to the hormonal change they are having. As their body does start to produce more hormones at this stage of life.

E- During this stage much adolescence has continuous mood swings, due to hormonal changes. Also they start to have more emotions such as being moody and stressed due to little situations which may be stressing them out. Such as exams at school or relationship trouble. Also at this stage of life they may be judged upon as a result of this it may lead to some individuals being anxious and feel as if they may be feeling bullied as they are unable to stand up for themselves. Also some may feel threatened as they may think there not well enough. Also during this stage the theorist Erikson (1963) was involved, identity this is shown through media, also teenagers have phases in life at this stage too so identity means a lot to them, they may go through many identities to find the right one that suitable for them.

S- at this stage a teenager is learning to become more independent, they do this by staying out overnight and working for themselves, also they try out more experimental stuff such as trying out drugs, alcohol, sex etc. some adolescences at this age end up mixing with the wrong group of people and result in negative behaviour. They also start to develop skill to negotiate this may be with friends, parents and teachers. Also at this age they develop insecurity attachments this means they may get jealous and clingy with others, for instance in a relationship this may happen.

life stage 6 adult hood age: 19-65 years

P- during this stage many adults find their life partners, some may end up leaving their homes whereas some start to build their own families. also adulthoods stage starts to lack things such as of physical exercise and poor diet. This is because individuals at this age are no longer bothered to cook and make food for them. Also the physical abilities are at their peak, this included muscle strength, reaction time, sensory abilities, and cardiac functioning. Physically at this stage the aging process also begins during early adulthood and is characterized by changes in skin, vision, and reproductive capability. Many individuals will start to result in decline in vision, hearing, and immune-system functioning, as well as the end of reproductive capability for women, known as menopause.

I- At this stage many adults are able to develop skills such as budgeting, working skills with their careers. Also many experience how it feels to move out and live on their own or living with a new life partner. Many individuals experience how to raise a child. However some want better in life and want to build a career, therefore they get goals and aspirations will helps them aim higher in life.

E- during this stage many individuals are able to behave more maturely, such as being able to share, respond and listen to other individuals. Also theorist Erikson (1963) says during this stage many individuals goes through the stage of stagnation, this is when they lose interest with others in social issues. For instance an individuals during this stage may be dating someone and be ready to marry them therefore they want to only focus on the other individual and no other individuals around them.

S- during adulthood many individuals take responsibilities for others and themselves. This is main reason how they are able to socialise in the society. They may start to from formal and informal relationships, with friends and colleagues at work. For many people adulthood is dominated by the formation of adult sexual partnerships and they need to find jobs and establish a career. However others will choose to get married, and represent parenthood as this is a major development in their life.

life stage 7 older adulthood age: 65+ years

P- during this stage older individuals start to lose the elasticity of their skin, the reaction time slows further, also many individuals result in muscle strength and mobility diminishes, hearing and vision decline, and the immune system weakens. Also The aging process generally results in changes and lower functioning in the brain, leading to problems like decreased intellectual function and diseases such as Alzheimer's. Many of the changes in the bodies and minds of older adults are due in part to a reduction in the size of the brain as well as loss of brain plasticity. I- At this stage the memory of the older adulthood starts to generate due to old age, therefore older adults have it harder to remember and understand certain stiff, as the older persons brain loses memory due to becoming weak and unstable, therefore they become forgetful and lose concentration easily.

E- At this stage individuals become lonely and isolated from others, this is because they understand that soon they may be gone therefore they don’t want to create relationships with other. Many older individuals at this age result in Retirement. Retirement at age 65 is the conventional choice for many people, although some work until much later. People have been found to be happier in retirement if they are not forced to retire before they are ready and if they have enough income to maintain an adequate living standard. Chronic health problems such as arthritis, rheumatism, and hypertension increasingly interfere with the quality of life of most individuals as they age. Also many become widowed as they may lose their partner. And have no one left, this is because their children may end up leaving them too.

S- This stage people age, and they become more dependent on other individuals. Older adults may struggle with feelings of guilt, shame, or depression because of their increased dependency, especially in societies where the elderly are viewed as a burden. Many older adults contend with feelings of loneliness and isolation as their loved ones pass away, which can negatively impact their health and well-being. Staying active and involved in life can help to counteract these challenges. life stage 8 the final stage of life age: variable

P- The body begins its natural process of slowing down all its functions. How long this takes varies from person to person - it may take hours or days. The dying person will feel weak and sleep a lot. When death is very near the dying person may have. Difficulty swallowing or not wanting to eat or drink at all, Loss of control of bladder and bowel control, Restless movements (as though in pain), Changes in breathing, Noisy breathing, Cold feet, hands, legs and arms

I- At this stage intellectually a person is no longer able to gain any knowledge as they are dying, also they are no capable of working or doing anything that will benefit them skills and knowledge.

E- Everyone will feel different emotions when they are dying. A lot will depend on The type of person they are, Their age, How much support they have, Their religious and spiritual beliefs, The experiences they have had in life Someone dying in their 20s is likely to feel very different to someone who is 80. If the person dying is leaving behind young children, they will have different worries from someone whose children are grown up and able to take care of them. Before the final stages of death the dying person may talk about wanting to complete any unfinished business. Even if the physical body is ready to shut down, some people may resist death. They may still have issues they want to resolve or relationships they want to put right. It is important to understand these things. Let your loved one know you are there for them and will help them with any of these issues

S- socially at this stage individuals lose relationships with many individuals, as they are aware they will be gone and does not want to affect the other individuals such as friends as families as it will make it more painful for them. Therefore they keep isolated to themselves and die quietly without making big scene.

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...Qualification suite covered | Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Diploma/Extended Diploma, Health and Social Care | Assignment title | Life Stages | Unit number and title | Unit 4:Development Through the Life Stages | Assessor | Kelly Ocloo | Learning aims covered | On completion of this unit a learner should:1. Know the stages of growth and development throughout the human lifespan 2. Understand the potential effects of life factors and events on the development of the individual 3. Understand the physical and psychological changes of ageing  | Context | The study of lifespan development is about understanding the way we change over time. In this unit you will be able to identify some patterns in the course of human development and a range of factors that will influence how your life turns out. You will also need to make up your own mind about some very deep questions. Will you have a fixed life course where you can predict much of what will happen to you? How far is your life fixed for you by your genetics or by the social and economic environment you grow up in? How far can you choose to control your own life and can you try to ensure a happy old age? | Overall Scenario | As part of your work experience you have been asked to produce a fact file to show your understanding of the different life stages. You have been asked to discover as much information as possible about a family member (Parent, Aunt, Uncle, Grandparents) or a high profile person, to describe......

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Unit 6

...UNIT 6 PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE Unit abstract The aim of this unit is to act as a focal point for all other units in the programme and embed the vocational nature of the qualification. In addition to the requirement for work experience and the opportunity to relate theory to practice, the unit will enable you to bring together your learning from other units. You will initially explore factors that affect learning, then plan and monitor your own personal and professional development and reflect on it. You will also gain key understanding of the health and social care sectors, including aspects of service delivery, and the fundamentals of research methodology. This unit explores the different ways in which learning can take place and how learning from individual experience can be used to enhance the quality of knowledge, skills and practice. You will initially explore your own knowledge, skills, practice, values and beliefs in relation to working in health and social care. You will then draw up a personal plan for self-development over the duration of the programme. The unit also introduces you to health and social care service provision. A minimum of 100 hours work experience is required for successful completion of this unit. Learning Outcomes On completion of this unit you should: 1. Understand the learning process 2. Be able to plan for, monitor and reflect on own development 3. Understand......

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