Free Essay

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Blood Doping

In: Science

Submitted By captm1989
Words 846
Pages 4
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Blood Doping

Over the past years, there have been many technological advances in the field of medicine. Some of them have proven to be extremely beneficial in creating a healthier society while others have been used for personal gain. The following essay will outline one of these advances, which is the medical phenomena of blood doping, also known as blood boosting and blood packing.

There has been much controversy surrounding the use of blood doping ever since it has gained mainstream publicity. From a medical and an ethical perspective, many consider the use it wrong and immoral. In the following paragraph, we will briefly introduce this concept by describing the process and how it can be utilized. Later on, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of employing blood doping.

Blood doping is a medical process used to increase the concentration of red blood cells in one’s body to a higher, supraphysiologic level (Shah 167). Athletes who would like to give themselves an advantage competing physically most commonly use it (Foschi, 458). This procedure can be achieved in two different ways. One can ask to have his or her own blood injected or can request the use of the blood of a matching donor. These processes are respectively called autologous and monologous transfusions. The red blood cells are usually removed over an extended period of time. The withdrawn blood is then refrigerated for preservation and finally re-injected 1-7 days before competition (Shah 167).

Although there are many who oppose the enhancing technique of blood doping, studies indicate that there are clear advantages and benefits that it brings. These advantages are especially attractive for endurance athletes such as cross country skiers, marathoners, and cyclists (Shah 168). With a minimum infusion of 900ml, one can expect an increase in maximal aerobic capacity. The process also improves endurance times and provides a thermoregulatory advantage for those who exercise in the heat (Shah 167). For a professional athlete this can lead to more success in individual and team play which ultimately leads to more respect from peers and admirers, higher salary, and larger endorsement contracts. Although blood doping is illegal just as many other performance-enhancing techniques are, it is not nearly as detectable, which is an obvious benefit. However, even with all these gains, there is a lot of risk and negative connotation associated with blood doping.

The disadvantages of blood doping can be categorized into medical, ethical, and economic disadvantages. In the context of professional competition and ethics, it is morally wrong to award an athlete who has been using this technology instead of an athlete who has been honestly preparing for the given event, as this violates the rules of sport in general (Aschenden 1). Athletes, and to a lesser extent physicians, are often silently encouraged into using blood doping by corporations who represent the athletes and use their image for marketing. This can endanger the livelihood of the physician who performed the transfusion as well as the athlete. As attorney at law, Leigh Schlossinger reports in The Colorado Lawyer “Examples of reasonable termination causes for the sponsor include . . . drug use or blood doping” (4).

More importantly, blood doping can endanger the life of the athlete (Aschenden 1). There are many known adverse effects present in the use of blood doping. The general medical risks include the possibility of hypertension, conjestive heart failure, thombrosis, stroke, and acute coronary syndrome. Other risks are the development of problems such as phlebitis, hyperviscosity syndrome, and intravascular clotting (Beckham). Although autologous transfusions are considered less dangerous, they are still accompanied by risks such as labeling errors and infection. As for homologous transfusions, the risks include the risk of blood born diseases such as hepatitis B and C, AIDS, CMV, and malaria. Homologous transfusions also bear the risk of damaging transfusion reactions (Shah 168).

For an athlete who has to make a decision regarding the use of blood doping, it is important to consider the aforementioned negative and positive consequences. Now and in the nearest future, the dilemma of blood doping and the controversy surrounding it is omnipresent. Although there are clear advantages, many of the risks mentioned are detriments to one’s health. Therefore, until any improvements that can minimize medical risks are made, the risks associated with blood doping seem to outweigh the benefits.

Works Cited
Ashenden, Michael J. “A Strategy to Deter Blood Doping in Sport.” Haematologica 87.3 (2002): 225-232. Web. 4 April 2010.
Beckham, Darren. Blood Doping: Is It Really Worth it? Texarkana College. Web. 4 April 2010.
Foschi, Jessica K. “A Constant Battle: The Evolving Challenges In the International Fight Against Doping in Sports.” Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 16 (2006): 457-486. Web. 4 April 2010.
Augustine-Schlossinger, Leigh. Endorsement Contracts for Professional Athletes. The Colorado Lawyer. 5 May 2003. Web. 4 April 2010.
Shah, Nilesh. “Drugs and Doping: Blood Doping and Recombinant Human Erythropoietin.” Sports Medicine Secrets. Ed. Morris B. Mellion, Margot Putukian, Christopher C. Madden. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley and Belfus, 2003. 167-170. Print.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Blood Doping

...Blood Doping Biology Research Paper Samantha Reid University Seven time consecutive Tour De France champion and yellow rubber band seller of the decade openly admitted to blood doping. His name was Lance Armstrong and not only did he live through cancer, but he was one of the greatest athletes the world has ever known. His list of achievement goes on until his banishment for professional racing and the stripping of his titles. He admitted to using banned substances including steroids and blood doping in an interview with Oprah Winfrey on January 17, 2013. Why would a man with so many accomplishments cheat the system with prohibited procedures and the use of illegal performance drugs? The three topics that rise in answering why Lance Armstrong blood doped is explaining what blood doping is, the advantage and disadvantages of it and drug use in profession sports. To describe what blood doping is one must first understand some key terms. Hemoglobin is a red protein responsible for carrying oxygen in your blood. Another key term is the cardiovascular system and this is an organ system that distributes the blood throughout the body to deliver nutrients and remove waste. And the respiratory system is the organ system that carries out gas exchange in your body. These three things all work together hand in hand like a smooth operating clock. The respiratory system gets the oxygen from the air and transports it to the blood carried in the hemoglobin. The oxygen enriched......

Words: 1382 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Illegal Drug Use in Sports

...Performance enhancing drugs give professional athletes unfair advantages that are unfair to the athletes who do not use performance enhancing drugs. When athletes use performance enhancing drugs it affects their health and if they are caught when drug tested the athlete can face severe punishments. Consequently, if an athlete is caught using performance enhancing drugs it sends a negative message to young people that often look up to professional athletes. If drug testing was not required in professional sports, some athletes would gain an unfair advantage. Performance enhancing drugs have been used from all the way back to the Greek Olympics through present day. The first drug tests began in February 1968 at the Winter Olympic Games in Grenoble, France. "The IOC instituted its first compulsory doping controls at the Winter Olympic Games in Grenoble, France in 1968 and again at the Summer Olympic Games in Mexico City in the same year. At that time the list of banned substances issued in 1967 included narcotic analgesics and stimulants, which comprised sympathomimetic amines, psychomotor stimulants and miscellaneous central nervous system stimulants [including alcohol]. Although it was suspected that androgenic anabolic steroids were being used at this time, testing methods were insufficiently developed to warrant the inclusion of anabolic steroids in the list of banned substances" (Mottram). In 1928, the first rules against doping in sports were established by the......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Drugs in Sports

...they knew that it was wrong but has taken a drug to enhance their performance at one point in time. Drugs in sports are frowned upon by the public. Individuals believe that athletes are public figures or even role models to their children and should not partake in drugs. People do not want the perception that it is okay to participate in drugs passed on to younger generations. When younger athletes such as high school students see collegiate or professional athletes using drug to reach that next edge, they then believe that the use of drugs to enhance performance is okay. Society also believes that athletes punishments for using drugs are not as serious as others who have taken drugs. Others believe that athletes that use drugs have an advantage over athletes that does not. Therefore, the competition is unfair. Individuals are also concerned about the health and safety of athletes. There are a lot of risks that comes with the use of drugs. The public feels that athletes should be educated on drug usage, the risks that are associated with it, and the consequences within their sport. Drugs and substance use in sports has a long history. Drugs have been used in sports since ancient times. It is said that the ancient Greek and Romans used herbs, special potions, and mushrooms to heighten their performance. It is believed that gladiators used drugs to enhance their performances, and even went as far as giving those potions to their horses while at battle. Cocoa leaves date......

Words: 4069 - Pages: 17

Free Essay


...and surveys about the advantages and disadvantages of Performance Enhancing Drugs on health some people think that “If each of us ought to be free to assume risks that we think are worth taking, shouldn't athletes have the same freedom as anyone else? In particular, if athletes prefer the gains in performance allegedly provided by the use of steroids, along with the increased risk of harm to the alternative of less risk and worse performance, what gives anyone the right to interfere with their choice? After all, if we should not forbid smokers from risking their health by smoking, why should we prohibit track stars or weightlifters from taking risks with their health in pursuit of their goals” but, “Performance enhancers, like steroids and other forms of doping, have a negative effect on long-term health. For then users of these enhancers are hurting themselves in the long run without on the average improving their short-term rewards from athletic competition, as long as competitors also use harmful enhancers. This is the main rationale for trying to ban steroids and other forms of doping from athletic competitions." In addition to, the vast majority of people think that athletes gain an Unfair Advantage by Using Performance Enhancing Drugs use of performance enhancers is cheating because it violates constitutive rules of the activity. Since such use is cheating, it is wrong and we should expect the disqualification of competitors who are caught doping. This conclusion......

Words: 1778 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Sports and Performance Enhancing Drugs

...Sports and Performance Enhancing Drugs John Alvarez Student #0588681 Essay 2 April 1, 2015 PHI – 010 Professor Andrea Yusim Words: 1,519 In a country that is obsessed with winning and competition, athletes, teams and even fans have tried to gain an advantage against their competition. As athletes become bigger, stronger and faster, the margin and window of opportunity to become the best athlete in their respective sports is surely becoming smaller and smaller. Many people will argue that performance enhancing drugs will help in promoting player health and recovery and that sports in general will benefit overall. In this paper, I will argue that the argument in favor of performance enhancement drug use is not valid because performance enhancing drugs are unethical, create unfair competitive advantages and do not promote the very essence of the value of sports which is hard work and team work. Team and individual sports in the United States is a very important part of culture. Athletes are revered for their prowess and mastery of their respective sports and are at times treated as demi-gods. Individual teams and entire leagues depend on these very athletes to compete at the highest level and with the utmost sense of integrity in order to show that their leagues are played ethically. So not only are athletes expected to be at their very best, they are also expected to do so without compromising the integrity of the sport such as cheating by using PEDs. In the......

Words: 1694 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...electronic signals) optical scanners, fluid pumps, transducer, pressure and flow sensors. New applications are emerging as the existing technology is applied to the miniaturization and integration of conventional devices. These systems can sense, control, and activate mechanical processes on the micro scale, and function individually or in arrays to generate effects on the macro scale. The micro fabrication technology enables fabrication of large arrays of devices, which individually perform simple tasks, but in combination can accomplish complicated functions. MEMS are not about any one application or device, nor are they defined by a single fabrication process or limited to a few materials. They are a fabrication approach that conveys the advantages of miniaturization, multiple components, and microelectronics to the design and construction of integrated electromechanical systems. MEMS are not only about miniaturization of mechanical systems; they are also a new paradigm for designing mechanical devices and systems. 1.1 MEMS Technology Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences, the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new......

Words: 6684 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water Solutions for Improving

...strong international support. Internationally shared R&D priorities in conservation of earth resources are expected to expand in water filtration and desalinization in the coming years. Already international organizations such as UNESCO and OECD have placed this topic on their agenda. Nanotechnology has become a domain of intense international and scientific collaboration and industrial competition that has expanded after about 2005 to clean water technology. Research is now preparing a new generation of products and processes. These changes are accelerated, global, and are integrated with other emerging technologies. Because of this, it is essential to have a good governance approach at national and international levels, so we can take advantage of the immense promise of nanotechnology for advancing human development and can diminish possible negative implications. One main goal of global governance should be use of nanotechnology for water filtration and desalinization. The investment in nanotechnology applications for clean water processing in the world was estimated at about $1.5 billion in 2007. But the face of nanotechnology is evolving and so the interest and available expertise for using nanotechnology for clean water is moving up on the list of priorities. This book provides a unique perspective, mainly from academic and government research laboratories, on basic research issues regarding drinking water, water treatment and reuse, remediation, and sensors. In addition......

Words: 90139 - Pages: 361

Premium Essay


...• define blood pressure and identify resting values; • explain the changes that occur during physical activity and hypertension; • explain how venous return is maintained; the effects that a warm-up and cool-down period has on the cardiovascular system; how venous return affects the quality of performance; • 14 • evaluate critically the impact of different types of physical activity on the cardiovascular system (coronary heart disease (CHD); arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, angina, heart attack) with reference to lifelong involvement in an active lifestyle. © OCR 2008 GCE Physical Education v2 The response of the respiratory system to physical activity Candidates should be able to: describe the mechanics of breathing at rest and the respiratory muscles involved (including the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles); • explain the changes in the mechanics of breathing during physical activity including reference to additional muscles involved (sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor) and the active nature of expiration (internal intercostals and abdominal muscles); • explain how changes in the mechanics of breathing during physical activity are regulated by the respiratory centre (both neural and chemical control) to take into account the demands of different intensities of physical activity; • describe the process of gaseous exchange that takes place between the alveoli and the blood and......

Words: 22885 - Pages: 92

Free Essay


...carrier concentrations are so low (sub-parts per trillion), even additions in parts per billion levels can have a profound electrical effect. This process is known as doping of the semiconductor. In this particular case, the Fermi level shifts toward the CB edge (Fig. 4b). When the donor level is e− (+) (−) Si e− Si h+ Si h+ Si Si Si Si A localized picture of electron-hole pair generation (see also Fig. 2a) in silicon. Fig. 3 1.2 Electron Energy Levels in Semiconductors and Energy Band Model Relative disposition of the Fermi level (EF ) for an intrinsic semiconductor (a), for an n-type semiconductor (b), and a p-type semiconductor (c). Fig. 4 EF VB (a) EF Energy within a few kT in energy from the CB edge, appreciable electron concentrations are generated by the donor ionization process (at ambient temperatures) such that now n p . This is termed n-type doping, and the resultant (extrinsic) semiconductor is termed n-type. By analogy, p -type semiconductors have p n. The terms minority and majority carriers now become appropriate in these cases. For a p -doped semiconductor case, the Fermi level now lies close to the VB edge (Fig. 4c). The movement of EF with dopant concentration can also be rationalized via the Nernst formalism [6]. Doping can be accomplished by adding altervalent impurities to the intrinsic semiconductor. For example, P (a Group 15 or VA element) will act as a donor in......

Words: 180197 - Pages: 721

Premium Essay

The World in 2008

...crunch has taken is the importance of the financial sector to the broader economy. The banking and insurance industries account for 6.5% of gross value-added in Britain, compared with a share of only 4-5% in other European countries. And, significantly, the parts of the business which have grown the fastest—hedge funds, wholesale finance and international securitisation—are the ones due for the biggest setbacks in the year ahead. According to the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR), wholesale finance and the related The phenomenal gusher of wealth British economy over the past four years. These activities that Britain has are not about to collapse, since Britain still enjoys an enjoyed from the international comparative advantage in wholesale City is bound to finance—and will probably continue to do so even after slow down high-value business services based in the City of London have accounted for around 16% of the growth in the the Treasury’s tax raid on foreign workers announced in October 2007. However, the phenomenal gusher of wealth that Britain has enjoyed from the City of London is bound to slow down in the year ahead. According to the CEBR, which makes a speciality of tracking financial employment, London’s 350,000 high-end jobs in finance and business services will fall by about 5,000 in 2008. This may not seem much, but it will still represent a shock after four years of growth at 10,000 annually. Much worse, the City bonuses which have powered the......

Words: 89030 - Pages: 357

Free Essay

La Singularidad

...the Cell Nucleus with a Nanocomputer and Nanobot. Fat and Sticky Fingers. The Debate Heats Up. Early Adopters. Powering the Singularity. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Environment. Nanobots in the Bloodstream. Robotics: Strong AI Runaway AI. The AI Winter. AI's Toolkit. Expert Systems. Bayesian Nets. Markov Models. Neural Nets. Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Recursive Search. Deep Fritz Draws: Are Humans Getting Smarter, or Are Computers Getting Stupider? The Specialized-Hardware Advantage. Deep Blue Versus Deep Fritz. Significant Software Gains. Are Human Chess Players Doomed? Combining Methods. A Narrow AI Sampler. Military and Intelligence. Space Exploration. Medicine. Science and Math. Business, Finance, and Manufacturing. Manufacturing and Robotics. Speech and Language. Entertainment and Sports. Strong AI. 170 171 183 203 CHAPTER SIX The Impact . . . A Panoply of Impacts. 227 . . . on the Human Body A New Way of Eating. Redesigning the Digestive System. Programmable. Blood. Have a Heart, or Not. So What's Left? Redesigning the Human Brain. We Are Becoming Cyborgs. Human Body Version 3.0. . . . on the Human Brain The 2010 Scenario. The 2030 Scenario. Become Someone Else. Experience Beamers. Expand Your Mind . . . . on Human Longevity The Transformation to Nonbiological Experience. The Longevity of Information. . . . on Warfare: The Remote, Robotic, Robust, Size-Reduced, Virtual-Reality Paradigm Smart Dust. Nanoweapons. Smart Weapons. VR. . . . on......

Words: 237133 - Pages: 949

Free Essay

Nit-Silchar B.Tech Syllabus

...reinstatement Method, Contractors Method. Methods of valuation of land-comparative method, abstractive method and belting method. Suggested Reading 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Estimating & Costing, M. Chakraborty, M. Chakraborty, Kolkata. Estimating & Costing, B.N. Dutta, Kalyani Publication, Kolkata. Valuation of Real Properties, S.C. Rangwala, Charoter Publisher, Pune. Civil Engineering Contracts & Estimates, B.S. Patil, Orient-Longman Ltd., New Delhi. CPWD Specifications Vol-I, II, III, &IV, CPWD, Jain Book Agency, New Delhi. CPWD Analysis of Rates, CPWD, Jain Book Agency, New Delhi. APWD Schedule of Rates, Assam PWD, Dispur. IRRIGATION ENGINEERING Pre-requisite: Hydraulics (CE 1206) Semester: 7 Introduction – Definition, necessity, types, advantages and disadvantages of irrigation. Soil Water-plant Relationship – Soil-water plant relationship, soil-fertility and crop rotation, crop-water relationship, manure and fertilizers for improving soil characteristics, principal crops in India. Water-requirements of Crops – factors affecting water-requirement of crops, consumptive use of water, determination of irrigation water requirement, command area, delta, duty, base period, relation between delta, duty and base period, Kor depth and Kor period. Flow Irrigation – (a) Unlined canal-Lacey’s theory, design of canal based on silt theory. (b) Lined canal-necessity of lining, selection of lining, types of canal lining and their brief description, design consideration for line canal,......

Words: 126345 - Pages: 506

Free Essay

Global Warming

...of salt and vinegar flavour? How did soldiers avoid chlorine gas poisoning at the Second Battle of Ypres? How is sherbet made? Why do steps made of limestone sometimes feel slippery? Why is the acid in a car battery more corrosive than vinegar? Why do equimolar solutions of sulphuric acid and nitric acid have different pHs? What is the pH of a ‘neutral’ solution? What do we mean when we say blood plasma has a ‘pH of 7.4’? 6.2 ‘Strong’ and ‘weak’ acids and bases Why Why Why Why is a nettle sting more painful than a burn from ethanoic acid? is ‘carbolic acid’ not in fact an acid? does carbonic acid behave as a mono-protic acid? is an organic acid such as trichloroethanoic acid so strong? 6.3 Titration analyses Why does a dock leaf bring relief after a nettle sting? How do indigestion tablets work? ix 212 212 216 217 218 221 221 222 224 224 225 229 229 233 233 233 235 236 237 239 239 240 241 242 244 244 245 250 251 251 253 253 254 259 260 261 261 262 x CONTENTS 6.4 pH buffers Why does the pH of blood not alter after eating pickle? Why are some lakes more acidic than others? How do we make a ‘constant-pH solution’? 6.5 Acid–base indicators What is ‘the litmus test’? Why do some hydrangea bushes look red and others blue? Why does phenolphthalein indicator not turn red until pH 8.2? 7 Electrochemistry 7.1 Introduction to cells: terminology and background Why does putting aluminium......

Words: 233668 - Pages: 935

Premium Essay

Electrical Electronics

... emulsion & distemper. Flooring: Types - mosaic tiles, ceramic tiles, marble, granite and synthetic materials. Roofing: Selection of type of roof -flat roof, sloping roof -Concrete roof, tiled roof. Selection of roof covering materials. GI Sheet , AC Sheet, PVC Sheet MODULE III Concrete: Ingredients- cement, aggregate, and water. Qualities of ingredients (brief description only). Tests on Cement - consistency, initial and final setting times. Compressive strength -IS Specifications. Aggregates – desirable qualities of fine and coarse aggregates Plain Cement Concrete (PCC): preparation-proportioning-mixing of concrete. Steel-common types used in construction- Mild Steel, HYSD Steel and their properties. Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)-advantages of RCC over Plain Cement Concrete. Elementary ideas on pre-cast and pre-stressed concrete constructions. Building services – vertical transportation – stairs – types, escalators and elevators, ramps (brief description only). Plumbing services- brief description of water supply and sewage disposal arrangements for residential buildings. REFERENCE: 1. Adler R., Vertical Transportation for Buildings, American Elsevier Publishing Company, New York.1970 2. B.C Punmia, “Surveying & Leveling” Vol. – I, Laxmi publications(P) Ltd,N.Delhi, 2004 3. Rangwala., Building Materials,Charotar publishing house, 2001 4. Rangwala, “Building Construction” , Charotar Publishing House., 2004 5. S.K. Roy, “Fundamentals of Surveying” Prentice-Hall of India...

Words: 36386 - Pages: 146

Premium Essay

Ee 101 for New Beginners

... Electricity is fundamentally charges, both positive and negative. Energy is work. There are just as many positive as negative charges in both a conductor and an insulator. In a good conductor, the electrons move easily, like liquid water. In a good insulator, the electrons are stuck in place, like frozen water (but not exactly; they don’t “melt”). Like charges repel and opposite charges attract. NOW WHAT? So now we have an idea of what insulators and conductors are and how they relate to electrons and atoms. What is this information good for, and why do we care? Let’s focus on these charges and see what happens when we get them to move around. First, let’s get these charges to move to a place and stay there. To do this we’ll take advantage of the cool effect that these charges have on each other, which we discussed earlier. Remember, opposite charges attract, whereas the same charges repel. There is a cool, mysterious, magical field around these charges. We call it the electrostatic field. This is the very same field that creates everything from static cling to lightning bolts. Have you ever rubbed a balloon on your head and stuck it on the wall? If so, you have seen a demonstration of an electrostatic field. If you took that a little further and waved the balloon closely over the hair on your arm, you might notice how the hairs would track the movement of the balloon. The action of rubbing the balloon caused your head to end up with a net total charge on it and the......

Words: 111107 - Pages: 445