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The Effects of Gum Chewing on Math Test Score


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[pic] Ex Fide Ad Veritatem


A Research Proposal
Presented to the Psychology Program

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject
Experimental Psychology


Riomhel C. Digal
Aileen M. Mendez
Kristine Jean N. Ancheta
Jhelyn R. Tapere

March, 2011

Ex Fide Ad Veritatem

The Effects of Gum Chewing on the Math Test Scores of First Year Psychology Students of Holy Cross of Davao College


A Research Proposal
Presented to the Psychology Program

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject
Psy 8
Experimental Psychology

Riomhel C. Digal
Aileen M. Mendez
Kristine Jean N. Ancheta
Jhelyn R. Tapere

March, 2011

Aileen M. Mendez, Kristine Jean N. Ancheta and Jhelyn R. Tapere, in partial fulfillment for the subject Psychology 8 (Experimental Psychology), has been examined and recommended for presentation and acceptance.

Anne Bella L. Pedrosa, MASCo Instructor


Accepted and approved after the presentation of the study with a grade of ___________.
Date: April 2011

Gina R. Lamzon, MAGC, RGC

Mr. Ruel Brillantes Regina Sonia R. Macabeo-Amiscua, M.D. Member Member

The researchers would like to thank the following persons for the help and support to make this study possible. It was through the effort, time, and prayers of these people that helped a lot in finding the means to finish this study. They are so grateful and honored to have received all the blessings and help that these people had shared with them. To the officers of Psychology Department who have helped them in locating the needed respondents; To the subjects of the study for their time and participation; To the panelists, Mr. Ruel Brillantes, Mrs. Gina Lamzon and Dr. Regina Sonia Macabeo-Amiscua for their suggestions and expertise; To Mrs. Doris D. Giron, Mr. Tristan P. Padora and Mr. Joselito C. Acebuche for validating the research instruments; To Mr. Ruel Brillantes for editing the format, and Dr. Regina Sonia R. Macabeo-Amiscua, for her time and effort in patiently editing the whole manuscript; To the internet staff who have patiently accommodated them; To their ever dearest families who have never ceased to support them financially, morally and spiritually; To Mrs. Anne Bella Pedrosa who encouraged them to finish the study; Lastly, to the Lord Almighty God for all the strengths and the blessings that He poured upon them especially in the times of troubles and difficulties.


This study entitled, "The Effects of Gum Chewing on the Math Test Scores of First Year Psychology Students of Holy Cross of Davao College” aimed to identify whether taking Math test while chewing gum can improve test scores or not. The subjects of the study were composed of 20% of the first year Psychology students enrolled in Holy Cross of Davao College for the 2nd semester school year 2010-2011. They were randomly selected from a list we obtained from the Registrar's office. The experimental design used by the researchers was within-subject design. The subjects who took the pretest were the same subjects who took the posttest. In gathering the data, the instrument was the Math test used in the pilot test. The researchers conducted a focused group interview with the subjects after they took the posttest. It was hypothesized that chewing gum had no effect on improving Math test scores. By using the t-test for dependent samples, the researchers found out that there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores. Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected which means gum chewing can help improve Math test scores. Further research to improve the study should make use of different types of gums and tests.

Table of Contents

Title Page i
Approval Sheet ii
Acknowledgment iii
Abstract iv

Table of Contents v
List of Tables vi
List of Figure vii
1 The Problem and a Review of Related Literature 1 Review of Related Literature 3 Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework 12 Statement of the Problem 13 Hypothesis 14 Scope and Delimitation 14 Definition of Terms 14 2 Method Design 16 Locale and Subjects of the Study 17 Instruments 17 Data Gathering Procedure 18 Data Analysis 19 2. Results and Discussions 20 3. Conclusions 24 4. Recommendations 24

References 26
A Letter 29 B Validations 30 C Test Questionnaire 33
Authors’ Notes 40

List of Tables

Tables Page 1 Pretest and Post test results and Test Retest Reliability result. 20 2 Summary of the result of the test using t-test. 21

List of Figure

Figure Page

1 Theoretical / Conceptual Framework 13


The Problem and the Review of Related Literature

Math is one of the subjects that students learn and relearn from preschool until they reach college. Math is used as a basic skill. Math is the study of number forms, arrangement, and associated relationships using rigorously defined literal, numerical and operational symbols. One of the most important things people must have to understand is that Math implicates reasoning and logic. Math is used today as an important part in everyday life. Almost every job or career requires good math skills. If you are a student who struggles in school, test day may be a sad day. A tough test leads to a disappointing score, and eventually a bad grade. Students struggle to come up with a high score in every exam. There are so many researches on ways to improve test scores but what the researchers found interesting the most is the study recently conducted by Cornell University and Wrigley's chewing gum. Gum chewing during exams can improve test scores. Studies have suggested that something about chewing gum reduces stress, improves alertness and relieves anxiety. But most of these researches have been found only in a laboratory setting. Now, some study in people also supports the idea that chewing a gum boosts academic performance. Some researchers found that students who chewed gum showed an increase in standardized math test scores and their final grades were better compared with those who did not. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if gum chewing during a test improved math test scores. This study was inspired from the experiment of Elizabeth Barnes from Mid-Columbia Science Fair Project. The information gained from this experiment would help parents, students and educators to better understand how gum chewing can improve Math test scores; so that they would allow students who chewed gums during activities and exams. This study will determine whether gum chewing has an effect on improving Math test scores. This will benefit teachers and parents in helping and guiding their students or daughters and sons to improve their academic performance. This will also give an idea to some researchers to conduct more experiments on improving the student's test scores in mathematics. Students will, likewise, benefit from this study by giving them an idea that a simple gum chewing may help them improve their test scores.

Review of Related Literature

Students aim to have good academic performance. They strive hard to reach a passing score in every test or examination. Everyone has different techniques to get high scores in any exam. It gives one a good feeling and it complements whenever students get high scores. Some researchers found out that gum chewing while taking a test can help students improve test scores especially in Math.
Chewing gum

People have forever enjoyed the world of gum. Even thousands of years ago, people have chewed gum in one form or another. As the time passed, many experiments were carried in newer ingredients of chewing gums. Today, chewing gums come in a variety of shapes and flavors. Spearmint and peppermint are the most popular flavors of chewing gum today. There are various types of gums available in the market for various purposes as well. There are also many brands of chewing gums and the most popular is Juicy Fruit gum (Patti, 2002).

Gum is a type of confection that people chew but do not swallow. Most people find that gum chewing increases concentration and relieves boredom. Gum comes in variety of shapes, sizes, flavors and colors. Chewing gum is made of gum base sugar, corn syrup, softeners and flavorings.

Types of Chewing Gum

Many native populations have chewed various substances as a sort of gum including spruce gum, chicle and various other tree resins. It can be said that the earliest gums were sugar free chewing gums. Sugar free chewing gums emerged in the mid-20th century and subsequently substituted with artificial sweeteners for sugar. When gum was first manufactured commercially, most brands did contain quite a bit of sweetener and some people grew concerns about sugar consumption as the century reached its midpoint.

One sweetener, cyclamate, was used in most early versions of sugar free chewing gum, though health concerns about this substance began to grow. In the 1970s, governments like the US banned it, and other sugar substitutes were used instead. Today, sugar free chewing gum may contain several different substitutes, including sorbitol, aspartame or others. (Ellis-Christensen, 2003).

Composition of Chewing Gum

Originally, chewing gum was made from the latex sap (chicle) of the sapodilla tree or other tree saps. For many years, gum base was made from chicle which was the chief ingredient in chewing gums. Today, many modern chewing gums substituted chicle with rubber. In the middle 1900s, chemists learned to make synthetic rubber, which became a substitute for most natural rubber in chewing gums. Most gums are made from a synthetic rubber, or a mixture of artificial and natural bases. Softeners were added to retain moisture. The most popular softeners are glycerin or vegetable oil based. Those ingredients were used to help prevent the gum from becoming hard or stark. Sweeteners are added to the gum to give a sweet flavor. Those ingredients are usually sugar, corn syrup and even beet juice. Sugar is probably the healthiest of all sweeteners. There are many synthetic sweeteners, but the most commonly used are xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol and aspartame. A flavor ingredient in chewing gum has been found to provide long lasting, high intensity and high quality flavor. The flavorings are added last. The most commonly used flavors in chewing gums are peppermint (called only mint), fruit, spearmint (a variation of mint flavor), menthol (a mint related flavor). Other flavors are synthetically created and perfected in the lab, (Wechsler, 2006).

Facts about Juicy Fruit Gum

Among the first varieties of chewing gum to hit the market more than 100 years ago is Wrigley's Juicy Fruit Gum, and is one of the world's most popular gum flavors. It is made of gum base, sweeteners and secret flavorings. Juicy Fruit's distinctive flavor made it popular not only in the United States, but also in Canada, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong and China. With the introduction of sugar-free Juicy Fruit, Wrigley continued to widen the appeal of this already popular confection.

Juicy Fruit gum was introduced in 1893 by the Wrigley Gum Company. It was launched just a few months before Wrigley's spearmint gum hit the market. Juicy Fruit gum was taken off the market during World War II due to rationing, but was reintroduced in 1946 and quickly regained its popularity. The first item to be scanned using a UPC code was a package of Juicy Fruit gum, (Whittem, 2010).

Health Effects of Chewing Gum

You may have been told to spit out your gum. Gum chewing can actually be beneficial to your physical and mental well-being. Research funded by the Wrigley, a gum manufacturing company, showed several health benefits of chomping on sugar-free pieces of gum. Sugar-free gum versions are best since sugary gum can increase your risk of tooth decay, (Wood, 2010). Chewing gum can reduce symptoms associated with acid reflux disease, according to CNN news. The saliva produced during the chewing process acts as an antacid, therefore, it neutralizes stomach acid. Gum chewing provides temporary relief for heartburn.

The study presented by Wrigley Company (2009) at the American Society for Nutrition Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting showed that chewing sugar-free gum in a classroom led to better academic performance in teenage test subjects. Higher standardized Math scores and overall grades were noted. Tension caused by the workplace, school and home can also be combated by chewing gum.

In an article entitled Health Benefits of Chewing Gum posted in the online edition of The Independent, Dr. Stephen J. Moss, a former American Pediatric Dental Association President confirmed the multiple advantages of gum chewing. He has asserted that there are a substantial number of medical studies reporting that gum chewing can aid in teeth cleaning, plaque reduction, and tooth enamel strengthening. It has also shown to help reduce gingivitis and gum bleeding. Aside from its advantages to oral health gum chewing, it also supports overall healthy living by providing other health benefits, some of which may even be surprising. In fact, some people now are already using gum chewing to help improve focus, concentration and alertness. Recent research shows gum chewing results in an improvement in overall performance on multi-tasking activities while under a laboratory stressor (Andrew, 2008).

A new study presented at the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2009 found that chewing Wrigley sugar-free gum can lead to better academic performance in teenagers in a classroom setting. The study found that students who chewed gum showed an increase in standardized Math test scores and their final grades were better compared to those who did not chew gum.

The Effect of Gum Chewing on Learning

Research conducted by Bayor College of Medicine that studied the effects of gum chewing while studying and testing found a link between gum chewing and higher Math test scores in eighth graders. According to a WebMD interview of study leader Craig Johnston, PhD, researchers speculate that gum chewing reduces stress, explaining the higher test scores among students who chewed gum. A 2010 Cardiff University study of volunteers who chewed gum during stressful testing situations, published in the journal "Nutritional Neuroscience," also concluded that gum chewing improves cognition by reducing stress, (George, 2010).

In addition to stress reduction, the study by Cardiff University indicated that gum chewing also facilitated learning by increasing alertness. Researchers found that gum chewing was associated with greater alertness, including quicker reaction time and improved selective and sustained attention. It was also found out that heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing, which confirms the alerting effect of gum chewing (George, 2010).

Chewing Gum Improves Memory

Gum chewing can improve memory, according to UK psychologists. They found that people who chewed gum throughout tests of both long-term and short-term memory produced significantly better scores than people who did not. But gum-chewing did not boost memory-linked reaction times, used as a measure of attention (Young, 2002). The reason why gum chewing may improve memory is unknown. However, a British psychologist conducted a study and concluded that persons chewing gum during the test showed better short and long memory test scores than when they did not. In addition, gum chewing has been proven to be an effective displacement activity for people who want to stop smoking (Koppenaal, 2009). A more recent study from the United Kingdom (Wilkinson, et al., 2002) caused controversy in the international gum-chewing community by suggesting that gum improves memory. They noticed improved performance among gum chewers and hypothesized that gum enhances cognitive functioning either by increasing cerebral blood flow or by promoting the release of insulin, which could indirectly affect memory.

Facts about Mathematics

Mathematics is the study of quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns, formulate new conjectures, and establish truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of Mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure Mathematics or Mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind, although practical applications for what began as pure Mathematics are often discovered (Wikipedia, 2011).

Chewing Gum Raises Kid's Math Score

The study was conducted by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and was sponsored by the Wrigley Science Institute. The study included 108 students, ages 13-16, who were assigned to either chew sugar-free gum during Math class while doing math homework and during Math tests or to refrain from gum-chewing. After 14 weeks, the students' took a Math test and their grades were assessed. Those who chewed gum had a 3% increase in standardized Math test scores and had final Math grades that were significantly better than the other students. Teachers observed that those who chewed gum seemed to require fewer break time, sustain attention longer and remain quieter (Roan, 2009).

Chewing Gum Can Lead to Better Academic Performance in Teenagers

The researchers found that students who chewed gum showed an increase in standardized Math test scores and their final grades were better compared to those who did not chew gum. Students who chewed gum had a significantly greater increase in their standardized Math test scores after 14 weeks of gum chewing in Math class and while doing homework compared to those who did not chew gum. Gum chewing was associated with a three percent increase in standardized Math test scores, a small but statistically significant change. Students who chewed gum had final grades that were significantly better than those who did not chew gum (Craig A. Johnston, 2009).

Chewing Gum & the Role for Improved Standardized Test Scores

Gum chewing, even a decade ago, was not an activity that was permitted in classrooms. Typically, gum chewing was perceived as a noise distraction and could lead to hygiene issues or issues associated with cleanliness of the school. However, over the last decade, schools have begun to allow students the privilege of gum chewing in the classroom with the understanding this may help improve academic performance. Not only does gum chewing improve cognitive function in some students, it may also help to improve alertness and mood. Because the classroom setting can be somewhat boring and disinteresting at times, allowing a student to chew gum can encourage or boost mood and focus and this, ultimately, may have a student focus and process information better (Cadena, 2010). Gum chewing has been shown to increase cognitive functioning. With the rise in standardized testing of school-age children and the concurrent attempts to improve their scores, finding simple and inexpensive methods to bolster performance is needed (Miles & Johnson, 2007).

Chewing Gum Results to Better Grades in Math

The Wrigley firm says in a statement that the study is meaningful and should be of interest to parents "when related to small steps that can lead to better academic performance". The study was built on previous research but it emphasizes that it is gum chewing that leads to better scores and reduced stress, and not a particular brand. The study was supported by the Wrigley Science Institute, which says its research is focused on exploring the impact of gum chewing on focus, alertness, concentration, situational stress, weight management and oral health. The Baylor researchers say their study in a "high stakes testing environment underscores the need for novel approaches to facilitate improved academic performance as standardized test scores have become a mandatory requirement for assessing academic achievement" (Bill, 2009).

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model

The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model is designed and planned based on the theory that individual students learn best in different ways. It draws upon two basic theories: (1) Cognitive style (Kagen & Kogen, 1970), and (2) brain lateralization (Orstein & Thompson, 1984). Lateralization is the idea that the two halves of the brain's cerebral cortex -- left and right -- execute different functions. Brain lateralization helps us understand our behavior, our personality, our creativity, and our ability to use the proper mode of thinking when performing particular tasks. Each hemisphere of the brain is dominant for other behaviors. The right brain is dominant for spatial abilities, face recognition, visual imagery and music while the left brain is more dominant for calculations, Math and logical abilities. The Dunn and Dunn Learning model is based on the assumptions that it is possible to identify individual student preferences for learning environments and it is possible to use a variety of instructional procedures and to modify the instructional environment to match the preferences. As a result, the student will improve his or her ability to learn. One of the major components of the model is the learning style element which focuses more on what the student does. This experiment focuses on physiological preferences under intake element. The intake element is concerned with the need to eat, drink, or chew while engaged in learning activities. Gum chewing while taking a Math test was used as the learning style element in this experiment. The chewing motion raises a person’s heart rate, which in turn increases oxygen flow to the brain leading to better concentration, memory recall and the like. When people chew gum, the release of a chemical called insulin takes place, which stimulates a section of the brain (the hippocampus) involved with memory recall. Gum chewing increases the glucose level which is body-and-mind fuel. Also the act of chewing speeds up our heartbeat and blood pressure just enough to wake up both left-and right hemispheres to work together. Gum chewing produces more oxygen, more glucose and disposal of more CO2. This is how gum chewing improves memory.

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

The paradigm shows the relationship between the independent variable (gum chewing) and the dependent variable (Math test scores). The independent variable influences the dependent variable. Thus, gum chewing is the one being manipulated by the researchers while the test score is the one being measured. The type of gum used in the experiment is Juicy Fruit Gum since it is the most popular gum among any other gums and it introduces a sugar-free type of gum which is highly recommended by other researchers. Math test is a kind of test used in the experiment because it requires basic Mathematical skills and quite easier to measure. Math test is a kind of test that most students find difficult.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine if gum chewing during a test will improve Math test scores of the 1st year BS PSYCHOLOGY students. Specifically, it seeks to answer the question: 1. What is the mean score of the pretest and the post test? 2. Is there a significant difference between the pretest and the posttest scores?


Ho: There is no significant difference between the scores of students taking Math test without chewing gum (pretest) from students who chew gum while taking Math test. The result of the study was tested at a level of significance of .05.

Scope and Delimitation

The study focused on the effects of gum chewing on Math test scores. The study was limited only to the Math test scores of the randomly selected subjects from the Psychology Program in Holy Cross of Davao College. It is also limited on the type of chewing gum being used in the experiment.

Definition of Terms

Chewing gum. It is a type of gum traditionally made of chicle, a natural latex product, or synthetic rubber known as polyisobutylene. In this study, chewing gum is the Juicy Fruit gum, the independent variable which is claimed to have effects on the test scores of the participants in Mathematics.

Math Test Score. It is a piece of information usually a number that conveys the performance of an examiner on a Math test. It is operationally defined as the results from the Math test, which focuses on the four basic mathematical operations, taken by the students.



This chapter includes the method used in the study, which consists of the research design, locale and subjects, instruments, data gathering procedure and the analysis.

Research design

The research design used was within-subjects design, a type of experimental study where one looks at changes in behavior across treatments. This study used only one group of students who took the pretest and post test in Mathematics.

Locale and Subjects

The study was conducted at Holy Cross of Davao College, Sta. Ana Avenue, Davao City. Holy Cross of Davao College is a private Catholic Institution governed by Archdiocese of Davao. This school has a population of approximately 10,000 students from 1st-4th year for all courses, excluding the graduate school and vocational and technical courses. This study was centered to the First Year Psychology students of Holy Cross of Davao College who are enrolled in the Second Semester of school year 2010-2011. The current population of first year students in that certain course was 68. In order to achieve a statistical representation of the population, the researchers used random sampling method which the whole first year Psychology students were given equal chance to be the subjects of the study. The researchers drew lots to randomly select 15 students among the said population. These 15 students comprised 20% of the population of first year Psychology students.


This study used Math test for the pretest and post test. Each test included four mathematical operations, namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The test was validated by Mrs. Doris D. Giron, Mr. Tristan Padora and Mr. Joselito C. Acebuche. The validators had some recommendations for the improvement of the Math test before using it for the pilot testing making the number of items per part of the test equal and make the questions clearer.

This study used 30 Math test sheets, 15 test sheets for the pretest and 15 test sheets for the post test. Each Mathematical operation had five item questions; thus, there were 20 items in all. Each student who took the post test was given one chewing gum (Juicy Fruit gum). This study also needed one empty room, 15 pencils and 15 answer sheets. The researchers also needed an answer key to check the answers of the students.

Data Gathering Procedure

In conducting this experiment, the researchers had the Math test validated prior to its administration in the experiment, then they were randomly created one group composed of 15 first year BS Psychology students. The selected students were informed that they were subjects of an experiment and they heartily accepted the request and listened to the instructions as to when and where the experiment would be held. The researchers prepared the test questionnaires and the answer sheets for experiment. On the day of the experiment, the researchers prepared the testing room for the experiment by separating each desk at least 3 feet apart, placing a chair with each desk, and ensuring there would be no distractions. When all the subjects arrived at the testing room, the researchers gave instructions to the subjects. At the start of the experiment, the researchers let the participants take the test without the chewing gum. The researchers also made sure each subject placed their names on the test. The examiner timed the test with a stopwatch, then after 20 minutes, the examiner stopped them, collected all test answer sheets, scored all tests using answer keys then logged the results.

On the following day, the researchers conducted the second test using the same testing room. This time, the students chewed a gum while taking the test. The researchers repeated the same procedure used during the first test.

Data Analysis

In this study, the researchers used t-test for paired data or dependent samples to analyze the data gathered from the test. The researchers solved the t-test of both Math tests using the SPSS trial. The computed t-value and the critical t-value were compared. If the computed value was greater than the critical value, the null hypothesis was not accepted; otherwise, accept the null hypothesis. In other words, if the probability of significance is lesser than the level of significance or alpha, the decision is to not accept the null hypothesis, otherwise accept the null hypothesis.


Results and Discussions

This chapter presents and analyzes the data gathered from the experiment. The findings are presented according to the questions raised in the statement of the problem: the mean scores of the pretest and posttest and the significant difference of the two.

Table 1: The Raw Scores and Mean Scores of the Pretest and Posttest

Table 1 shows the individual scores and mean scores of the pretest and posttest. The raw scores are the result obtained by the students on the Math tests. The mean scores is the average score of the pretest and post test scores. In the pretest, the highest score is 18 and the lowest score is 3. Out of the 15, seven got scores above the mean score and eight got scores below the mean score. On the other hand, 19 is the highest score in the post test and two is the lowest score. Out of 15 students who took the pretest and posttest, seven of them increased their scores and three of them decreased scores in the post test. Five got the same scores in the pretest and post test. This implies that Math test scores had improved in the post test where the students chewed gum while taking the Math test.

Table 2: Significant Difference of the Pretest and Posttest Scores

Table 2 shows the significant difference of the pretest and posttest scores. The pretest mean score was 10.07 while the post test score was 11.40. From this result, Math test scores increased from the pretest to the post test. The absolute t-test computed value is 2.117 with 14 as degrees of freedom. Since the absolute computed value is 2.117 which is greater than the absolute critical value of 0.05; then, the null hypothesis is not accepted. This means that there is a significant difference in the pretest and the post test scores. This implies that gum chewing is an effective means in improving Math test scores. The result shows that it is similar with the experiment conducted by the researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and was sponsored by the Wrigley Science Institute from the article of Shari Roan (2009). The researchers found that students who chewed gum showed an increase in standardized Math test scores and their final grades were better compared to those who did not chew gum. Those who chewed gum had a 3% increase in standardized math test scores and had final math grades that were significantly better than the other students. In comparison with our experiment, majority of the respondents increased their scores in taking Math test while they chewed gum. The result shows that there is a significant difference between the pretest and post test scores.

How Chewing Gum While Taking Math Test Affect the Respondents

During the pretest, most of the subjects were having some difficulties in finishing the Math test. Some were not able to finish all the items. Some did finish but their scores were low. On the other hand, most subjects finished the test earlier in the post test compared to the pretest. During the post test, some subjects shared that taking test while chewing gum helped improve their alertness, focus and concentration in solving the mathematical operations. This is supported by the study of Bill (2009) who said that chewing gum leads to better scores and reduced stress. Christine Cadena (2010) also said that allowing a student to chew gum can encourage or boost mood and focus and this, ultimately, may have a student focus and process information better. However, three students shared that taking test while chewing gum affected their concentration. As a result, there are only few items of the test and decided not to answer the remaining items. This is opposed to the studies of Hendrick Bill and Christine Cadena. The outcome of this study will help the students to have an idea on how to improve their test scores. It implies that gum chewing could contribute in improving the student's academic performance.

Chapter 4

Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter discusses the conclusion and recommendations derived from the results of the discussions. This study aimed to determine if gum chewing while taking a Math test help improve score. A 20 item Math test, which focused only in four basic mathematical operations, was given to 15 first year Psychology students. After the results were gathered and analyzed, the researchers found out that the subjects improved their Math test scores from pretest to posttest. Using the t-test for dependent samples, the researchers found out that there is a significant difference between the pretest and post test. The result shows that there is a strong relationship between the independent and dependent variable.


The null hypothesis was rejected since the result showed a significant difference between the pretest and post test scores. Thus, the researchers conclude that gum chewing while taking test can improve test score specifically in Math. You do get a better score in a test if you are chewing gum.


For further research, it is suggested that future researchers must consider using different brands or types of gums with different categories of test. The mental capacity could also be considered in choosing the participants for better results. The test should be revised so it would suit the participants. This experiment could be improved by increasing the number of subjects. A future researcher could also make use of a longer test or to make it more difficult. This would result in more varied answers. The researchers could also make use of a two-group design.


Cadena, C. (2010). Chewing gum & the role for improved standardized test scores. Retrieved March 10, 2011 from

Christensen, T. (2003). What is sugar free chewing gum? Retrieved March 10, 2011 from

Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1985). Learning Styles Inventory. Retrieved March 10, 2011 from http://www./The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model of Instruction(theories).htm

Johnson, A., & Miles. (2007). The effects of gum chewing on Math scores in adolescents. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from NCT00792116

Koppenaal, C. (2009). Health benefits of chewing gum. Retrieved February 11, February 11, 2011 from e-effects-gumchewing-to-your-health/

Miles, C., & Johnson, A. J. (2007). Will chewing gum make you smarter? Retrieved February 11, 2011 from =080915_can_gum_make_you_smarter

Miranda, G., (2004). Chewing gum improve test scores. Retrieved March 10, 2011 from, blio

Orstein, & Thompson. (1984). Brain lateralization theory. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from EstadosUnidos

Patti, W. (2002). Chewing gum facts. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from

Richards, R. (2010). Facts about Juicy Fruit Gum. Retrieved February 9, 2011 from

Roan, S. (2009). New study shows chewing gum can lead to better academic performance in teenagers. Retrieved February 09, 2011 from

Scholey, A. (2002). This your brain on gum. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from

Shannon, G. (2010). The effect of gum chewing on learning. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from chewing-learning.html

Shannon, G. (2010). The effect of gum chewing on learning. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from School,-Chewing-Gum- Activates-Your-Brain&id=198507

Wechsler, H.B. (2006). Chewing gum ingredients. Retrieved February 11, 2011 2011, from gum-ingredients/

Witthem, F. (2010). Facts about Juicy Fruit Gum. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from

Wood, H. (2010). Health effects of chewing gum. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from

Young, E. (2002). Chewing gum improves memory. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from

(Performance in Math)

(Juicy fruit)




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...School Context, Student Attitudes and Behavior, and Academic Achievement: An Exploratory Analysis Theresa M. Akey, Ph.D. January 2006 This paper was funded by the William T. Grant Foundation and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Principal funding for First Things First comes from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Additional support to supplement the core project comes from the Ford Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the William T. Grant Foundation, and the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. A grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts for MDRC’s research methodology initiatives was an important source of funding for the First Things First Classroom Observation Study. Dissemination of MDRC publications is supported by the following funders that help finance MDRC’s public policy outreach and expanding efforts to communicate the results and implications of our work to policymakers, practitioners, and others: Alcoa Foundation, The Ambrose Monell Foundation, The Atlantic Philanthropies, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Open Society Institute, and The Starr Foundation. In addition, earnings from the MDRC Endowment help sustain our dissemination efforts. Contributors to the MDRC Endowment include Alcoa Foundation, The Ambrose Monell Foundation, Anheuser-Busch Foundation, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The Grable Foundation...

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...GMAT GRADUATE MANAGEMENT ADMISSION TEST McGraw-Hill’s 2008 Edition James Hasik Stacey Rudnick Ryan Hackney New York | Chicago | San Francisco | Lisbon London | Madrid | Mexico City | Milan | New Delhi San Juan | Seoul | Singapore | Sydney | Toronto Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-151120-2 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-149340-9. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights...

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...19 Freudian & Humanistic Theories MODULE 455 448 449 432 Photo Credit: © Colin Anderson/ Getty Images A. Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory B. Divisions of the Mind C. Developmental Stages D. Freud’s Followers & Critics E. Humanistic Theories Concept Review F. Cultural Diversity: Unexpected High Achievement G. Research Focus: Shyness 434 436 438 440 442 447 H. Application: Assessment—Projective Tests Summary Test Critical Thinking Can Personality Explain Obesity? Links to Learning 450 452 454 Introduction Personality Ted Haggard founded New Life Church in the basement of his house 25 years ago and became a prominent author and national evangelical Christian leader with a congregation of 14,000 worshippers in the largest church in Colorado. He is married with five children and has boyish dimples and a warm smile. In 2006, at the peak of his career, a male prostitute accused Haggard of having a three-year sexual affair with him and of using drugs. is accusation was alarming not only because Haggard was a married pastor, but also because he publicly supported a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage. When the accusations were first broadcast on the news, Haggard confessed to church officials, saying, “Ninety-eight percent of what you know of me was the real me. Two percent of me would rise up, and I couldn’t overcome At the height of his career, it” (Haggard, 2006a). Then, in Ted Haggard, well-known pastor, a television news interview the confessed...

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