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Socialization over the Life Course

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Table of content What is socialization? 1-2 Statement of problem 3 Review literature 3 Socialization over the course of life 4 Childhood 4-5 Adolescence 6-7 Adulthood 8-9 Old age 10-11 Death and dying 12 Conclusion 13 Bibliography 14

What is socialization?
Socialization is the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture. It is also the process by which individual acquired social skills, language, behaviors to socialize with each and everyone in the world. In this entire situation, we will be gaining social experience from others. Social experience is also the foundation of personality, a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling. It is weird to say that we start socializing from children. We started learning things from others when young and most people continue their social learning throughout their life unless they are mentally and physically disabled. These might affect their social process when they begin to develop their skills. Socialization is also a matter of nurture rather than nature. Through socialization, individual also can understand other people and us as well. In contrast, socialization is a complex, lifelong process. There are six well known researchers that have made lasting contributions to the understanding of human development: Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Carol Gilligan, George Herbert Mead, and Erik H. Erikson.
There have been five different types of socialization, primary socialization, secondary socialization, developmental socialization, anticipatory socialization and re-socialization. In primary socialization, family is the only one that takes place. The family is usually the first setting of socialization and has the greatest impact on attitudes and behavior. For secondary socialization, there are few types of agent such as schools, peer group and mass media. Schools give most children their first experience with bureaucracy and impersonal evaluation. The peer group objective is to help shape attitude and behavior whereas the mass media have a large impact on the modern society. Developmental socialization is the process of developing one’s social skills. Anticipatory socialization is where process is taken in advance for future occupations and positions. Besides that, total institution is also one type of socialization. It is a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a period of time and their lives are controlled by the officials who run the institution. For instance, prisons, mental hospitals and monasteries.

Statement of problem
To analyze how socialization affect an individual over the life course. It starts from childhood, adulthood, old age until the death take place. In short, socialization is not a short-term event and it is a super lifelong process.
Review Literature
The “Child Development Theory: Adolescence” by Eric Erikson focus on the human stage development from childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age to death and dying. He explained how people develop the sense of identity and how people beliefs about themselves which allow them to become a member of society. Each of this stage related with age and time of life. For each stage, there are many different status and role to be performed. And all this require in daily life to socialize others or being socialized.
Besides that, the article “The Journey towards Death” explained that the dying process usually will begin before death actually occurs. The article also describe that people will face mental change and physical change before one to two weeks prior to death. Therefore, some of the old people always will tell their children and grandchildren the last wishes or want to meet all the children because they know they are going through the dying process and eventually will die at anytime.

Socialization over the course of life
Life is precious. It can only be produce by two different genders where biological processes are formed. A child was form after that and this started the journey of that child. In the event of this child as age goes on, there are few stages that have been separated which are childhood, adolescence, adulthood old age and also death. All this stages of live from birth to death were call life course. In all these stages, there will be different characteristics problems and how the individual make decisions on various stages. This can be the learning process for the individual. It can be happy, sad, exciting, challenging and so on when age rise up. Through the process of socialization society tries to prepare its members for taking upthe roles and statuses associated with life course stages. In each stages of life course that individual will go through, few factors that will shape lives are race class, ethnicity and gender. Moreover, social experience is structured during different stages of the life course.
Childhood starts from 0 to 12 years old. This stage is considered enjoyable and it can categorize as a time for playful innocence but for few countries of children, their childhood had been a nightmare for them. For example, discipline in India for a child is extremely strict because they must learn to obey their parents. Mother are scolding, yelling and punishing their child are considered correct way for socializing children. Another case is that the Nike Corporation. Its shoes are made in Indonesia and Taiwan, many children are working as a labor instead of going to school for education. For me, my childhood life was awesome. My whole family treated me well because we are from middle income class. I still remember that I often travel in Malaysia with my family. As I’m the youngest among siblings, privileges of owning always come to me. Although I haven’t start working in this age, but I still can sense the pettiness of child that were brought up in low income classes or single parents’ family.
In some parts of the country, adults believe that children cannot expose to topics like, alcohol, sex and violence due to their culture or religion. Countries like Malaysia and Indonesia. Most of their religion is based on Islam. Their culture says that they cannot consume alcoholic drinks and touch about sex topic before married. Asian compare to westerner, their culture is more towards close minded because it is norm for all generations. In rich countries such as United States and United Kingdom, not every children needs to work because of their social class. This can extend their childhood experience in order to allow the individual to learn the skills they will need in a high-technology workplace. In childhood stage, more or less their parents will love them very much until the extend that whom parents dare to die for them. In addition, parents will protect their children from being harm in various situations. In return, children must know how to appreciate their love, kind and protection.
Parents should allow their children to try different kind of sports when they are young. This enable them to perform and see which types of sports are suitable for them so that it will increase their physically and mentally development. In terms of physical development, children will grow faster because they move around themselves and bring up their muscles and so on but not growing fat. For mentally development, psychologist shows that a healthy brain is having a casual exercise in order to increase the memory. By the end of the childhood, formal learning has been completed and most of the children had enough maturity and self-esteem to handle with the agents of socialization. For instance, family, schools and peer group.

Adolescence is defines as people who are not children but not yet adults. Adolescence can also be known as the teenage years. The age of adolescence is between 13 to 19 years old. In this stage, adolescence started to reason them in abstract for the first time. There is no short cut to move forward to the end of adolescence, each and every one will pass through this stage. Rather than at any specific age, individuals pass from adolescence to adulthood when they establish adult social relationships and pattern of adult work. When it comes to adolescence stage, a number of physical changes will take place, particularly during puberty. These came to a physical appearance that boys like men and girls like women. Besides that, a sharp change on height and weight especially for girls because their maturation came earlier than boys. It will be a big difference when two difference gender start to socialize due to the reason of maturation.
When puberty strikes, different kind of sex gender will appear in advance. These are call primary sex characteristics. These changes will increase the activity of dating, kissing and other sexual activities. The more obvious changes are the secondary sex characteristics. With these entire physical changes take place, a whole new experience starts. Life would have positive and negative experience when go through the life course. Individual will be facing happiness in one time and at the same time will be facing sadness. Moreover, this stage is where peers influence the individual most and ever. Teenagers started struggle to develop their own identities. Individual started to mingle around with their peers to make friends. This is where their social status was formed. Some of the teenagers enjoying in this stage because this means for them are freedom and time to make friends. With freedom, teenagers can do what they want. That is freedom and nothing can be more blissful than liberty.
In the drawbacks of adolescence, it changes the emotional and social spheres of the adolescence. This is the stage where adolescence becomes very active until the limit of playful. Some of the adolescence is naughty enough to leave the family when their emotional goes negative. What factor that causes them to do so? It is conflict between parents and children. This usually happens on the early adolescence but it will decline when late adolescence. Another factor is mood changes along the life course. Adolescence is more emotional such as awkward, lonely and nervous. The last factor that causes emotional of adolescence to change is risky behavior. They expose more towards danger life style for example, use of drugs, reckless driving and unproctected sex. But these factors do not occur in every single person. It depends on their personal background and attitudes.
When I was 13 years old, I consider short when compare to my friends but after the age of late 14, I started to grow up and I never stop growing when I reach 16 years old. In just 2 years time, there is a physical change on me. I also went through rebellion phase when I m in the age 15 years old. That time I always went to cyber café, don’t study even PMR is approaching, and being stubborn until my dad punished and scolded me like mad. Although that time I was really hate my dad but for now I do feel that my dad is really care for me, if not he wouldn’t scold me and advise me to study.

Most of the life accomplishment will held on this stage. For instance, raising a family and pursuing a career. Half of our age is taken from this stage so it is not easily pass through because it takes a long period of time.Adulthood is not the end of the process of development. Developmental changes continue throughout adulthood. Adulthood has separated into two, the early adulthood and middle adulthood. Early adulthood begin from 20 to 40 years old. During the early adulthood, young adults struggle to find their needs such as partners, parents and especially job. A fresh graduate need a job to survive in this society, if not they will actually abandon by other society.
This world is realistic in terms of social class. In comparison, the higher the profession or salary, people will try to obey you to get an attention from the person. The lower the job, people will ignore you and this will create inequality. Based on Erik Erikson’s stages of development, he referred to early adulthood as the stage of intimacy versus isolation. After finding a stable and better job, it is time to choose either live with partners or live alone. If negotiating this stage is successful, we can experience intimacy on a deep level.If not successful, isolation and distance from others may occur. And when isolation continues for a long time, this will create superior to others.
Early adulthood end and middle adulthood came in. It is between the age of 41 to 60 years old. In the middle adulthood, life is almost in the mid-way of the life course. Children are growing up and they need less attention on them. Parents themselves are getting older and they will more likely to get a healthy body than everything else. Women in this stage will prefer spending time on relaxing whereas men will go towards luxuries if both genders have no financial problems. The negative side in this stage is that, women faces divorce case due to the husband leaving to much space for them. After divorce, women will face financial problems and women in middle adulthood return to school and seek new careers. As age goes on, physical movement will start to decline. Men cannot do as much work as before and this will affect their jobs later. In contrast, some adult will take it as a positive experience because they are happy with their adult selves at the transition to midlife. Some might experience a negative life because too many choices and changes have been missed and they feel regret for not succeeding their own goals.

Old age
Old age is the last stage of human life. This begins at 60 years old until the death it comes. People in this stage, their skin wrinkles can be seen clearly and all of the immune system started to decline. In fact, most of the back pain and front pain started to occur and this make the person to sick again and again. Old age is an unavoidable and irreversible life process unless the individual died before old age came.
According to Tibbittis (1989) “Aging may best be defined as the survival of a growing number of people who have completed their traditional roles of making living and child bearing”. “Aging refers to the cumulative, progressive and degenerative changes that occur over a period of life course” (Ramamurti, 1995). In Indian context, old age is linked to the retirement age, generally which is around 60 years. Old age is defined in developing countries as a state of dependence and incapacity thought to begin at the point when the people can no longer work.(Challa, 2006)
On the other hand, in this stage of people should teach the young one’s moral, value and culture. Nowadays, the younger generations tend not to follow their own culture because it is too old fashion. For example Chinese in Malaysia are not norm in wearing cheongsam even when Chinese New Year. This is where the tradition had disappeared when times goes on. So, in order to maintain the respective culture, it must be taught by generations to generations.
Old age is the stage where they reflect back their own life whether they had fulfilled their goals or a sense of regret over their life. When it comes to old age, individual will sense that time is running out on their lives and this maybe happens in all different ages. Hence,it is very important to have a healthy lifestyle to continue with the precious life. Old age is different in an important way from earlier stages in the life course. Growing up means entering new roles and taking on new responsibilities, but growing old is the opposite experience such as leaving the role that adulthood had. The happiest life for an old age person is to have many grandsons. Grandsons who are respectful that always can give them support. Every person also hopes that they can see their grandparents can live in a cheerful and harmony life.

Death and dying
The life cycle begins with the life of a single cell and ends with the death of the person who unfolded from that cell. This stage usually takes place after 60 years old if there is no any event that causes the individual to death. Each individual die in their own unique way and it is not set across all over the globe. There’s a superstitions says that one’s who is a good people, the individual will send to become an angel. If the individual did a bad thing before, they will be send to become a devil. As the death is approaching, they begin to think negatively in some way. They prefer sitting inside their own house rather than visiting their friends and relatives.
Besides that, they will set boundaries whoever is their enemy in their whole life. They also will experience reduced appetite and weight loss as their body function slows down. When the individual reach one to two weeks before prior to death, they begin to sleep most of the time. Disorientation is common and altered senses of perception can be expected. One may experience delusions, such as fearing hidden enemies or feeling invincible.A complete adjustment to death requires acceptance. At this point, no longer paralyzed by fear and anxiety, the person whose life is ending sets out to find peace and makes the most of whatever time remains. Finally, a death might be sad for someone precious but this thinking might not seen to be true for the dead person. Every person need to go through this stage, whether the GOD need to takes the life or something else, we people who are alive must still accept the fact and continue our life course.

As a conclusion, life is meaningful. We must appreciate for GOD giving us everything. For instance, wealth, power and prestige. Even we don’t get those, we still can have a happy and unforgettable moment with our precious ones. Everybody does have a hard moment as well as great moment.Life is like riding a bicycle. In order to keep your balance you must keep moving. When we fall down, get up and continue with the track. Different stages had different function and we must learn how to adopt all of them and try not to skip. There are no shortcuts or even straight forward answers when it comes to the question of deciding on your future. We must prepare our self for the next chapter of life.We must follow the steps or stages of socialization over life course, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age and the last one is death and dying.

Bio, A. H. (n.d.). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from
Challa, D. G. (2006, June 20). Old age - The last stage of life. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from
Coldfats. (n.d.). Adolescecn is the Best and the Worst Time of a Person's Life. Retrieved November 28, 2012, from
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Nature Vs. Nurture. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from
Macionis, J. J. (2011). Society the basics, 11th Edition. United States: Pearson.
Macionis, J. J. (2012, 2010, 2008). Sociology, 14th Edition. United States: Pearson.
Morrow, A. (2010, November 23). The Journey Towards Death. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from
Schaefer, R. T. (2011). Sociology: A Brief Introduction. New York: McGraw. Hill.
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What is the socialization process? (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2012, from


[ 2 ]. Our participation in social life is the most important determinant of who we are and how we behave
[ 3 ]. People are shaped primarily by genetics and biology
[ 4 ]. A building in which monks live together
[ 5 ]. The period from the onset of puberty until the beginning of adulthood.
[ 6 ]. Ovulation and menstruation in females and production of sperm in males.
[ 7 ]. Development of the breasts and hips in female; growth of the testes, broadening of the shoulders, lowered voice, and growth of the penis and facial hair in males; and growth of pubic and other body hair in both sexes.

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...1. Sociologists are merely interested in how socialization impacts society as a whole and are also concerned with knowing whether every individual in society go through the stages of socialization in a similar way or order and if it is effective in teaching them how to fit into society. When it comes to one 'self', one is constantly evolving. Sociologists seem to have a great interest with how 'self-identity' is acquired and how people begin to develop into their own person. Everyone is different and each individual evolves differently; whether it is physically, mentally or emotionally (which goes without saying). Furthermore, Sociologists view the topic from the sociological perspective "seeing the strange in the familiar", by looking at socialization and digging deep into into how socialization shapes people's lives and every step from childhood to adulthood of how they evolve. Sociologists observe that nothing in society is obvious on the surface. Secondly, when it comes to "depersonalizing the personal", sociologists usually look at the way an individual is growing up and how socialization plays a huge role in it. Such as, gender roles and the ongoing patterns that gender roles have whilst a child is growing older. For example, from a young age, girls play with dolls, have little cooking materials as toys to prep them for the future when they have to perform their maternal duties such as cooking. Girls are also taught that pink is their 'color'. They have pink clothes, pink...

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Caribbean Studies

...Caribbean Pages 1 – 21 22 – 51 52 – 87 88 – 116 117 – 146 147 – 170 171 – 187 188 – 195 196 – 207 208 –222 223 – 247 248 – 255 256 – 262 263 – 303 INTRODUCTION Purpose The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), in collaboration with the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), has developed Self-Study Guides for a number of Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) and Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) subjects. The main purpose of the Guides is to provide both in-school and out-of-school candidates with resource materials which should help them in preparing for CXC examinations. Each Study Guide is student centered and its language is student friendly. The Caribbean Studies course is designed for persons over the age of sixteen who which to further their studies. The course is equally useful to persons who are pursuing part-time study and those enrolled fulltime in an...

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