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Philippine History

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Like the Hellenic religion of Ancient Greece, the early religion of the Filipinos was polytheistic. They worshipped different deities that have different domains and functions, often related to the daily lives of the believers. Bathalang Maykapal was superior to all other deities for he was believed to be the creator of earth and of man. Other deities were: Idiyanale, the god of agriculture; Lalahon, goddess of harvest; Balangaw, a rainbow god; Mandarangan, the god of war; Diyan Masalanta, god of love; Agni, the fire god; and many others. Objects of nature were to be respected. Old trees were considered “divine”. Anitos and diwatas, equivalent to our saints today, were offered prayers and food. Sacrificial rituals were performed by priests or priestesses called baylana or katalona. They believed in the immortality of the soul and in life after death. 2.2 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The forms of government during this time were aristocracy (in which power is in the hands of a small, privileged, ruling class) and plutocracy (in which society is ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens). These privileged people were the nobles. They were the chieftains of the barangay, along with their families. They enjoyed rights that were not usually enjoyed by the other members of the society. In the Tagalog region, they usually carried the title of Gat or Lakan. They wielded tremendous influence in the society. Next to the nobles were the freemen called mahadlika by the Tagalogs. The lowest class in the society was the alipins. They were the servants and slaves. There are two classes of alipins: Aliping Namamahay (householder), are those who enjoyed rights and privileges to land, had his or her own house that are usually within the domain or territory of his or her master. Aliping Sagigilid (hearth slave), refers to those alipin not enjoying rights and privileges. Purchased slaves and those captured from wars belong to this subclass. A sagigilid was highly dependent with his or her master, since had to provide him or her with food and shelter. The master had control over the sagigilid that he can easily sell his slave to another master. A sagigilid could buy his freedom in gold - for 30 golds, he or she can be freed from his or her master; and for 90 pesos, and he or she can be promoted to the next upper class.

Personalism refers to a broad array of movements and tendencies that privilege individual subjects over abstract systems. There were barangays but they were not united as one nation.
Agriculture was their main source of livelihood. They also did poultry, stock-raising, fishing, mining, lumbering and shipbuilding, and weaving to sustain their needs.
During these times, the laws, either customary or written, dealt with various subjects such as inheritance, divorce, usury, partnership, crime and punishment, property rights, family relations, adoptions, and loans.
In the barangay, the chieftain acts as judge and the barangay elders as jury. Trials were held publicly and immediately. To create a law, the chieftain of the barangay shall call the elders of the community and discuss what he had in mind. If the elders approve, a public announcer called umalohokan shall be ordered to announce the new rules to the people within the barangay.
Their judicial process was traditional, in the sense that it was rooted in their belief that God in his infinite wisdom always took the side of the innocent. To determine innocence, several ordeals were carried out by the suspects. Whoever refused, or whoever is in the worst shape after the performing the tasks shall be deemed guilty.
Even before the colonizers came, early Filipinos already had their own system of writing. Baybayin is an ancient pre-colonial Philippine writing system. It is a member of the Brahmic family of India and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century. They wrote on barks of trees, leaves, and bamboo tubes using their knives and daggers as pens and colored saps as ink. Early chroniclers, who came during the first Spanish expeditions to the islands, noted the proficiency of some of the natives, especially the chieftain and local kings, in Sanskrit, Old Javanese, Old Malay, and several other languages.
They utilized irrigation ditches to increase productivity in the field of agriculture. The prime example of this is the world-famous Banaue Rice Terraces.

In the 14th century, Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduced Islam into the southern islands and extended their influence as far north as Luzon. Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from the Indonesian islands. By the 16th century, Islam was recognized in the Sulu archipelago and spread from there to Mindanao. It had reached the Manila area by 1565. 3.4 RELIGION
Islam is a monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God.
The word "Islam" means "submission," reflecting the religion's central tenet of submitting to the will of God.
The single most important belief in Islam, and arguably the central theme of Islam, is that there is one God. The Muslim name for God is Allah, which is simply Arabic for "the God."
Muslims believe that God is the all-powerful Creator of a perfect, ordered universe. He is transcendent and not a part of his creation, and is most often referred to in terms and with names that emphasize his majesty and superiority. Among the 99 Beautiful Names of God in the Qur'an are: the Creator, the Fashioner, the Life-Giver, the Provider, the Opener, the Bestower, the Prevailer, the Reckoner, the Recorder, the King of Kingship and the Lord of the Worlds.
The sacred text of Islam, the Qur'an, was written in Arabic within 30 years of Muhammad's death. Muslims believe it contains the literal word of God as gradually revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel over the course of 20 years.

In every Islamic society, ‘Ulama’ and Sufis were the teachers and leaders. The ulama were the scholars knowledgeable about the Muslim hadith, law, and theology. Their primary function was instruction and judicial administration. The Sufis were the scholars, reformers, preachers, and miracle-working holy men. 3.6 SOCIAL RELATIONS
The social relations during this time became cultic as they were unified by their religion.
The Mindanao region is fertile and known to be rich in agricultural plantation, marine and mineral resources, More than half of the country’s rain forests are found in Mindanao. Mainland Mindanao has substantial mineral deposits. Gas and oil are dominant in the Sulu Sea. With its agricultural crops, marine products like seaweed and fish, these huge resources of the southern islands have sustained the people from Mindanao since the early times. There was also a barter system in which they traded goods with their neighbors. Domestic commerce among barangays and islands was prevalent.
Unlike Christianity, Islam does not separate religion from state, and many Muslims argue it is apolitical Islam not political Islam that requires explanation and that is an historical fluke of the "short-lived heyday of secular Arab nationalism between 1945 and 1970”. They follow the moral code and religious law of a Islam called the Sharia. It deals with all aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business law, contract law, sexuality, and social issues. There is not a strictly codified uniform set of laws that can be called Sharia. It is more like a system of several laws, based on the Qur'an, Hadith and centuries of debate, interpretation and precedent.
Education was traditional though their religion requires the Muslim Filipinos to study Arabic language and writing. 3. HISPANIC
The Spaniards succeeded in introducing Christianity to the Filipinos, though they failed to convert the majority of the people from Mindanao, where the Moslems staved off the Spanish efforts.
There were five principal social classes in the Philippines: the Peninsulares, Insulares, Clase Media, Chinese, and the Indio. The Spaniards born in Spain were called Peninsulares. They were the wealthiest and most politically influential by virtue of their being the foremost encomienderos, thus, owning vast tracts of lands and most of the inhabitants therein. The Insulares were the Philipine-born Spaniards. Though still of pure Spanish blood, they were derisively called Filipinos by the Peninsulares. They took important positions in the Spanish government in the Philippines. The Clase Media or the middle class had three subclasses: mestizos de Espanol (Spanish mestizos), principalia, and the mestizos de Sangley (Chinese mestizos). Mestizos are borne from mixed marriages of Spanish and any of the other classes, mostly local natives; or half-breeds of a mixed Chinese-native marriage. They constitute the local officials, owned some tracts of land and mostly controlled the retail trade. The principalia were the noble and educated class in the towns of colonial Philippines. The Chinese had been in the Philippines long before the Spaniards occupied the archipelago due to the trade between Chinese and the natives. Chinese settlements had been in Manila and the Spaniards tolerated them for their trading and manufacturing skills. Together with the Indios, however, the Chinese occupied the lowest base and majority of the social totem pole.
Ethnocentrism is the belief of superiority of one’s personal ethnic group, but it can also develop from racial or religious differences. This society was ethnocentric because the people who lived in the Philippines classified themselves in the society according to their races. It can also be aristocratic or plutocratic because the upper three wealthiest classes ruled the society.

Having one religion, social relations became cultic. It was also legalistic because there already was a due process. There were laws that dictate how you should treat your neighbors.
The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income in the Philippines during its early years of colonization. The Galleon Trade brought silver from New Spain and silk from China by way of Manila. Through this, the Philippines earned from buying silk from China and reselling it to New Spain. They also buy American silver and resell these to China.
The economic system was regalian, wherein the royal people enjoyed enormous wealth. It can also be feudalistic, the holding of land in exchange for service or labour, as evidenced by the indios who were slaved off when they cannot reclaim their lands. Gold and other metals were very valuable and therefore make it mercantilistic, too.
During the Spanish colonization, there were formal written laws. The Church and the State were unified therefore their laws were based on the teachings of the Church. There were also royal decrees from the King of Spain.
The earliest schools in the Philippines were in compliance with Charles V’s decree of July 17, 1550, which provided that indios in all the Spanish dominions were to be taught the conqueror’s language. Because of this, they started constructing formal schools in the Philippines. But because they did not want to be identified with the indios, they made the educational system aristocratic. The schools were exclusive for the elite (the peninsulares, insulares, and the clase media).

Christianity was still the main religion, though religion became open as the liberalists who have seen the different culture in different countries have learned that there exist religions other than Christianity. They compared religions and accepted that the Church was not at all perfect. 5.8 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
This society was said to be egalitarian; that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. But in fact, it really was an elitist society, believing that certain persons or members of certain classes or groups deserve favored treatment by virtue of their perceived superiority, as in intellect, social status, or financial resources. 5.9 SOCIAL RELATIONS
The rise of the ilustrados would not cause the inquietude of the friars were it not for the fact that many of them were being influenced by liberal ideas emanating from the mother country. The revolt in Spain, which had deposed Isabella II, succeeded in establishing a Provisional Republic, which for about two years (1868-1870) put liberalism in the saddle. Under the republic, General Carlos Maria de la Torre, a fierce liberal, was appointed the Governor-General of the Philippines. He encouraged free and open discussion of political and social problems. He abolished strict censorship of the press. He encouraged Filipinos to speak out boldly for the political rights. He openly affirmed his support of the Filipinization of the clergy and the secularization of the parishes held by the friars. 5.10 ECONOMY
During this time, there were Marxist dreams of being a capitalist country. But the fact that the Spanish monarchy and hacienda style colonial rule over the America and the Philippines was built upon concentration of wealth and land ownership to a very limited few makes it a feudal economy. At the time of Rizal, the Spanish empire, power of the king, and this hacienda system was in steep decline, disorganized, and had degraded into a feudal type system with local governors, military leaders, plantation owners, and bishops competing violently with one another for land, power, wealth, and rights to exploit local peasants. The industrial revolution of this era created the luxury of leisure and time for education which inspired the peasants to despise and oppose this dysfunctional, corrupt, feudal Spanish hacienda system in favor of the new concepts of self-rule or democracy. 5.11 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
The justice system during this time was very faulty. Injustices among the indios were prevalent. The lands of the indios were exploited. This and many other cruel actions paved way to liberalist reformists who went against the Spaniards. 5.12 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Educational system remained the same as the system during the Hispanic times, though many middle class families send their children to study in the Europe where they observed liberalist ideas.

The 333 years of Spanish colonization made the Christian religion very difficult, if not impossible to banish away. The religion was the same, though the American missionaries introduced Protestantism and a number of people were converted. 6.14 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The social classes during the American Period were the small number of cosmopolitan upper class and the large number of lower class. Middle class was an ambiguous term to determine one’s social standing. The lower and middle class were mostly seen in urban than rural areas. The society was said to be egalitarian or equal, but they practiced elitism and ethnocentrism, where they were classified according to their race and there is discrimination among the “inferior” race.

Social relations remained libertarian and legalistic but they also promoted individualist thinking. This is evident as the Americans prepared us for our independence during the Commonwealth. 6.16 ECONOMY
The economic development during the American period was rather typical colonial. The Philippine economy was strongly related to and depending on the United States. The Philippine economy was focused on mining and exporting crops. Industrial growth took place. 6.17 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
The Philippines became a democratic government and it was divided into three branches to avoid monopolization of power. 6.18 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Education became a very important issue for the United States colonial government, since it allowed it to spread their cultural values, particularly the English language, to the Filipino people. Volunteer American soldiers became the first teachers of the Filipinos. Part of their mission was to build classrooms in every place where they were assigned. The American soldiers stopped teaching only when a group of teachers from the U.S. came to the Philippines in June 1901. They came aboard the ship "Sheridan." In August 1901, 600 teachers called Thomasites arrived. Their name derived from the ship they traveled on, the USS Thomas.


Socialism is characterized by social ownership and control of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy, and a political philosophy advocating such a system. The proletarian people or the wage-earners valued only for their labor-power. 7.22 ECONOMY
In September 1972, Marcos declared martial law, claiming that the country was faced with revolutions from both the left and the right. He gathered around him a group of businessmen, used presidential decrees and letters of instruction to provide them with monopoly positions within the economy, and began channeling resources to himself and his associates, instituting what came to be called "crony capitalism." By the time Marcos fled the Philippines in February 1986, monopolization and corruption had severely crippled the economy. 7.23 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
“Never in the country’s history have there been so many decent Filipinos in confinement and behind bars. Likewise
Never in the country’s history, he recalled, "have there been so many decent Filipinos in confinement and behind bars." Likewise, "never in our history" have fugitives been hunted by the PC and AFP intelligence and special units all over the country. "They have become fugitives because they dared exp 7.24 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Protest Literature Protest literature—at other times, in other contexts, referred to as revolutionary literature, literature of engagement, combat literature, committed literature, literature of resistance, proletarian literature, people's literature, socially conscious literature, and perhaps a Philippine contribution to the taxonomy, the literature of circumvention (simply defined as "a body of works that expressed social and political protest in veiled terms")—has had a long history in the Philippines.

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...Leadership: A Must for Nation Building By: Christine Joy Itchon Julian Philippine history books let us know that our country had undergone countless revolutions, numerous heroic deeds and several struggle for reform and development. Leaders of different generation stand for justice and sacrifice themselves for “Freedom” and “Independence” from invaders and fought for “peace”. It was the scenario during the Spanish regime in our land. But the values that our ancestors portrayed must neither be forgotten nor be buried in the depth of forgetfulness rather they must always serve as a good example especially for the youth of this era. Like them we must not be afraid to assert our rights and fight for the truth and integrity. On the other hand we must also know our responsibilities in our community as well as our duty as a citizen of humanity. My fellow youth, in behalf of the Youth in Media and Sigaw KA!bataan, I am encouraging you to exercise your right to suffrage, our decision and vote will determine what lies ahead of us. Our choice is a crucial factor that will define what kind of government leaders will lead us after the election. We are given the chance to participate in a struggle of transformation. We must not miss that opportunity or let it pass us by. Let us make a change while there is still a chance because time will come that there will be a lot room for changes but no more chances. Let us take the initiative to be different. It is our call to action. Let us......

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...Candido, Arwald A. BSBA-III; Mgt219-B May 9, 2014 Insight Paper on Amir Khan’s Film “Lagaan” Who would ever know that if you fight for what you believe in the present will soon be reflected in the future. I never thought that success will come from those who believe in change and those who are willing to take a big risk even if their life will be on stake. “Lagaan” simply conveys a message that if you keep your face to the sunshine, you will never see the shadow like the optimist who has a greater scope of possibilities. According to Helen Keller, “Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.” Nonetheless, those people who believe in the power of their minds will make the impossible things possible. I have a doubt at first when I saw how the scenes are running. I’ve been overpowered by my pessimistic side like “what if” questions but in the long run it changes my perspective on things. Bhuvan, the main character in the story clearly shows the ideal leader that every nation should have. With the problem imposed to them which is they need to pay their tax twice, he was able to remove the imposition of tax by not paying it for three consecutive years. The root cause of all these can be traced back to the kind of government they have. It is weak and can be manipulated. For example is their Raja, overshadowed by fear, he doesn’t want to fight against the British Empire because he has this “utang na loob” to them. In......

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...Tandang Kutyo of Tanay, Rizal. History tells us that the cave served as hideout by Filipino revolutionaries during Spanish-American war, and a shelter during the Second World War. According to local folklore, it is where the Japanese and American troops settle their disputes. Thus, the Filipino word “Calinawan” comes from the word “Linaw” which means “to settle” or “to clear”. Long before the coming of Spaniards, Tanay was already settled by early Indonesian and Malay voyagers. Artifacts dug up attest to the existence of these early settlements. Not long after the conquest and subjugation of Manila and the surrounding lake areas by Salcedo in 1571, Franciscan missionaries arrived to Christianize the inhabitants of what is now the Morong-Pililla area. From Morongan, the priest administered Tanay and other chapel villages and ranches. In 1773, construction of the now famous Tanay Church was begun and was finished 10 years later. Tanay became a Municipality in 1894 as an effect of the Spanish Maura Law. The first election of Public Office took place in 1895-1898 and 1898-1900 under the Revolutionary Government of Philippines. Tanay members of the Katipunan fought valiantly during the Revolution against Spain. The town was the headquarters of the second military area of the Philippine Revolutionary Government under General Emilio Aguinaldo. And for a brief period between 1899 and 1900, Tanay served as the capital of the then Morong Province after Philippine-American War broke......

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