Free Essay

Paper Towel Experiment

In: Science

Submitted By Belle990
Words 1419
Pages 6
Problem Statement

Which of the leading brand paper towels is more absorbent; Brawny, Bounty, Sparkle, or Scott?

Relevance of Testable Question

The relevance of this test question is to determine which brand of leading paper towels is the best most absorbent. Consumers want to use the product that is most effective at meeting their needs. A more expensive product may actually be more cost effective if you can use less of it than a brand that costs less.

Literature Review

Many experiments have been conducted to test the strength and absorbency of paper towels. While the steps of the experiment vary from test to test, all of experiments are testing the same two factors; how much water can each paper towel brand absorb and how strong are each of the paper towels. Below I have reviewed the process and results from three experiments that are similar to the one I will be using.

In the first experiment, the tester uses five brands of paper towels to test for absorbency, using paper towels of the same size to ensure the accuracy of the results. He draws a two inch circle in the center of a sheet of paper towel from each brand represented and placing the paper towel in an embroidery hoop to maintain stability. He then drops fifteen drops of water into the center of the circle draw on the paper towel, repeating the process for each brand, and measures the amount of time it takes the paper towel to wick the moisture outside of the circle. This test concludes that Bounty has the greatest absorbency.

The next experiment tests for both absorbency and strength. As in the first test, several different brands of paper towels were used. In this experiment, to test the absorbency, the tester takes a sheet of each of the towels an inserts it into a glass with two ounces of water and leaves each sit for twenty seconds. After the twenty seconds expired, the tester removed the paper towel from the glass and rang out each paper towel into a measuring cup to see how much water each towel had absorbed. The second part of the experiment is conducted by stretching sheets of each paper towel through an embroidery hoop, placing 25 pennies in the center of the paper towel, and adding water to the towel drop by drop until the pennies fall through. The strongest paper towel in this test was Brawny Brand.

The final experiment that I reviewed also tested for absorbency. The theory behind this experiment was the faster that water moves through the towel, the more absorbent it is. The experimenter cut strips from each paper towel, one inch wide and six inches long. A mark is drawn on each paper towel one inch from the end using a waterproof marker. The strip is then held in a glass of water with the bottom inch submerged, timing how long it takes for the water to travel the length of the strip. The process is then repeated for each brand that is being tested. The most absorbent brand in this test was Brawny.

Experimental Design

A. Steps in Experimental Procedure

The absorbency of the towels will be tested by the speed the water moves through the paper towels, the faster the water moves, the more absorbent the towel is. I will be using the following brands of paper towels in my experiment: Brawny, Bounty, Sparkle and Scott. Other supplies necessary to complete the experiment are: a waterproof marker, and a sixteen-ounce glass of water, and a timer that registers tenths of a second.

1. Prepare three samples of paper towel from each brand by cutting strips of each that is 2 inches wide and six inches long. 2. Using a water-proof marker, draw a line across each paper towel one inch from the bottom. 3. Fill a sixteen ounce glass with water and prepare timer. 4. Take the first strip of paper towel and submerge it up to the line in the glass of water while holding it vertical to the glass while starting the timer. 5. Allow the timer to run until the water is absorbed through the paper towel and reaches the end of the towel not submerged. 6. Stop the timer and record the time in tenths of seconds. 7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 for all three strips of each brand.

B. Reasoning for Choosing my Experimental Design Plan

The reason I chose this design for my experiment is because it seemed to be more accurate than other testing methods I found during my literature review and could be performed with items I already had in my home. The experiment where the tester rang out the paper towels and measure the water that they had absorbed is less accurate because there is no guarantee of exerting the same amount of force each time you ring out a towel. There is no way to completely drain the towel of all of the liquid it absorbed. Stretching the paper towel samples across the embroidery frame is sound way to perform the experiment but it would have required the purchase of additional materials.

C. Sequence of Events to Collect Quantitative Data

I will begin the collection of quantitative data by cutting the paper towel samples from each brand into strips that are one inch wide by six inches long, to ensure that all of the samples will be equal. I will use the same glass of water for each test to ensure the water composition is the same for each test. I have created a spreadsheet in excel with a column listing each of the brands being tested and three columns for the time in tenths of a second to be entered upon completion of the experiment. During the experiment, I will make notes on a tablet of the brand name and the time recorded to be entered into the spreadsheet upon completion of the entire experiment.

D. Describe Tools, Technologies, and Measurement Units that are used to Collect the Data

To collect the data for this experiment I will use one inch wide by six inch long strips of paper towel from each of the brands being tested, a black water-proof marker to mark the strips of paper towel, an eight ounce glass of water, my hand to hold the strip vertical to the glass once submerged as indicated in the experimental procedure, a timer that measures tenths of a second, and a pad and pencil to record the initial results. Once the experiment is complete I will transfer the results of the experiments to the spreadsheet that I have created using Microsoft Excel. I will also use excel to create the graphic representation of the experiment results.

Dependent, Independent and Controlled Variables of the Experiment

The independent variable in my paper towel experiment is the one inch by six inch strip of paper towel taken from a roll of each brand of paper towel used in the experiment.

The dependent variable in the experiment is the amount of time it takes the water to travel the length of the strip of paper towel measured in tenths of a second.

The controlled variables of the experiment are using the same glass of water, same size sample of paper towel, and same timer for each test in the experiment.

Threat Reduction to Internal Validity

To reduce internal threats to validity I will use the same size piece of each paper towel from each brand for each test to conduct the experiment, marking each piece with a line at exactly one inch from the bottom. I will use the same water sample to ensure the liquid being absorbed by each sample strip is identical; the same timer will be used for each test to ensure the accuracy of the time recorded for each test. I will also monitor my results for outliers in the time required to absorb the water through each test towel to ensure the results are valid for each test.


The sample of Bounty paper towels will soak up the water through the length of paper towel faster than the other brands because it is thicker than the other brands being tested. I have arrived at this conclusion because the dual layers of towel that are present in the sample of Bounty create a greater surface to absorb water. The other brands are much thinner and have less thickness to soak up water.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Paper Towel Experiment

... 2 Question: Which paper towel absorbs water the most? Personal Relevancy and Description of subject area: Paper towels are very useful when it comes to cleaning up spills. In addition, paper towels can be used to dry hands, wipe tables, and etc. (Paper towels) There are so many uses for paper towels that Americans last year “spent nearly $2.3 billion on paper towels” (Wilbert, 2003). The reason why Americans prefer paper towels than cloth towels is because they can be thrown away, unfortunately “sending 3000 tons of paper towels to landfills each day” (Wilbert, 2003). Imagine how many trees were cut down to meet consumer needs. According to the Business and the Environment, “270,000,000 trees are flushed down or thrown into the garbage” (2006). As a teacher, I want to teach my students to be more eco-friendly and to save money. Students have a tendency to overuse paper towels and waste not only money spent on paper towels, but also trees that were cut down to make paper towels. I want to show them how much paper towels they really need by doing an experiment of which paper towel absorbs water the most. Also, this experiment will show them that the most absorbent paper towel will hold enough water without over using it in a minor spill. Hypothesis: Bounty paper towels will absorb more volume of water, then other brands of paper towels in a time frame on one minute. Variables: Independent Variable: Three different types of 27.9x22.3 cm paper towel sheets will be tested......

Words: 2721 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Project Design Plan Int1 Task 3

...Design Plan This experiment asks the question, “What paper towel is more absorbent for the price per sheet?” Will the more costly paper towels absorb a bigger spill therefore giving the consumer reasoning on buying the higher priced paper towel? This experiment will examine the absorbency of three different brands of paper towels and then compare the results to the price of the product to find the absorbency value. First, we will purchase one roll from three different brands of paper towels from the same store at retail price. It’s important to purchase the products at full cost or note what the normal price is from the same store since different stores may have different prices. Different brands of paper towel rolls come with different amounts of sheets as well as sizes, so it will be important to have all the sample sizes the same for accurate results. The results will be drawn up after the controlled experiment is finished. The experiment will consist of taking an individual sheet from each brand of paper towel and spread it over a container and using a medicine dropper or eye dropper filled with water, squeeze drops onto the paper towel one at a time until the water starts to leak into the container below. Each drop will be counted up to the point where the water leaks into the container. This will be done three times with each brand and an average will be determined. The average determined will represent the absorbability of each brand of paper towel. Once testing......

Words: 1827 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Nat 1 Task 3

...The Paper Towel Experiment. I remember watching certain television commercials when I was kid about the absorbency and strength of paper towels. They seemed to always focus on people trying to wipe up large amounts of water and most of being dumped onto the floor or wet paper towels being stretched out and weight being applied and falling through immediately. Ultimately it was the thickest and newest paper towel that wiped up all the water without spilling any and held the weight. Even as a child I felt this was completely staged and new that major parts of the research was not shown. As an adult, I just choose what I feel is a reasonable brand and wipe away at home without any thought about the value or absorbency of what I am using. With this thought in mind I decided to test four different brands of paper towels to see which one was the most absorbent. I would test the hypothesis that a thicker and coarser paper towel did in fact absorb more water. I first looked to some previous tests to see what steps they took in their testing. The first test I found dipped the paper towels into water and squeezed the towels into a glass (Penzo, nd). While this test seemed to be a good ideal, I felt for the purpose of my test I wanted to find how much water the towel held, not how much I could squeeze out of it. I also found a test that used weight as the measure of absorbency. Consumer Reports weighed each dry towel, wet them, strained them across a pan to remove......

Words: 1221 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Paper Towel Absorbency

... Which Paper Towel Will Absorb The Most Water? By Rachel Martin Project Design Plan The paper towel experiment is a project that determines which paper towel brand will absorb the most amount of water in a given time period. Literature Review There are many different brands of paper towels in the supermarkets. They are claim to be the best or have the best absorbency over their rivals. There have been many experiments involving the absorbency of paper towels. Samantha P. tested four different brands of paper towels, which were Bounty, Scott, Sparkle and Western Family. Her prediction was that Bounty paper towels would be the most absorbent based on research on the internet. The constant in the experiment was the size of each paper towel and the amount of water. The manipulated variable was the different brands of paper towels and responding variable was the amount of water left over after experiment. The results indicated that Sparkle brand paper towels were actually the most absorbent, which rejected her hypothesis that Bounty was the most absorbent. (Samantha P., 2000) Kalix Martin tested four brands of paper towels for absorbency: Bounty, Target store brand, Viva, and Brawny. Martin’s hypothesis was that Bounty would be the most absorbent of the four paper towels. The constant in this experiment was the size of the bowls, the same amount of water, the same size of paper towels, and......

Words: 1270 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Int1 Task 3

...3 Do more expensive paper towels absorb more water than less expensive products? By: Gregory M. Herrin Project design Plan When consumers are in the store to purchase paper towels, there are numerous options and brands to choose from; all claiming to be the best product with the most absorbency. How does a consumer choose the best option for the best price? The goal of this experiment will be to determine if higher priced paper towels are more absorbent than the less expensive paper towels on the market. Four relatively common brands will be tested for their water absorbency: Viva ($0.049/square foot), Bounty ($0.046/square foot), Brawny ($0.044/square foot) and Sparkle ($0.024/square foot). Ultimately, the experiment should show which of the commonly used household paper towels is more water absorbent and if price equals value for these products. Literature Review A number of experiments have been completed to demonstrate and/or test the absorbency of paper towels. Len Penzo dot Com, a personal finance blog, completed an experiment on which brand of paper towel was the best value. They tested six different brands of paper towels for absorbency and scrub strength: Sparkle, Bounty, Bounty Basic, Scott, Shoppers Value, Viva and Kirkland Signature. To measure the absorbency, the paper towels were dipped into glasses of water until saturated and then the water squeezed from the towels was measured. To measure the scrub strength, the towels were wrapped around......

Words: 2033 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Int Task 3 Paper Towel Absorbency

...Western Governors University INT1 Task 3 Paper Towel Absorbency A. Project Plan I am conducting an experiment to determine which, paper towel brands: Bounty, Viva, Great Value, or Sparkle is the most absorbent for everyday spills. I will be testing how much water each paper towel absorbs from 60 milliliters of water. · Problem Statement I will measure the amount of water, in milliliters, that each paper towel absorbs from a beaker. The independent variable is the different types of similar sized paper towels. The dependent variable will be the millimeters of water in the beakers. Which paper towel brand soaks up, meaning leaves behind the least amount of water, the highest amount of the 60 milliliters of water? I will test the absorbance of each brand of paper towel by placing each paper towel into the same amount of water for 15 seconds and then remove each paper towel allowing it to drip for 15 seconds. After measuring the water left behind in the pan I will compare the average of 3 trials for each brand to determine which paper towel brand absorbs the most water. · Relevance of my testable question This experiment is important to the real world because that every household has spills to clean up and there are many options at different price ranges to choose from. Knowing which paper towel brand absorbs the most liquid will help every day families make the decision of the best paper towel to buy for their home. · Literature Review: I found 2......

Words: 2494 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Technology in the World

...created. Whether it’s the new iPhone, tablet, or even inventions like paper towel dispensers. As I looked for another outlet to compare the LCK monologue to, I came across one about bathroom technology by a comedian, Demetri Martin. Martin explains his hatred towards new technology, except his is about bathroom technology. In the LCK monologue, he talks about his hatred towards smartphones and how they are effecting today’s society I feel the claim being made is that many of these new advances serve no purpose and isn’t needed in today’s world. In the LCK monologue, he explains how kids want a smartphone because all their peers have one and they want to look cool in order to not be an outcast (LCK smartphones). Martin also tells a story of how the inventors of technology thought it would be cool to have all these automated devices in public restrooms. Martin does not like the devices because of how complex it is to use them. He believes the devices make people look stupid just trying to get them to work properly.(Martin Bathrooms) In LCK monologue, he believes society has become lazier and we let technology do a lot for us. For example, kids playing video games all day long instead of going outside to play with the neighborhood kids. Since the inventors built the new devices in bathrooms, it makes people look lazy as if they don’t have the ability to flush a toilet, turn on a sink faucet, or get paper towels off a roll. Even though the creations of the automatic bathroom......

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Persuasive Peanut Butter and Jelly

...with so if you have access to a kitchen you will need a plate and a tablespoon and some paper towels. If a kitchen isn't available a plastic knife and a few paper towels will also get the job done. You will need the following ingredients..... bread peanut butter jelly The key to making a delicious peanut butter and jelly sandwich is to pick a loaf of bread that is fresh. So when selecting your bread ( white, wheat or whatever type you like ), squeeze on the loaf gently, if it springs back its usually pretty fresh. Peanut butter has dozens of options to choose from. Name brand peanut butter is suitable but the store brands are just as yummy and will save you a few dollars. The main choice is chunky or creamy, since you're new to making this I'd suggest creamy. Let me also mention healthier choices are available ie low-fat, reduced sugar, low-sodium. Jelly also has a wide variety of choices. Grape and apple jelly are popular flavors or you may want to try strawberry preserves. Pick your favorite flavor to add the special touch to your sandwich. ( Jelly also has healthier choices to choose from) Now what we've gone over what you will need to make the sandwich, I will walk you through putting it all together. 1. Get out your paper towels/plate, and/or tablespoon/plastic knife. 2 Open the bread take out two slices, place them side by side on the plate or paper towel. 3. Open the peanut butter and open the jelly 4. Use the tablespoon(knife) to dip......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Consumption Project Essay

...Consumption Project Essay Nothing’s as simple as it seems. Every purchase I make is the result of consumer decision making and motivational factors. As an impatient college student experiencing time poverty, I hate shopping because of the time it takes, low amounts of enjoyment I get, and lack of shopping experience I have. Because of these elements of my lifestyle, the main influences on my purchases are the brand, ease of the purchase, and the store’s image. As a consumer with little product knowledge, familiarity with a product’s brand is important to my decisions. When shopping for products of importance, such as food or drinks (I’m a picky eater), I’ll choose the brand with the most brand equity. I focus on brand because my familiarity with that brand, and associations I have towards it, is the most extensive knowledge I have for small but important purchases, since I lack shopping experience needed to differentiate between the products in other ways. My purchases of Tropicana Orange Juice and Title Boxing Wraps are an example. My family grew up drinking Tropicana orange juice, and I have very strong positive associations with Tropicana. As an unexperienced shopper, I was drawn to the brand of orange juice I was comfortable with, since that was the best knowledge I had about the product’s quality. As for Title boxing wraps, I have experience in boxing and Title is a brand I’ve seen to be reliable. I chose this brand because I knew it wouldn’t let me down during......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Inelastic Demand Of Paper Soup

...Paper towel rolls are an everyday household item and it sold in almost every grocery store. There are not many manufactures of paper towels, Bounty, Brawny, Scott, Viva, Sparkle, Kleenex and each store typically has their own generic brand as well. Each of the companies who sell paper towels also can chose the quantities they sells them at, the most common are 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24. There is a very inelastic demand for paper towels since there are not many substitutes for them except individual paper towel squares. Just about every grocery store sells paper towels, Walmart, Target, Save a lot, Safeway etc. Paper towels are in an oligopoly market because there is only a select few sellers, and even with the small number of people selling the...

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...[pic] Georgia-Pacific is based in Atlanta, Georgia, and is one of the world's leading manufacturers of tissue, pulp, paper, packaging, building products and related chemicals. They have approximately 300 manufacturing facilities across North America, South America and Europe, ranging from large pulp, paper and tissue operations to gypsum plants, box plants and building products complexes. GP believes in creating long-term value for their company, customers and business partners. Their more than 40,000 employees are guided by Market Based Management® principles, which are based on integrity and compliance. These principles challenge their employees to achieve world-class excellence by constantly finding new and better ways to manufacture products and support the needs of their customers. GP also strongly believes in making significant contributions that support their neighbors and the environment. Through the Georgia-Pacific Foundation and various facility programs, GP employees work closely with non-profit organizations to promote growth and sustainability in the community. Recent innovations and company milestones: 2003: Introduced enMotion™ automated touchless paper towel dispensers and EasyNap napkin dispensers. [pic][pic] 2005: In a $21 billion transaction, Georgia-Pacific was acquired by Koch Industries and became a privately held, wholly owned subsidiary, continuing to operate from its Atlanta headquarters. 2007: Georgia-Pacific celebrated 80th......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Unit Set Up

...and rinse for 10 sec 5. dry with 2 separate paper towels 6. put mask on and wash glasses 7. put over gloves on and fill water bottle 8. put on utility gloves and wash 2 times Unit Prep: 1. items tray 2. soapy water 3. 2 wipes 4. 1 saturated paper towel 5. 2 paper towels 6. wipe: a. counter b. over-under keyboard c. top-bottom tray d. small-large baskets e. close kit and wipe 7. FOLD WIPE f. Upper arms g. Light 8. FOLD WIPE h. Chair- move to 4 i. Cords 9. FOLD WIPE j. Stool and throw wipe away 10. NEW WIPE k. Metal tray l. Turn on master switch m. A/W syringe n. Slush water line o. Wipe cords 11. FOLD WIPE p. Outside drawers and cabinets q. Wipe inside drawer 12. FOLD WIPE r. Fold down shelf s. Sink and counter 13. NEW WIPE t. Bases 14. WASH u. Utility gloves and saturate with disfinfectant v. Remove glasses with paper towel and wash w. Remove mask with paper towel x. Remove over gloves y. Wash hands for 2 10 second washes 15. RETRIEVE z. Mask and glasses Unit Supplies Tray cover, chair cover, syringe cover, bonnet, mouse cover, barrier tape On Tray Saliva ejector, 2 cotton apps, 2 tongue depressors, 4 guaze, 2 cotton rolls, floss, 1 patient bib, 1 rinse, 2 paper towels, 5 clear over gloves Metal......

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Product Evaluation

...Paper Towel Product Evaluation Over the years, numerous industries have expanded with many versions of the same product. This has left consumers with a tough decision on which products will offer them the best results. Paper towels are a perfect example of a product that has many different features that may make it better or worse than the brand next to it. With so many brands of varying price and quality to choose from, how are we to know which paper towel offered is the best value? This will be an evaluation on different brands of paper towels that are sold in stores throughout the world. Just because a certain brand of a product may cost more than a competing brand, it does not mean that it will give you better results than the other brands or that it will be the best at what you need it for. Paper towels were evaluated on cost, absorbency, and scrub strength (Cary I. Sneider and Jacqueline Barber). Cost was calculated by cost per square foot, absorbency by 11x12 inch section that was dipped into water then squeezed into a measuring cup, and scrub strength was measured by how many times it could be rubbed over tile when wet(“Paper Towels That Clean Up.”). Brands to be discussed are Bounty, Viva, and Scott. To begin with Viva, “the answer to life’s little messes”, (“Paper Towels That Clean Up.”) faired a bit on the pricy side at $.052 per square foot and $2.89 per roll. This brand also had the least amount of square feet per roll with 55.6ft. Not all bad comes from......

Words: 865 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Int1 Task 3

...PURPOSE The purpose of my experiment is to determine the effect of acid rain on seed germination. I chose this idea for a project because I have heard that acid rain is becoming a more prominent factor, around the world, due to pollution. I see reports of this in books and websites I've visited, as well as news articles I have read. LITERATURE REVIEW The germination test results from glass labeled “Trial 1” (100% water), and “Trial 5” (highest acid content) showed an 11% difference. The more acid contained in the water resulted in less seeds germinating. Rice, wheat and rape seeds were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0 levels for 7 days in order to understand the effects of acid rain on seed germination of various acid-fast plants. The germination test showed that seed germination was absolutely inhibited at pH 2.0 for three species. Rice and wheat seeds germinated abnormally at pH 2.5. When pH values above 3.0, percentage germination, germination energy, germination index, vigor index of rice, wheat and rape seeds increased in relation with decreased acidity levels. In contrast, the percentage of abnormal germination of rice and wheat decreased. The experiment data about physiological aspect demonstrated that water absorption rate, respiratory rate and storage reserve transformation rate of rice, wheat and rape seeds also......

Words: 1337 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Baking Soda Experiment

...baking soda and vinegar. The problem is how much baking soda, added to 10ml of vinegar, will cause a film canister rocket to shoot the furthest. I think the 7mLof baking soda is going to go the farthest because there is enough room for the gas or pressure to build up and explode. The experiment has an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is the amount of baking soda that is being controlled. The dependent variable is the amount of distance that is the result. Materials: • Baking Soda • Vinegar • Film...

Words: 550 - Pages: 3