Premium Essay

Sectarian Violence


Submitted By fjoff001
Words 3064
Pages 13
Saleem Khan, London Metropolitan University, Religious Nationalism and Sectarianism in Pakistan


Since the American occupation of Iraq, intra-Muslim violence has become daily news but prior to 2003, Pakistan not Iraq was the global centre for violent conflict between different Muslim sects. In 1947, British India was divided on religious lines and two nation-states India and Pakistan emerged. The British educated founding fathers of Pakistan perceived a united India as being detrimental to Muslims because as a minority Muslims would be not be recognized as equals by the Hindu majority state which would also suppress their rights so the concept of Pakistan was formulated as a nation-state where some aspects of liberal democracy would be implanted so that fairness and non-interference would be the norm. In the 1970s partly because of violent challenges to the state by ethno-nationalist movements partly inspired by uneven economic development and the upheavals in the international arena due to the Cold War, there was a major shift away from pluralistic politics and a move towards greater Islamisation beginning with the narrowing of the definition of a Muslim by the state in which the state gave up its neutrality. Additional government legislation imposing uniform religious taxes widen sectarian differences between the Sunni majority and Shia minority. By not initially accommodating Shia collective demands the state had alienated many of them. The subsequent and reluctant autonomy awarded to the Shias implied that the state recognized them which made Sunni militants fear that the Pakistani nation-state was not synonymous with Sunni Islam. Pakistan is probably the country which has the most diverse collection of Muslim sects, sub-sects and political parties in which sectarianism is implicitly or explicitly a part of the political discourse. Pakistan is

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Psychology Of Terrorism

...radically inconsistent with the psychopathic personality (pg. 37, McCauly).” Feel angry, alienated or disenfranchised. Believe that their current political involvement does not give them the power to effect real change. Identify with perceived victims of the social injustice they are fighting. Feel the need to take action rather than just talking about the problem. Believe that engaging in violence against the state is not immoral. Have friends or family sympathetic to the cause. Believe that joining a movement offers social and psychological rewards such as adventure, camaraderie and a heightened sense of identity. In turn, such data could help to create plausible interventions, he says. For instance, based on what he's gleaned about why people leave organizations, a particularly promising strategy may be highlighting how the promised glamorous lifestyle never comes to pass—an experience poignantly recounted by a former terrorist now in hiding. The man told Horgan he was lured into a movement as a teen when recruiters romanticized the cause. But he soon discovered his comrades held sectarian values, not the idealistic ones he had, and he was horrified when he killed his first victim at point-blank range. "The reality of involvement is not what these kids are led to believe," says Horgan. "Speaking with repentant former terrorists, many with blood on their hands, offers an extraordinary opportunity to use the terrorists' own words and deeds against them." Some arguments aren’t...

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

...Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl In Harriet Jacob’s book; Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, She retells her life in a compelling story that shows just how unstable the lives of slaves were back then. Upon writing her book, Harriet Jacobs seeks to unveil the truth about life for slaves in the antebellum South. She depicts the cruel punishments, deprivation of food and appropriate clothing, harsh labor and broken families. In her book, she focuses a great deal on the prohibition of strong family ties by the selling off of family members or the forced dissolution of marriages, detailing the grief felt by mothers who saw their children sent away and the despair felt by Harriet when she realized she could not marry who she wanted. Harriet focuses on female slaves, who were subject to being raped and had to bear their masters' children. This book gave me a better view of how women were treated back then. Not only were women inferior, slave women were just useful for hard work and producing more slaves. It is kind of sickening knowing that women have been preyed upon like that and still undergo rapes and domestic abuse today. It would be interesting to know what kind of people think rape is acceptable as there are many still going on today. As you may read in other papers, I feel that women have always been considered the weaker sex. Not to say that men are evil and women are helpless, but genetics makes women less strong. Therefore they are more vulnerable...

Words: 497 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Violent Masculinity: How American Society and Media Glorify Violence in the American Youth

...Nicholas Petracca WMST 101.01 Individual Research Paper Dr. Gillespie Violent Masculinity: How American Society and Media Glorify Violence in the American Youth By it’s anthropologic definition, masculinity is anything that men think and do. It is anything that men think and do to other men. And lastly, it is the idea that some men are innately, or are acknowledged to be, more macho than other men (Guttman 93). When we consider those in their childhood and adolescence stages, even though they aren’t men, they are nevertheless affected by the constructs of masculinity. In this paper, I intend to show how American Society and popular media combine to construct a masculinity norm that glorifies violence, especially among teens, adolescence, and children. Before we look at how masculinity can lead to violence in our culture, we must first unearth how masculinities are constructed, both by mainstream media and by societal norms. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of masculine and feminine studies is that gender is a perception that is socially constructed (Craig 2). Academics are cautious to separate sex—a purely biological difference—and gender—a label that is used to illustrate the essential qualities that society attributes to members of a particular sex. As a result, masculinity becomes a term that we must explain. It is widely recognized that American society and popular media are responsible for shaping masculinity, so it is only logical to that these...

Words: 2324 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Social Problems Article Review

...newspaper article 2. Journal * Drugs & Alcohol- “Alcoholism; Recent findings in alcoholism” * By: B.J. Mason * Summary of journal article 3. Magazine * Violence- “Cartoon violence makes children more aggressive” * By: Laura Clark * Summary of magazine article 4. Bibliography The Washington Times April 27, 2009 Monday “Filter can shield kids from smut” BYLINE: By Rebecca Hagelin, SPECIAL TO THE WASHINGTON TIMES SECTION: CULTURE; HOW TO SAVE YOUR FAMILY; A14 LENGTH: 659 wordsCulture challenge of the week: Internet pornographyAmerica is raising a generation of children on porn - and your child just might be one of them. According to the London School of Economics, nine out of 10 teens who go online will view pornography. The Kaiser Family Foundation reports that 70 percent of those who viewed porn stumbled across it - many while innocently doing their homework - and had not been looking for it.The purveyors of hard-core porn are so fixated on creating addicts out of our sons and daughters that they have made it virtually impossible for children to escape their clutches. Even one mistyped letter can lead your child into a sordid world where women are objectified, where there are no lines between violence and sex, and where the most intimate of human acts - created by God to unite husbands and wives - has been twisted into something abusive and ugly.The negative effects of porn usage on children are...

Words: 3644 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Are Videogames Bad?

...use other ways of providing interaction and information to the player, one option is audio, which is universal, and is used to set the mood. The latest consoles contain haptic peripheral feedback, such as vibration, used to get the feeling of being involved in the game, which helps to feel as if you were inside the game. Videogames are more than fictional stories full of death and violence, there are many kinds of videogames, each with their ESRB (Entertainment Software Rating Board) rating. According to the content there are 7 ratings in total, the first is “Early Childhood” (EC) which is used when the videogames are suitable for ages 3 and older, because they don’t contain material that could be inappropriate for parent, also, there is “Everyone” (E) which may be suitable for years 6 and older; the games in this category contain minimal violence and usage of mild language. “teen” (T) is used for ages 13 and older, even though these games contain violence and crude humor, they have minimal blood and strong language, whereas, “M” (mature) contain blood, sexual content and violence, and it’s for ages 17 and older. “Adults Only” (AO) games are quite scarce, but contain scenes...

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...that lasted four years. They researched the amount of Bullying as well as the factors that led to Bullying. At the conclusion of their survey they were able to determine that the kids who were considered Bullies rose from 23% in 2003 to 35% in 2007. The factors for the increase were feelings of neglect and anger the kids experienced from their parents. Emotional, Behavioral and developmental issues were also found to be common among these kids. Through research it has been found that kids that are Bullies have either witnessed or been victims of physical and/or emotional abuse from their parents or others close to them. They often use Bullying to hide their pain and to fill the void in their lives. Most bullies have witnessed physical violence in their home since they could remember and mimic that behavior because that’s what they were taught to do or learned from the people they...

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Do You Agree That We Live in a Dangerous World?

...Do you agree that we live in a dangerous world? Can you remember 9-11? Most people know about this infamous act of terrorism. Unfortunately, it was not the last one. Some people say that the world is becoming a better place in which to live, but we are exposed to an increasing number of dangerous situations. Be it in the physical world, or the virtual world, the number of threats has been on the rise, many times without us even aware of them. Firstly, we are living in an era of wars. Although major wars such as World War II are long gone, there still exist many acts of violence and threats of mass destruction. These are due to advent of terrorism and relentless experimentation on nuclear weapons. These have resulted in increased tensions among major superpowers worldwide, notably North Korea against US and its allies. On a smaller scale, due to the issue to overlapping boundaries between neighboring countries, many people often get killed in border clashes. For example, Thailand and Cambodia had many border clashes in the last decade, leading to numerous deaths of soldiers and civilians alike. Besides, we often hear of suicide bombers in Iraq, in a bid to topple the current democratic government in place. Therefore, it is difficult to say that today’s world is a safer one. Moreover, we face, see and hear about a lot more crime today than we did in the past. If you watch the news, you will hear about a lot of crimes such as random killings or intentional kidnappings in exchange...

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Violent behaviors among prisoners are for types of reasons from gangs to what race you are or even the choice of sexual partner you like. I am sure a lot of animosity is built up from being locked down with a bunch of people you don’t like or don’t like you. You also have to think about people fighting for turf and what people from all over the neighborhoods who don’t like each other. Prisoners have a lot of issues with each other from just not liking someone from the look they were given to who you associate with. This is the same for   violent behavior between inmates and staff is caused by anatomist built up on both sides. Staff is tired of dealing with attitudes and disrespect. That is also how inmates feel. I am sure they are tired of being told what they can or cannot do. it sometimes get so out of control the hate and anger that a inmate has for someone in staff they had to develop    Strategies for responding to violent behavior between inmates and staff. Some of the strategies are stopping them from having simple rights like visitors and commissary. Along with being on complete lock down or the hole as they call it. There is also a thing like adding time on to their sentence. This is   how violent behavior affects incarceration length. If they act out violently everything is on camera there is really not a lot of ways to get around what you do. If there is no camera it’s always going to be seen by someone. Who wouldn’t necessarily take less time if they were...

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Video Games

...believe that violent video games have negative affects and produce social violence. At the same time there are those who believe that violent video games have positive effects. From my experience with violent video games I take no side in this argument. I would like to present a neutral view on this topic by showing you the positive and negative effects of violent video games. For years, psychologists have been arguing which is more important in a child’s life: genetics or how the child is raised. By looking at what the child is allowed to view and do gives insight into this question. Violent video games do influence a child. Whether or not this influence is good or bad is a point that will be expressed in this paper. Advocates believe that playing violent video games provide a safe outlet for aggressive behavior. Violent juvenile crime has been declining as violent video games popularity has been increasing. The link between violent video games and violent behavior has not been proven. Players should understand the game they are playing is not real despite how realistic violent video games have become. Advocates for video games claim that they can promote an outlet for children and teens to release their aggression and stress. This aggression and stress is usually collected throughout their daily lives and interactions with others. Violent video games provide a way for them to virtually inflict pain and violence against those that are perceived to do them harm. Rather than initiating...

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Nature of Terrorist and Assassins

...throughout history and definitely in the 20th century. They are said to be different in many ways but similar in some, and one thing they have in common is that their actions have the same effect on society. Terrorist’s and assassin’s actions are considered one of the most powerful influences in society because they are motivated by causing chaos and upheaval in society. Both parties believe in their cause and will stop at nothing to get what they want. Terrorist are very manipulative people that do what they feel is best to get their point of view across, their actions are solely to intimidate and persuade people to believe that their cause is right and just. A terrorist act is called terrorism, and terrorism is considered to be an act of violence in pursuit of political or religious goals. The word terrorism was...

Words: 2085 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Media Violencea and Its Effects on Children

...Aggression and Violent Behavior 10 (2004) 99 – 128 Does viewing violent media really cause criminal violence? A methodological review Joanne Savage* Department of Justice, Law and Society, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-8043, USA Received 9 September 2002; received in revised form 26 October 2003; accepted 30 October 2003 Abstract The topic of media violence has been the subject of heated debate in recent decades. There is a vast empirical literature on the effects of television on aggression but no published comprehensive review has ever focused on those studies that use criminal aggression as their outcome. The present paper represents an attempt to fill this void and provide a resource for those who do not wish to delve into four decades of original research in order to assess this line of investigation. Studies are evaluated based on contemporary standards of research in the field of criminology. Although the possibility that television and film violence has an impact on violent criminality remains, it is concluded here that, despite persistent published reviews that state the contrary, the body of published, empirical evidence on this topic does not establish that viewing violent portrayals causes crime. D 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Television violence; Media violence; Violent crime 1. Introduction A vast empirical literature on the impact of television exposure on aggression has accrued over the...

Words: 15854 - Pages: 64

Premium Essay

Article Rebuttal: Do Video Games Contribute to Youth Violence

...Article Rebuttal: Do Video Games Contribute to Youth Violence? Caren Evans XBCOM 275 Mr. Abel January 30, 2014 There has been much controversy over whether or not violent video games contribute to youth violence. The opposition may point out studies, such as playing violent video games desensitizes players to real-life violence and is responsible for the increase in bullying. In 2007, 32 percent of students aged 12 to 18 reported being bullied at school, compared to only 5 percent in 1999 (Dinkles, Kemp, Baum, and Snyder, 2008). However, this does not show a direct link between youth behavior and violent video games. According to many sources, such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics; Entertainment Software Association in 2005, violent crimes declined as video game sales increased. In 1996, video game sales neared 4 billion dollars and the violent crime offences was approximately 3.75 million; however, in 2003, video game sales was approximately 7 billion and the violent crime offences were just under 2 million. There have even been controlled studies in which Paul Levinson demonstrated the lack of linking violent video games to youth violence and pointed out some fallacies. The example that Levinson used in 2007 was a controlled study. Two groups of kids, chosen at random to ensure the groups were equivalent, participated in a video game study. One group played a violent video game, while the other played a non-violent game. This study gave the kids the chance to play...

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

What to Do?: Terrorism and the Media

...exercise influence over targeted officials on nations through intimidation of the public and arousal of sympathy for the social and political causes they espouse. Without widespread publicity, terrorist acts can achieve neither of these effects" (Bandura, Albert qtd. In Nacos 1). Terrorists need the news media to get the publicity, and the media is a willing accomplice. The news media is an accessory to terrorism, and as such they should develop a set of standards that will limit the terrorist ability to get their message out to a large audience during terrorist situations; Also the media should also point out police mistakes without over emphasizing them, giving equal coverage to both sides of the issue. Terrorism is the use of violence against...

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cinderchildhood Aggression and Violent Video Games: Is There a Link?

...Violent Video Games and Young People. (2010). Harvard Mental Health Letter, 27(4), 1-3. With the number of video games out there, I am finding that the majority of them have some level of violence within the game playing. Some concerns about the violent video games are that the child becomes fully engrossed in the game and its characters. The child is the one making the decisions to inflict violent or aggressive behavior. An opposing view is the popularity of these types of violent video games versus the actual crime rates. The popularity of the games is increasing whereas the violent crime rate is decreasing. If the games caused aggressive behavior, wouldn’t the crime rate be going up as well? Edwards, S. (2010). Game Plan. On The Brain, 16(3). 3-4. Retrieved from .html Controversy over violent video games dates back even further than most people are aware of and it seems that we still have the same questions. First, if I let my child be exposed to or even play violent video games, will they start showing signs of aggression? Second, are video games beneficial because they teach cognitive learning skills? While a child plays any video game they are using and improving their hand-eye coordination in addition to planning skills that will help with childhood development. Finally, does the duration of playing violent video games make an overall difference? Hastings, E. C., Karas, T. L., Winsler, A., Way, E...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Does Violence in Video Games Lead to Real Violence

...Nick McIntosh Do violent video games lead to real violence? This topic has been tossed around quite a bit lately since unfortunately there has been a string of ridiculously violent acts lately. Some would say it all dates back to 1999 when Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris opened fire in their Colorado high school slaying 13 people. It was revealed that both Harris and Klebold both were into playing violent games, like Mortal Kombat, Doom, and Wolfenstein 3D. As of 2009, roughly 91% of America’s youth play video games [source:Yahoo News], so should we all hide and be in constant fear? Probably not, in the 50s kids who exhibited bad behavior were often condemned because of comic books. I know comparing “bad behavior” to something like a shooting spree is ludacris but our ultra violent media world has always made a fantastic scapegoat. Let me provide you with some real life examples other than the Columbine shooting, just so you can develop your own opinion and further ingest the topic. Devon Moore an 18 year old killed 3 officers June 7th 2003, no criminal history. The report shows that he was cooperative as the officer booked him on suspicion of stealing a car. He then snapped and went on his rampage, after the dust had settled it was reveled that Moore played Grand Theft Auto for hundreds of hours, which is primarily a cop killing game. The Attorney Jack Thompson, a long time crusader against video game violence, is bringing the suit. “What we’re saying is that Devon...

Words: 669 - Pages: 3