Premium Essay

Psychology Journal Critique Study

Submitted By
Words 923
Pages 4
Psychology Journal Critique Paper Example
Hopker, Foad, Beedie, Coleman, & Leech (2010) performed a study to determine how conditioned stimuli affect subsequent response to unconditioned stimuli. They used a placebo to act as conditioned analgesia to show how it affected subsequent analgesic response, which they coupled with an individual’s expectations of outcome of the interventions; positive outcome is expected if a person holds positive beliefs and vice versa (Hopker, Foad, Beedie, Coleman, & Leach, 2010).

The researchers applied their theory in sports medicine to show how a placebo analgesic affected the pain endurance after an injury. Previous studies have demonstrated that a person’s expectation of relief from pain has the ability to …show more content…
They hypothesized that if they linked application of the gel with the expectation of reducing pain, they would require a higher level of pain stimuli to elicit a certain pain response in placebos than that in controls.
Hopker et al had to adhere to ethical standards of deception in research because use of a placebo involves deception about the therapeutic effects of a substance; otherwise, the expected outcome is not achievable. They would inform the participants about it after they collected all data and would perform a medical exam to rule out any condition that would interfere with the outcome.
They chose twenty-four people, eight female and sixteen males who were in the university between the ages of 16 to 25. Pain induced artificially in the range used during electrotherapy, one pole on superior part of gastrocnemius and the other on inferior part, and the frequency set high to avoid involuntary contraction of muscles and increased gradually to make it easy to assess the level of stimulation. They did the experiments five times over five weeks using the same leg with the other as control then reversed later on. The level of stimulation required to elicit a 6 to 10 pain level on visual analog scale was the dependent …show more content…
They first determined the perceived pain rating of 6/10 by the participants then application of a placebo made of ultrasound transmission gel with added camphor oil for olfactory stimulation and informed the participants it was an analgesic used by professional sportsmen and reduced muscle pain.
After that, the pain stimulation introduced again but decreased by 20% though the participants informed it was the same level as before in order to create a false impression of reduced pain because of the placebo. The level of stimulation for a pain scale of 6/10 was set in the baseline trials. In subsequent tests, the participants allowed to set the level of stimulation that elicited pain scale of 6/10 to provide a baseline then the placebo applied and the procedure repeated on the experimental and control legs, different from those used during the first trial; they then repeated baseline after

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Article Critique

...RES/351 Article Critique Article Critique Carl Bubeck University Phoenix Abstract The critique of "Attitudes Towards Tax Evasion: A Demographic Study of the Netherlands" will show if the article and the study followed, or failed to follow, the criteria for good research, as described in Chapter 1. I will describe if the writer’s conclusions were warranted and which were not based on the information in the article and its supporting documents. Article Critique In the article "Attitudes Towards Tax Evasion: A Demographic Study of the Netherlands" Ross and McGee attempt to say that the new studies about the attitudes of tax evasion have better support and research about those attitudes. The authors use a variety of historic studies and a recent study to support their theory. Depending on the reason people feel it is ok to avoid paying taxes. Attitudes Towards Tax Evasion: A Demographic Study of the Netherlands A number of studies have examined the relationship between tax collection and various demographic variables. However, until recently most of those studies have involved a United States sample population (Ross, McGee 2012, P2). This article review the data from typical IRS data as well as additional supportive criteria for the sturdy. Ethical issues were introduced through a series of questions to members of differing demographics. This data was then compared in a trend analysis to determine if there has been a change in the views of people regarding...

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Road Not Taken

...‘So I Thought ‘Bollocks to it’: Men, Stories and Masculinities. 4. ‘Bad as My Mate’: Stories in Sequence. 5. ‘She’d Made Sardines in Aspic’: Women’s Stories, Men’s Stories and the Construction of Gender. 6. ‘I’m Quite Good at Mexican Food’: Men’s Narratives in Mixed Conversation. 7. ‘Still in Shock Weren’t You Darling’: Masculinity and the Heterosexual Couple. 8. ‘There are Problems’: Men’s Talk and Contemporary Masculinities. Cowburn, Malcolm. (2004). Men, masculinities and what men do: the relationship of critique and change (invited review essay). Sexualities, 7, 4 497-501. Edley, N. (2001a). Analysing masculinity: Interpretative repertoires, ideological dilemmas and subject positions. In M. Wetherell, S. Taylor & S. Yates. (eds.), Discourse as data: a guide for analysis (pp. 189-229). London: Sage Publications. Edley, N. (2001b). I. Conversation analysis, discursive psychology and the study of ideology: A response to Susan Speer. Feminism & Psychology, 11(1), 136-140. Edley, N., and M. Wetherell. (1997). Jockeying for position: the construction of masculine identities. Discourse and Society, 8(2), 203-217. Herring, Susan, Deborah A. Johnson, and Tamra DiBenedetto. (1995). ‘This Discussion is Going Too Far!’: Male Resistance to Female Participation on...

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Miller

...Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1978, Vol. 87, No. 1, 49-74 Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation Lyn Y. Abramson and Martin E. P. Seligman University of Pennsylvania John D. Teasdale Oxford University, England The learned helplessness hypothesis is criticized and reformulated. The old hypothesis, when applied to learned helplessness in humans, has two major problems: (a) It does not distinguish between cases in which outcomes are uncontrollable for all people and cases in which they are uncontrollable only for some people (univervsal vs. personal helplessness), and (b) it does not explain when helplessness is general and when specific, or when chronic and when acute. A reformulation based on a revision of attribution theory is proposed to resolve these inadequacies. According to the reformulation, once people perceive noncontingency, they attribute their helplessness to a cause. This cause can be stable or unstable, global or specific, and internal or external. The attribution chosen influences whether expectation of future helplessness will be chronic or acute, broad or narrow, and whether helplessness will lower self-esteem or not. The implications of this reformulation of human helplessness for the learned helplessness model of depression are outlined. Over the past 10 years a large number of experiments have shown that a variety of organisms exposed to uncontrollable events often exhibit subsequent disruption of behavior (see Maier & Seligman...

Words: 16888 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Journal Article Critique (Amn400 - Consumer Behaviour)

...AMN 400 - Consumer Behaviour Assessment Item 1 - Journal Article Critique Word Count: 944 Words Introduction Thøgersen, Jørgensen & Sandager in their 2012 article Consumer Decision Making Regarding a “Green” Everyday Product” discuss consumer’s interaction with brands through the lens of product differentiation and the effects on involvement in the purchase process. The article examines the consumer behaviour of involvement and develops an understanding qualifying the differences between a high involvement interaction and a simple heuristic with respect to an everyday product. The Evaluative result is mixed: The article’s approach demonstrates a highly developed research methodology with clear and concise conclusions. However, there are assumptions made with respect to the participants and the subject matter which detract from the consistency of the article, resulting in a narrow perspective. Summary The article considers brand differentiations in a segmented market, hypothesising the heightened involvement a consumer experiences when brand presentation is geared towards an aspect that connotes emotive associations. The authors conduct observations and interviews with a set of consumers purchasing an “everyday” item from two department stores in Denmark to ascertain their purchasing attitudes and decision making processes when considering brand alternatives. the focus of this study was the engagement of consumers with environmentally sustainable or “green” products;...

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Training and Development

...School of Psychology 2013 Paper Outline  Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences   PSYC573-13A (HAM) Personnel Training & Development Lecture times/rooms: Thursdays, 09:00am – 10:50am. Room I1.08. Lecturer/Convenor: Donald Cable, Room K1.01. Extn: 8296. Email: dcable@waikato.ac.nz Student consultation hours: Thursdays 14:00-15:00. Other times by appointment. Paper Description The aim of this paper is for you to develop an understanding of the theory, research, and practice relating to training and development (including career development) in organizations. Upon successfully completing this course, you should be able to:     understand, and apply personnel training and development psychology theory and research, and bridge the gap between this and the practice, conduct training needs analyses and evaluate training and development (including career and professional development) initiatives, identify or develop training programs which incorporate sound principles of learning and training transfer, identify and develop the competencies that will support you in pursuing a career as an organizational psychology (or HR) practitioner with a focus on the training and development of individuals in organizations. Blending the exploratory learning aspect of Active Learning with proceduralized instruction, and creating a learning environment within which students are actively encouraged to construct knowledge, this paper includes lectures with associated readings, student seminars...

Words: 2943 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Pukimak

...acquire a research article from a peer reviewed journal and critique the contents of the article. Use the five general guidelines from the text book in your review and analysis of the article (listed below). In typing up the review please do not simply go through each of the questions listed below and give a response. It should read similar to a book review. You may find that in the article you are reviewing not every question will apply and you do not need to answer every question listed but do be as comprehensive as possible in your review. Remember the focus is on strengths and weaknesses of the article. The following reference is the first article you should review. A Comparison of CBT and EMDR for Sexually-abused Iranian Girls.   Jaberghaderi, Nasrin; Greenwald, Ricky; Rubin, Allen; Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, Vol 11(5), Sep-Oct 2004. pp. 358-368. [Original Journal Article] I. Preliminary Analysis of an Article 1. What are the author’s credentials and institutional affiliation? 2. Has the author’s work been cited by others? 3. Is the publication current or dated? 4. Is the work published by a publisher of professional books or journals? 5. Is the work peer reviewed? 6. Is the source a scholarly journal? II. The Introduction 7. Has relevant research been adequately reviewed? 8. Are assertions supported with the appropriate citations? 9. Are the purposes of the study clearly stated? 10. Are the hypotheses clearly...

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Management

...Critical Review Essay Sustainable and Systems Thinking (7920IBA) Critical Review of “The Norm of Self-Interest” Introduction Miller’s (2001) article “The Norm of Self-Interest” discusses that the average person is a self-interest theorist, self-interest and behavior, self-interest and accounts of behavior, self-interest predict behavior better than attitudes and Incentives having impact on charitable donations. This paper will discuss the particular norm that pertains to beliefs about the extent to which attributes and behaviors of others are dictated by self-interest. Miller (2001) argues that the theory of self-interest has causal power and how it plays a role in its own confirmation, is the core focus of this article. Critiques of Miller’s hypothesis will be from influential theories of human behavior, including evolutionary biology, behaviorism, and psychoanalytic theory (Etzioni, 1988; Kohn, 1990: Schwartz, 1986; Wallach & Wallach, 1983). Specifically, describes the evidence for a norm of self-interest, whereby people expect that others’ attitudes and behaviors will be guided by personal stake (Miller, 1999; Miller & Ratner, 1996, 1998; Ratner & Miller 2001). Miller (2001) argues that these expectations can have profound implications for charitable donations for both money and time. For e.g., when a spokesperson for a cause solicits support from others, the targets for the advocacy requests feel that it is harder to say no when the advocate indicates...

Words: 2398 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Journal Article Critique

...An Empirical Analysis of Trends in Psychology By Richard W. Robbins, Samuel D. Gosling and Kenneth H. Craik Tanya McKinley (student) AU ID 3049260 PSYC 290 Journal Article Critique 1 I. Research Question or Problem The question is clearly stated. The purpose of Robbins’ et al study was to focus on trends in the prominence of four influential and widely recognized schools within psychology: psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology and neuroscience (Robbins, 1999, pp. 1172). II. Introduction The introduction gives us an overview of three indexes of prominence the authors used to compare and determine which of the four schools are currently prominent and what specific trends can be identified over the past several decades (Robbins, 1999, pp. 118). III. Methods Four articles were chosen as flagship publications. The psychINFO data base was used to measure the proportion of articles relevant to each school that appeared in the flagship publications. Keyword searches were used to retrieve all articles containing a specified word stems to identify articles within a behaviorist school (as cited by Robbins, 1999, pp. 118). IV. Results The results are clearly stated. Data was gathered and graphs were used to plot the percentage of articles associated with the keywords that represent each school (Robbins, 1999, pp. 121-126). V. Discussion/Conclusions The conclusion was discussed (Robbins, 1999, pp. 127-128). Suggestions for practical implications were...

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Journal Article Critique Paper

...Journal Article Critique Paper BSHS 435 January 15 2016 Literature Review In this article critique paper as a team we are researching what the effects are that a behavioral specialist has on the behavioral control for the mentally disabled. While not all clients have improvement, with evaluation in methodology in mental illness, the causes of the positive or negative program outcomes become the primary focus of study. Behavioral specialist teach their clients the skills that they need to improve on their personal social skills. Unlike other research methodologies, evaluation research is usually initiated by someone's need for a decision to be made about policy, program management, or strategic planning. It is important to understand the effects that a behavioral specialist has on the mentally disabled. With evaluation in methodology in mental illness, the causes of the positive or negative program outcomes become the primary focus of study. Using program goals and actual individual and group performance measures in meeting these objectives, evaluation researchers attempt to locate factors related to the actual program outcomes. Traditionally, an evaluator will work directly with program leadership, staff, and consumers to determine the most salient factors that define program performance concerning the goals of a program. In ideal evaluation study situations, mental health service program staff, directors, funding sources, and all other groups that have a stake...

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Consumer Behaviour Theory

...Jeff Bray Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models...............................................2  1.1 Consumer behaviour & consumer decision making ............................................2  1.2 Theoretical approaches to the study of consumer behaviour..............................3  1.3 Economic Man .....................................................................................................4  1.4 Psychodynamic Approach ...................................................................................4  1.5 Behaviourist Approach ........................................................................................5  1.6 Cognitive Approach .............................................................................................6  1.6.1 Cognitive Models of Consumer Behaviour ..................................................9  1.6.1.1 Analytic Cognitive Models ..................................................................10  1.6.1.2. Prescriptive Cognitive Models............................................................20  1.7 Humanistic Approach ........................................................................................25  1.7.1 Humanistic Models of Consumer Behaviour..............................................25  1.9 Summary ............................................................................................................28  References.................

Words: 10006 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Paper

...magazine | | | A journal article from the PsychInfo database | 5 points   Question 2 1. What is the purpose of the abstract? | | A short summary where the author makes a convincing case for why the reader should continue reading the entire article or paper. | | | A brief paragraph whose purpose is to provide an overview of the thesis or research question. | | | A brief paragraph at the end of a paper that sums up the conclusions drawn by the author. | | | The introduction to the literature review portion of an empirical article. | 5 points   Question 3 1. When is a direct quote, in quotation marks, used in a scholarly paper? | | When the author has summarized information from their source. | | | When the author has used information from their source word for word. | | | When the author is giving their own opinion. | | | When the author is listing items. | 5 points   Question 4 1. What is the correct order of the sections in an empirical or research paper? | | Introduction, discussion, method, results | | | Introduction, method, results, discussion | | | Introduction, method, discussion, results | | | Introduction, results, discussion, method | 5 points   Question 5 1. Which of the following is NOT a specialized career path in the field of Psychology?   | | School Psychology | | | Health Psychology | | | Relationship Psychology | | | Counseling Psychology | 5 points   Question...

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Experimentation

...Experimentaion In: Experimentaion Experimentation Critique An article in the Teaching of Psychology Journal illustrates how a group of undergraduates used a Web-Based Self and Peer Assessments Systems in evaluating proposals for experimental psychology. An interest to teachers is grasping at students for involvement in experiments, and for students gain an opportunity to applying their skills to assess their observations empirically. Researchers observe the participants over a quantitative research, considering various styles, and techniques for data collecting. This study was an observation. Results will determine that the students build an improved understanding between the proposals created before the experiment and after the assessment to establish quality work. The study is an experimental research, in which “intervention by the researcher beyond that is required for measurements to determine the effect on another variable” (Cooper & Schindler, 2006, p. 709). The researchers placed the participants into teams, and the teams picked a topic taught in class, and create a proposal. In this paper, the attention is on the method, independent and dependent variable, observation techniques, and the sampling plan. Method Chang, Lee, Lin, and Sung, from the national Taiwan Normal University conducted this study. The study consisted of monitoring and observation of the data collected, measured, and analyzed. The study depends on experimental method and quantitative data collection...

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Research Paper

...Running head: Research Paper 1 Research Paper: Research of Articles’ Literature, Methods & Findings Running head: Research Paper 2 Research Paper: Research of Articles’ Literature, Methods & Findings My research consisted of the critique of 3 articles. Within my paper, I will summarize, critique, and capture implications of the articles. The first article is Assessing Personality in the DSM-5: The Utility of Bipolar Constructs. The second is Predicting the Behavior of Offenders with Personality Disorder: Issues for Investigative Psychology. The last article is Interactions between Bipolar Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder in Trait Impulsivity and Severity of Illness. All articles have something to do with personality disorders. The article Assessing Personality in the DSM-5: The utility of Bipolar Constructs was written by Douglas B. Samuel. The 8 page article was published by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. This article was about the DSM-5 labeling the personality disorders as categorical constructs. Most of the categorical labels can provide relatively straightforward and rapid communication about a person. These types of categories will lead to more stimulating research and generate specific treatment recommendations. There are some disadvantages to the categorical approach including the excessive diagnostic co occurrence, inadequate coverage, excessive heterogeneity within the categories, lack of meaningful or well-validated boundary...

Words: 1116 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Models of Individual Behavior

...Jeff Bray Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models...............................................2  1.1 Consumer behaviour & consumer decision making ............................................2  1.2 Theoretical approaches to the study of consumer behaviour..............................3  1.3 Economic Man .....................................................................................................4  1.4 Psychodynamic Approach ...................................................................................4  1.5 Behaviourist Approach ........................................................................................5  1.6 Cognitive Approach .............................................................................................6  1.6.1 Cognitive Models of Consumer Behaviour ..................................................9  1.6.1.1 Analytic Cognitive Models ..................................................................10  1.6.1.2. Prescriptive Cognitive Models............................................................20  1.7 Humanistic Approach ........................................................................................25  1.7.1 Humanistic Models of Consumer Behaviour..............................................25  1.9 Summary ............................................................................................................28  References..................................

Words: 10006 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Professional

...Perspective (Prentice Hall), Ch.2, pp.66-77 c. Week 6ab: - Read Moffet, M., Stonehill, A. & Eiteman, D. (2006) Fundamentals of Multinational Finance, Chapter 20 & Read Stanley Works & Corporate Inversion (pages 541-545) d. Week 7a 7b: - Moffat, Stonehill & Eiteman (2006). Fundamentals of Multinational Finance, Ch.19 - Gardner & Weirich (1992). Business Investigations: How CFOs can manage risk through information, Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, Vol.10, Issue 1, (pp.129-139). - Madura & Fox (2007). International Financial Management, Ch. 19, pp.652, 659-661 e. Week 8a : - Chetty, S. & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004) ‘A Strategic Approach to Internationalization: A Traditional Versus a “Born-Global” Approach’, Journal of International Marketing, 12 (1), pp. 57-81. - Knight, G. A. (2001) ‘Entrepreneurship and strategy in the international SME’, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 7, pp. 155-171. - Moen, O. & Servais, P. (2002) ‘Born Global or Gradual Global? Examining the Export Behaviour of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises’, Journal of International Marketing, 10 (3), pp. 49-72. f. Week 12ab: -...

Words: 1922 - Pages: 8