Premium Essay

Russia: Organized Crime and Politics- How Serious an Issue?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By mxg371
Words 1239
Pages 5
Background: Since the late 1980’s the Russian people have experienced one of the most drastic transitions seen in the world to date, a transition from an attempt at communism to a workable capitalist system. As one would expect, this transition has not been painless and has been the impetus of many distressing problems for the Russian people. One such problem is organized crime. Organized crime during Soviet rule and the Russian Federation has created obstacles in this transition to a functioning market economy. This transition from the USSR to the Russian Federation has impaired Russia’s attempts at a market economy. It has worked its way through openings provided by the transition economy to become a setback to the Russian society and economy. Organized crime disables successful economic reform by influencing important issues such as competition, entrepreneurship, capital flight, the shadow economy, and violence.
The major roots of organized crime in Russia go back to the middle of the twenty century. As early as the 1970’s, the Russian mafia had advanced to the status of primary protectors and beneficiaries in the robust Soviet shadow economy. By 1991, organized crime had expanded to form over 700 gangs in the Russian republic alone. This expansion was aided by Perestroika’s, a political movement within the Communist Party, opening up of market opportunities. In Leningrad, as much as ninety percent of the cooperatives produced by the liberal policies of Perestroika were deeply involved with organized crime.
Specifically, two characteristics of the USSR were integral in the development of a powerful organized crime syndicate. These were an excessive bureaucratic power and the presence of illegal markets. This excessive bureaucratic power facilitated organized crime by providing a basis for corruption, bribery, shakedowns, and extortion. According to the

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Russian Patriotic Hacking

...cyberattacks, many security professionals are greatly troubled by the real threat to the information technology infrastructure in the United States. While safeguarding information has been a major issue for the private and public sectors since the beginning of the computer era, the increased level of concern over the most recent attacks has resulted in devoting more resources to combat this threat. This paper analyzes numerous cyberattacks by Russian computer enthusiast group Chaos Hackers Crew and other hacktivists during Operation Allied Force in 1999, that included taking down and defacing various NATO and US Government websites, several successful virus propagation attempts on military servers and countless spamming storms. This particular case raises curious questions about the legal definition of term cyberconflict itself, magnitude of the damage from a potential cyberattack on U.S. Government by terrorists and the level of preparedness of key military and intelligence units for the cyberwar. The cyberterrorism threat is real, however it’s essential to recognize that preserving the state of continuous distress over computer vulnerabilities can be profitable. Based on this research, cultural differences play a huge role in the world of computer hackers who decide what entity to attack and how, also the scale of a cyberattack doesn’t matter as economic damage can be devastating regardless of its size. Global governments need to continue working on creating workable laws that accurately...

Words: 8586 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Dunbar Notes

...Russell Ellis Simerly III AP European History Chapter 17—The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth Century Thought Chapter Overview: The Enlightenment is a movement of people and ideas that fostered the expansion of literate sectors of European society and that economic improvement and political reform were both possible and desirable. Contemporary western political and economic thought is a product of Enlightenment thinking; therefore, some historians believe the process of Enlightenment continues today. Inspired by the scientific revolution and prepared to challenge traditional intellectual and theological authority, Enlightenment writers believed that human beings can comprehend the operation of physical nature and mold it to achieve material and moral improvement, economic growth, and administrative reform. Enlightenment intellectuals advocated agricultural improvement, commercial society, expanding consumption, and the application of innovative rational methods to traditional social and economic practices. The spirit of innovation and improvement came to characterize modern Europe and Western society. Politically, the Enlightenment had a direct impact on some rulers--in eastern and central Europe—whose policies came to be known as enlightened absolutism. Section One: Formative Influences of the Enlightenment Section Overview Chief factors that fostered the ideas of the Enlightenment The Newtonian worldview the political stability and...

Words: 5147 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Counterterrorism Measures

...EGERTON UNIVERSITY NAIROBI CITY CAMPUS FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF PEACE, SECURITY & SOC. STUDIES M.A SECURITY MANAGEMENT NAME : MWITI GITONGA MBERIA ADM NO : AM21/0425/13 ASSIGNMENT : TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM COURSE CODE : SECU. 715 COURSE TITLE: TERRORISM AND COUNTERTERRORISM SUPERVISOR : MADAM LOUISE MACHARIA DATE OF SUBMISSION: 16TH NOVEMBER, 2014 ACRONYMS CJM – Criminal Justice Model WM – War Model ECJM – Expanded Criminal Justice Model MACP – Military Aid to Civilian Power SIGNT – Signal acquired Intelligence HUMINT – Human acquired Intelligence ELINT - Electronic Communications Intelligence 1.0 INTRODUCTION Terrorists commit acts of great atrocity and inhumanity, and many affected by such acts may be tempted to take “an eye for an eye” approach, but it is important that any response or emergency powers follow democratic principles. By retaliating harshly, the state runs the risk not only of looking like an oppressive bullying regime but also of alienating the public, thus perhaps causing sympathy for the terrorists and making it harder for the state to refuse their demands. The counterterrorist approach/capability needs to have a preventive (before), responsive (during), and “post” or “after” approach to deal with incidents and eventualities afterward. If conflict...

Words: 6026 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Vanness

...No. 2060 August 7, 2007 The Estonian Economic Miracle The Honorable Mart Laar Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, at the crossroads of East and West, South and North. Samuel Huntington states that the Estonian border is a border of Western civilization, a border where civilizations clash.1 This has made Estonia interesting to historians but hard for people who live there. Throughout history, Estonians have had to fight for their freedom. In 1918, Estonia declared independence. It was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 during the Second World War. We fought the communist terror during the war but were defeated. As a result of the occupation, Estonia lost nearly 20 percent of its population. But we never gave up. When the 1980s offered us a new chance, we took advantage of it. Estonia became one of the first countries to pry open the cracks in the Soviet Empire. Finally, in 1991, after 50 years of occupation, Estonia became free again. We had freedom but little else. Estonia was destroyed during the period of communist rule. In 1939, Estonia’s living standards and way of life were more or less the same as neighboring Finland’s. Then Estonia lost its independence, but Finland, despite losing territory and population, succeeded in keeping its independence. Life under two different political systems created a huge disparity in the development of Finland and Estonia. People learned and worked hard on both sides of the Finnish Bay, but only the Finns...

Words: 7623 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Harvard Style (Agps)

...Clausewitz: In Praise of Hate ACT 1, SCENE VIII. A field of battle. MARCIUS I'll fight with none but thee; for I do hate thee. AUFIDIUS We hate alike: Not Afric owns a serpent I abhor More than thy fame and envy. Fix thy foot. The Tragedy of Coriolanus William Shakespeare Over the last fifteen years, the U.S. government has wrestled continuously with how properly to approach the ongoing phenomena of burgeoning regional terrorism and global insurgency. In an effort to cognitively frame the rising power of ethnic and racial groups resident in formerly weak or powerless states that are the main sources of current conflict, it has settled upon characterizing the new operational environment as “complex.”1 To some, this characterization may seem to imply that the socio-political and socio-cultural operational environments in which military forces had to operate previously were not complex; that the operational environments in which such conflicts as the American Civil War, World War I or II, or Vietnam were fought were simpler. Irrespective, the reason the now somewhat voguish term complex may have gained its current ascendancy in the lexicon is that it expiates semantically the frustration strategists and policy makers feel toward pesky conflicts not only in Iraq and Afghanistan waged by resilient adversaries, but emerging conflagrations throughout the Middle East and Africa led by stateless entities such as Al Qaida and the Islamic State that they...

Words: 7281 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Strategy

...The Grand Strategy of the United States by R.D. Hooker, Jr. INSS Strategic Monograph Institute for National Strategic Studies National Defense University The Grand Strategy of the United States R.D. Hooker, Jr. INSS Strategic Monograph National Defense University Press Washington, D.C. October 2014 Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or implied within are solely those of the contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Defense Department or any other agency of the Federal Government. Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited. Portions of this work may be quoted or reprinted without permission, provided that a standard source credit line is included. NDU Press would appreciate a courtesy copy of reprints or reviews. Cover: President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden meet with members of the National Security Council in the Situation Room of the White House hours before his national address, September 10, 2014 (The White House/Pete Souza) First printing, October 2014 Contents The Roots of American Grand Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A Century Like No Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Ends of Grand Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Means of Grand Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

Words: 14241 - Pages: 57

Free Essay

Strategic Implications from the People’s Republic of China’s Influence in the Americas: Potential Consequences Facing the United States, Brazil &Venezuela

...SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS J. Sebastian Smith The Bahamas October 2011 Title Strategic Implications from the People’s Republic of China’s Influence in the Americas: Potential Consequences facing the United States, Brazil &Venezuela Abstract This research seeks to examine the strategic implications facing the United States of America’s due to its benign interest in the Caribbean and Latin America (Americas) given the People’s Republic of China (China) increasing economic interest in the region. It is intended to first define the current security environment of the Americas and the relations between Brazil and Venezuela with that of the United States of America (United States) and China. Thereafter, China’s economic and domestic agenda in the Americas will be examined with hypotheses of the emerging global power potential growth success, challenges or possible collapse in her foreign policy. The likely consequences facing Brazil, Venezuela and the United States will also be examined. The assessment will be done across a continuum of China’s realized economic growth, development of hostile relations due to competition for scarce energy sources or possible collapse due to the country’s internal problems. Finally, the research seeks to encourage proactive thinking by the United States on China’s increasing political and...

Words: 9457 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

History Ib Review Notes

...Higher Level History Notes 19th Century Russia The Russian people are descendants of the ‘Rus’ who are thought to be a mixture of Scandinavian and Slavic origin and settled in that region out of ± 800 AD Byzantine Empire A major legacy of the Byzantine Empire for the Russians was the eastern orthodox or Greek Orthodox Church With the decline of Byzantium came a wave of conquest from the East, the Mongols until the 15th century (Tatars). To a large extent, the Mongols allowed Russians to maintain their way of life: - Slavic based languages including writing system (Cyrillic) - Orthodox religion The Russians adopted much from Asian culture and this led western Europeans to think less of the Russians Geographically Russia was isolated from the rest of Europe: - Entirely land locked (mostly) - Huge Plains of Eastern Europe prevented overland travel During these early years there were a series of muscovite princes based in Moscow and called themselves Tsars. By the 17th century the Romanov family became the ruling dynasty: - Alexander I (1801-1825) - Nicholas I (1825-1855) - Alexander II (1855-1881) - Alexander III (1881-1894) - Nicholas II (1894-1917) Under the rule of Peter the Great (1689-1728) Russia grew greatly in size and entered the European World www.ibscrewed.org The Russia of 1800 was one of the greatest autocracies in Europe where: - The Tsar’s rule was absolute - There was a small...

Words: 32400 - Pages: 130

Free Essay

Solutions to the Weaknesses of Globalisation and Corruption

...to the weaknesses of globalization and corruption in the world that we are currently living based on the mixed economic worldview which is my personal economic worldview which threatens to undermine the stability of economic and political development on both a national and global scale, and which requires both immediate and wide-ranging policy interventions. The recent concern with corruption is attributable, not to any substantive increase in corrupt practices, but rather, to the re-framing of corruption in light of broader shifts and transformations within the global economy. The historical context of globalization covers centuries. This paper reviews the types, forms as well as the consequences of corruption. The paper also reviews the issues associated with globalization and the effect it has on the lives of various individuals. It questions the view that, under certain conditions, corruption may enhance efficiency and argues that though corruption may benefit powerful individuals it will indubitably lead to greater inefficiency and a waste of resources at a macro-economic level. Table of Contents ABSTRACT i INTRODUCTION iii BACKGROUND iv Forms of Corruption vi 1.1 Bribery vi 1.2 Theft and fraud vi 1.3 Embezzlement vi 1.4 Nepotism vi 1.5 Conflict of Interest vi 1.6 Favouritism vii Types of Corruption vii 2.1. Grand corruption vii 2.2 Political corruption vii 2.3 Corporate corruption vii 2.4 Administrative corruption vii 2.5 Petty corruption...

Words: 5314 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Is Aanteken

...International Security Lecture 1 March 30th, 2015 The politics of security knowledge What is international security? We could start thinking about the security council of the UN But also about the invasion of Afghanistan (chapter 7 UN in order to secure the international security) We can also think about security in terms of the invasion of Iraq in 2003. This was a unilateral act of war, but sure it can also mean other things We can think of the national security agency, the agency in charge of spying all the signals and communications to a certain extent. What’s interesting about the NSA, it is seen as a threat to the security of the privacy. Lately, with the reports of the UN development programme, we start talking about HUMAN security (not military security, but rather the security of individuals, having a livelihood that’s acceptable). Whether security is international or not, it can be a rather confusing word The protection of values we hold dear. We search for it, we pursue it, we achieve it, we deny it to others. * what is to be secured? Is it the security of states? Or individuals? * What is the actual threat that we’re facing? Primarily to be dealing with military threats, or are there other types of threats we are facing. Essentially contested concept A concept that ‘inevitably’ involves endless disputes about their proper uses on the part of their users – Walter Gallie There can be ambiguity (one persons freedom-fighter is the other’s...

Words: 16869 - Pages: 68

Free Essay

Thesis

...Siena, Palazzo Pubblico Sala dei Nove 1337-1340 Declaration This dissertation is the result of my own work and includes nothing, which is the outcome of work done in collaboration. Chapter 3, “Complexity, TOC and Terrorism”, was presented in an embryonic form at the ISA conference in Chicago, USA, March 2007. Chapter 4, “Organised Crime”, is the further elaboration of a chapter of the same title published in 2007 in the Oxford Handbook on the United Nations Statement of Length The dissertation does not exceed the word limit of 80,000 words Fieldwork Thailand (money laundering); Indonesia and Burma (deforestation); New York (US money supply); Washington DC and Fort Worth, Texas (Organised Crime linked to terrorist funding); Australia (Sydney, (APG) and Canberra (money laundering, South Pacific); and Rome, Italy (Chinese organised crime). Contact Frank.Madsen@cantab.net Abstract Through an analysis of the presence and nature of international monetary flows of non-declared origin and their relation to deviant knowledge, the thesis determines that both terrorism and organised crime are nurtured by a constant trickle from minor sources rather than by large financial transfers; and that anti-money laundering provisions are misapplied, taken too far, too expensive, and incapable of demonstrating their effectiveness. In lieu of more traditional policy recommendations, the thesis develops a complexity-theory based...

Words: 99119 - Pages: 397

Free Essay

Latin America Essays

...What is the current state of Latin American international relations, particularly relations with the United States? What is unique or “new” about the present situation? How much have we seen before? Make sure to discuss both economic and geo-political/security dimensions, and make reference to at least two historical periods, whether identified by particular doctrines, presidencies, or regimes of international relations. Current state of Latin Ameican international relations with the US— * Emerging independence from US—US is no longer the immediate partner of choice. Regional resentment of US perceived self-serving exercises of power * Economics: * Increased intra-regional economic integration—ALBA, UNOSUR * Expanding economic partners outside the hemisphere—China * Security: * States worry about subordination to the “gringos.” Address problems themselves or with immediate neighbors, rely less on US— * LatinAmerican presidents joined together to defuse tension between Colombia and Ecuador/Venezuela after Colombia’s March 2008 raid inside Ecuador * South American Defense Council (2008)—aimed at institutionalizing and coordinating “defense and security policies in the region while preventing and mediating conflicts within South America * United States: * Economic dependence on the region on the rise— * 50% of US energy imports (largest share accounted for by any region) * 32% of all US FDI ...

Words: 6085 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Syria Civil War

...Revolution to Civil War By Maya Bhardwaj Abstract: social movements and regime change across the Middle East and North Africa. While interconnected, uprisings in each nation took different forms and reached out distinctions and interactions between uprisings, revolution, and civil war. standing scholarly debate. The presence or absence of civil war is examined in examinations of civil war: the nature of the governmental regime, territoriality complete understanding of what constitutes civil war and provides a framework 76 Introduction the Middle East, authoritarian regimes thought invulnerable to protest and impossible to oust began to cede to massive protest. Attacks on governmental institutions and elite leaders ensconced from public opinion developed divergently in each nation, employing tailored strategies to mobilize the public and reap key support. This paper focuses on the nature and development of these Arab Spring further use these distinctions to illuminate the conceptual, instrumental, and semantic nature of civil war in general. - exacerbated the grievances felt by rebel forces and smoothed over ethnic, religious, and tribal ten- trastingly, in Syria, instances of mild reform under Bashar al-Assad, popular concerns for security, kept civil war at bay. Conceptual Isolation of Civil War presence or absence of civil war. However, the scholarly distinction between civil war and other insurgency and counter-insurgency, uprisings, genocide or genocidal...

Words: 4840 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

A2 M2

...14-19 II. Literature Review Methodology and Sampling Design Strategy pg. 20 Data Collection Procedures pg. 20 Data Analyzed pg. 21 Ethical Issues pg. 21 III. Results Conclusion pg. 21-22 References pg. 23 Appendix: I. Annotated Bibliography pg. 24-26 II. Survey Questions pg. 27 III. Results (Charted/Tables) pg. 28-31 Notes: I. Introduction Background/Statement of Problem Prayer in Public Schools The courts have ruled against prayer in school. Many agree with the decision; yet many disagree. Prayer should be allowed in public schools because it is already practiced. It prevents immoral acts, and it enhances the learning environment. The issue of prayer in schools has been debated in the United States since the North West Treaty (1787and 1789) which states: “ Religion, morality, and the knowledge being necessary for good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of learning shall forever be engorged.” Thus, religion, which includes prayer, was...

Words: 6577 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Ps 101

...China The first one is the economy. China's economy has been typically the best-performing economy or among the best-performing economies in the world since 1979 when reforms began, averaging about 7 percent growth. One note of concern, though, is that those conditions that allowed that 7 percent growth are not likely to be prevalent in the years to come, because for over 30 years, China has relied extensively on lower wage rates and export-driven growth. But wage rates have been bid up, as happens; the Chinese are victims of their own success, you could say. And secondly, the rest of the countries in the world are not going through high rates of growth, and they’re not going to be importing the way they had been historically. So, that formula isn’t going to be as successful going forward as it has been. China needs to shift away from an export-driven economy to more of a consumption model. It needs to be mindful about funding its state-owned enterprises, about subsidizing state-owned companies. It needs to lessen its reliance on low-end manufacturing and move up the value chain. By the way, these aren’t my observations; these are observations by Chinese leadership. If you follow any Chinese leader’s speech on China’s economic transformation, these are the points he’ll make. We would call that market rationalism or just normal evolution as a country rises to middle-income status. But there are also some countervailing impulses. There’s a strong streak of economic nationalism;...

Words: 31136 - Pages: 125