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Political Science

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III) Articles of Confed
a) Confederation
b) Specific Terms
c) General Results
d) Shays Rebellion
IV) Constitution
a) 4 key debates

B) Specific terms of the articles (about the national govt.)
• Unicameral legislature
• No power to tax
• No power to raise army
• No executive branch (could make laws but not enforce them)
• No judicial branch
• Unanimous vote needed to change Articles
C) General results of the Articles
• Weak and incomplete national govt.
• Economic chaos o States fund the war by borrowing money from federal govt. o Govt. wants the money back o Economy dries up and leads to a “trade war” with competing interest o States taxes their own citizens since they can’t borrow money o People (mostly farmers) lose their possessions and property since they can’t pay taxes o Damages the economy even more since farm family is out of work
• No sufficient national defense o Enemy 1 the British o French and the Spanish also potential threats o Native Indian tribes also potential threat
• States are left largely on their own (13 separate states, no unity)
D) Shay’s Rebellion

4 Key debates
1. Representation of the states (large population vs. small population) o States might be equal but not for individuals o Creates a Bicameral Legislation (2 houses) 1. Senate 2. House of reps (representation based on population) which is known as “the great compromise” o Defensive compromise; better at not getting stuff done than getting stuff done.
2. Slavery (north vs. south)
• In the constitution, Slavery is OK
• Importation of slaves is allowed for at least 20 years (1808)
• Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for state population – representation bonus for the south
• Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for state population – for taxes
• Return of escaped slaves
*South wins on the issue of slavery
3. Chief Executive (single vs. multiple)
• Federalists argued for the single presidency
• Anti-federalists argued for the multiple.
4. Bill of Rights
• New York becomes the key battle ground for the ratification of the constitution
• Madison, Hamilton, Jay, go to New York and write the Federalist Papers. Signed not with their names “publius” meaning public man; they wanted everyone to read them no matter what side you were on (pro or against) or without bias
IV) Constitution
A. James Madison
• Federalist paper number 10
• Faction solution? - Big extended Republic
• Why a “republic?” o Representatives as a buffer and a filter o Additional layer of representatives slows the process of government down
• Madison completely rejects Democracy because there is to buffer between people and government
• Why “extended?” o Large number of people make it more difficult to form a majority with the same interests (diversity) o Large geographical size makes it hard to communicate and organize, also creates a greater diversity of interests (diversity)
• Madison’s Political Theory (Federalist 51: the structural checks on tyranny) o Separation of powers (legislative/ executive/ judicial) o Checks and balances o Federalism (federal/ state/ local) o Offset elections “make govt. slow” o Indirect democracy (republic) o Limited democracy (indirect elections) o Multiple “blockage points” o Written constitution o Bill of rights
B. Specific Terms (of constitution)
• Bicameral legislature o House provides better representation for individual o Separation of power
• Power to tax
• Power to raise an army
• Executive branch
• Judicial Branch
• 2/3 to propose + 3/4 to ratify an amendment
• allows for change (can be big but slow)
C. General Results
• String and compete national government
• Economic stability
• Strong national defense
• Truly unifies the states
D. Constitution as a “living” document (how it changes)
1. Amendments*- we change the words. Ex:19th amendment (women’s right to vote)
2. Interpretation- we change the meaning of the words. Ex: Plessy v Ferguson (separate but equal); Brown v Board of education (segregation is unconstitutional)
3. Practice- we change what we do. Ex: the power to declare war (congress and president-> commander in chief)
4. Ambiguity*- we don’t know what’s going on. Ex: necessary and proper clause/ high crimes and misdemeanors.
V) Federalism
A. Federalism and other systems
B. Pros/ Cons
C. Constitutional foundation
D. Early history of federalism

A. Federalism and other systems
a. A system of powers sharing between levels of government (national state) in which the central/ national government
b. Federalism- division of government with national dominant o Most commonly found in large diverse nations o About 10% of countries in the world
c. Confederal system- division of government with the states dominant o Essentially none in the world
d. Unitary system- no division between levels o All government is central o 90% of countries in the world
B. Pros and cons of Federalism
a. Pros o Autonomy in diverse nations o Brings government closer to people o Innovation and experimentation
b. Cons o Lack of national standards and programs o Low visibility of lower governments o Inefficient
C. The long road to solidifying national government
D.
E. Modern History of federal relations
1. Grants
• Transfers money from the federal government to the state and or local government
• Not loans—the money never needs to be paid back
• Account for about 25% of the state and local government revenues
2. Types of grants
• Categorical (a lot of instructions, and specific rules for what to spend it on)
• Block (very few instructions, general category for what the money is for, also mandatory)
• Voluntary (first two have to take it, don’t have to take it)
i. Ex. Drinking age- highway money would be given if drinking age is set to 21
• Mandates (an unfunded fun. Ex: this is what you have to do but we wont give you $, paid entirely by the state)
3. New federalism
• Attempt to shift some power from the federal government to the states
• A) Nixon—block grants and general revenue sharing
• B) Reagan—block grants and cut federal spending
• C) Contract with America—block grants and eliminate mandates
4. Conclusion: power lies with the national government
F. Four models of federalism
1. Dual Federalism “Layer cake” (Federal/ State/ Local)
• There is little interaction between the levels of government
2. Cooperative federalism “marble cake” (Federal, state, local)
• Interaction occurs commonly between the levels of the government
3. Picket fence (1950-present) (Federal-state-local)
• The three levels are connected, there is interaction
• Each of the connections of the government represents policy issues o Crime, Education, National defense, economy, etc.…
4. Fiscal Federalism (federal state local) (1950-present)
• There is interaction but with explicitly money, from top down

Stone 2+3
• Self interest—Representation – Confederation + Distributed power (self interest is wrong/ incorrect)
• (benefit) Madison—Instrumental—Very high participation
• Stone—Cost benefit—Lowish participation
• Collective goods (a result of something where everyone gets something from it)
• Paradox of collective action (incentive to be a free rider)
VII) Interest groups
• Targets – national government
1. Congress – make laws, access – committee chair
2. President – indirect tactics
3. Courts – take a case – long time frame, $$, RISK – amicus curiae – friend of the court – legal position paper
VII. 5) CA Government and politics
• Progressivism (power directly in the hands of the people and limit the power of special interest groups)
• 3 new political processes
1. Initiative: the citizens of California to directly make a law (proposition)
• File + Pay a fee
• 150 days to collect signatures
• a number of signatures = 8% votes in the last statewide election
2. Referendum: citizens challenging the law passed by the state government
• File + Pay a fee
• 90 days to collect signatures
• a number of signatures = 5% votes in the last statewide election
3. Recall: removal of a state government official (want them out, and want out now)
• File + pay a fee
• 160 days to collect signatures o Executive branch = 12% of votes o State legislative or judicial branch =20% of votes
• Signature must come from at least 5 different counties
• (if able to do all of this, election has to be within 90 days)
Stone Ch. 5 (pluralism)
• Self interest (cost benefit/ non political) – Groups (most will be non political)
• Representation (political) – conflict + distribution of power
• Resources of interest groups add – money (non – cumulative) o Don’t add up the way things normally do o Sometimes one resource takes away from another o Ex. Size is better (cohesiveness: more organized = better off)
VIII) Political Parties
c. Two party system
d. Organization of political parties Proportional representation A B C D A-32 32 18 30 20 B-18 C-30 D-20
List Proportional representation
• At-Large district (one large district) o Anyone who wants to run can
List Proportional Representation- Parliamentary system
• The legislative branch, chooses the chief executive
• Always have unified government
D.1) Structure (National- State- Local) Local party are more “big picture and powerful”
• National: Service organization (give you information and money for campaign)
• State: Service organization (give you information and money for more specific reasons)
• Local: Volunteers- do most of the work for the campaign
D.2) Party vs. Candidate
1. Who choses the party of candidate? – The Candidate
2. Who raises the most money? – The Candidate
3. Who elects the candidate? – The people
IX) Campaign + Elections
A. History of suffrage
Four large Barriers
1. Property: the requirements of them eliminated by 1820’s
2. Race: Blacks right to vote 1870 – 15th amendment (literacy tests and poll taxes to prevent blacks from voting “grandfather clause”- if your grandfather had the right, so did you) Voting rights act of 1965. 1. Made it illegal to interfere with voting 2. Banned literacy tests 3. Federal registration project
3. Gender: 1920 – 19th amendment (woman’s right to vote)
4. Age: Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 – 1971 – 26th amendment
B. California electoral system
• 2011- Top two candidate open primary system o Open primary system o any registered voter can vote o runs off the top two candidate system o independents can vote in California o (closed primary; can only voted for the group you are registered in) o independents can’t vote o can only vote for registered political party running for office
C. Electoral System
• Single member winner take all plurality
• List proportional representation parliamentary system
D. Electoral College – (based on the states)
• The states are the ones who decide
• Each state is a winner take all system
• Each state gets a number of votes = # of reps + # of sens
• CA= 55 TX= 36 NY= 29 FL= 27
• 538 total votes, need 270 to win
• Battleground or swing states (what the pres. Wants)
1. Protect the small states
• California gets 55 votes (if a party wins all the votes from the citizens, then that party gets to use their 55 votes for California)
2. Can’t trust the people
• After the election, the representatives actually vote for who they want the pres to be after the people have their say
X) Congress
A. Review sheet
B. Roles of Representative
1. Delegate vs Trustee (mouth piece that speaks your opinion vs. uses their best judgment on the topic)
2. Demographics
3. Local vs National
C. Organization in congress
1. Bicameral (separation of powers)
2. Party leadership
• House of Reps- (Majority: speaker- majority leader- major whips- average members) (Minority: minority leader- minority whips- average member)
• Senate- (Majority: majority leader- majority whips- average member) (Minority: minority leader- minority whips- average member)

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