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PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUSING A THESIS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

P.GRADUATE

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Postgraduate Board January 2002

University of New South Wales

Please note: the web version does not contain two sections of the printed version. The differences are due to differing formats which makes it impossible to convert some pages into a PDF format. Missing are a mock up of a UNSW Thesis/Project Report Sheet and the information in Appendix IV. A copy of the printed guide can be sent to you if you email your address to campaigns@unsw.edu.au. This missing information was taken from the Thesis Submission Pack which is available from New South Q on the Kensington campus (download from or phone: (02) 9385 3093).

ABSTRACT
This booklet is designed to assist research students with the practical aspects of producing a postgraduate research thesis at the University of New South Wales. As well as providing advice in regard to the University’s requirements, formatting, layout, referencing and the use of information technology, this guide also describes what some students might regard as the more arcane and ritualistic aspects of producing a PhD thesis, in particular, those associated with accepted academic conventions. A section on posture and ergonomics has also been included to help you avoid the kinds of injuries that result from working on a computer for an extended period. This work is set out in a similar way to a PhD thesis. An example of a typical and acceptable format for both Masters and PhD research theses is also included. This work differs in layout from a PhD thesis, however, as it is printed on both sides of the page. This booklet is meant to act as a general guide only. As the requirements of a research thesis in the sciences and engineering will obviously differ from the requirements in the humanities, commerce and law, you should always check with your supervisor to ensure you have met the requirements of your school. The advice given in these pages should be seen as generally applicable to all research theses produced at the University of New South Wales. This booklet was produced by the Postgraduate Board of the University of New South Wales (PGB) and draws on the knowledge and experience of many present and former research students of this University. The PGB hopes that the advice and guidance offered in this work will contribute to the successful completion of your research thesis.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This is the sixth edition of Practical Aspects of Producing a Thesis at the University of New South Wales. While this work draws heavily on the experience of a large number of past and present research students at the University of New South Wales, we remain indebted to our colleagues at The University of Sydney’s Postgraduate Representative Association (SUPRA) for their assistance and generosity as this work was originally based on SUPRA’s publication the Practical Aspects of Producing a Thesis. Thanks are also due to Mary McBean and Trish Kemp, who compiled the section on Avoiding Overuse Injuries.

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Table of Contents
Page Number ABSTRACT Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Special Names List of Abbreviations 1. INTRODUCTION 2. WRITING A THESIS Research and Writing Skills The Role of the Supervisor The Postgraduate Board Content and Format of a Typical Research Thesis 3. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY The Internet as a Research Tool Choosing a Personal Computer Ergonomic Factors: Avoiding Overuse Injuries 4. STYLISTIC CONVENTIONS Abbreviations Referencing Sources of Information Methods of Referencing Bibliographies Referencing Software 5. THE UNIVERSITY’S FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS Setting the Margins Other University Requirements

i ii v v 1 3 3 4 4 4 6 6 7 8 12 12 12 13 15 16 17 17 17

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6. PROOFREADING Spelling and Grammar Checkers

19 20

7. PRINTING, COPYING AND BINDING Copies & Photocopying Laser Printing Binding Requirements Amendments and Rewrites 8. CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES i Thesis Writing and Research Skills: A Reference List ii Departmental Requirements for a Thesis iii Higher Degree Theses: Confidentiality and Copyright iv University Thesis Writing Regulations LIST OF FIGURES 1. 2. 3. Correct Word Processing Posture Recommended Hand Position Pause Exercises

21 21 21 21 22 24 25

26 29 36 38

9 10 11

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LIST OF SPECIAL NAMES
This listing is optional and depends on the nature of your thesis. If, for example, your thesis was on pesticides, you could have the following: List of Chemical Designations of Pesticides Common Chemical Name Name ALDRIN 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1, 4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1, 4-endo, exo-5, 8-dimethanonaphthalene DDT 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p1-isomer)

Another common use for this page is to have a complete list of abbreviations used in the text. The ones used in this booklet, together with some you may come across during your stay at the University of New South Wales, are listed below.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CAPA FAUSA gsm P/G PGB SAUT Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations Federation of Australian University Staff Associations grams per square metre Postgraduate Postgraduate Board Sydney Association of University Teachers

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this booklet is to give UNSW postgraduate research students practical advice on the production of a research thesis. The information was obtained from several sources, including the UNSW Calendar 20011, the Faculty Handbooks for 2001, the UNSW 2001 Student Guide and the experience of other postgraduates, past and present. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, it should be remembered that the suggestions and advice included in this publication are mostly outlined in general terms and are not specific to any particular school or department. As the University’s guidelines allow for some variation in the production of a research theses, all students should ensure that they consult their supervisor in regard to formatting, footnotes, bibliographies, illustrations, photographs, videos and the use of appendices, as well as the rules and procedures governing submission. The supervisor plays an important role in ensuring that the scholarly presentation of the thesis meets the School’s requirements as well as those of the University. In order to gain some idea of the scope and the variety of methods involved in producing and formatting a PhD thesis, you are advised to have a look at copies of previously submitted theses that are kept in the Library. Most departments also keep copies of PhD, Masters and Honours theses. Checking the style, format and layout of a number of theses will give you an indication of what may or may not be acceptable. As you approach submission time you are strongly advised to contact the Scholarships, Loans and Research Students Office (SLARSO) on 9385 3105/3106/2109, or email thesis@unsw.edu.au, to collect a thesis submission kit. The kit contains all the necessary forms and documents that are required for submission. Some of these documents are contained in Appendix IV. Students are required to give at least 8 weeks notice in writing to the Registrar of their intention to submit their thesis. This is in order to speed the appointment of examiners, and may be done by emailing SLARSO, or by returning the form enclosed in the thesis submission kit to SLARSO or NewSouth Q. This and other useful information for postgraduates can also be found in the on-line student guide, at .

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titles may be underlined or italicised (as shown)

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When the thesis is submitted, it must be accompanied by a certificate from the supervisor stating whether, in the supervisor’s opinion, the thesis is ready to be examined. The supervisor’s certificate, however, does not represent a judgement on the scholarly or intellectual quality of the thesis, and the supervisor is in no way deemed to be responsible for the outcome of the examination. In other words, the supervisor’s certification does not act as a guarantee that the thesis will be accepted and passed by the examiners. Neither is your supervisor under an obligation to proofread the entire thesis in advance of submission. It is the conventional practice for a supervisor to check only a sample of the footnotes and bibliographical entries in order to access the thesis’ readiness for examination. Despite the limitations on the supervisor’s role in regard to submission and examination, it is always beneficial to enjoy a good collegial relationship with one’s supervisor. Their support is vital, if not crucial to the student in the completion of a successful thesis. This booklet covers most aspects of writing and producing a thesis as well as giving an outline of most of the issues associated with copyright protection. Other matters including enrolment, and rules and procedures pertaining to continuation are covered in the University Calendar, Student Guide 2001 and the Faculty Handbooks. Student Guide 2001 is available at no cost from University Q in the Chancellory Building. The University Calendar and Faculty Handbooks can be purchased from any University Union shop on the Kensington campus. All three publications are reviewed annually to ensure that all information is current and correct.

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CHAPTER TWO WRITING A THESIS
Research and Writing Skills
Most postgraduates will have previously submitted a fourth-year Honours thesis or completed a Master’s degree that will have included at least one significant essay of some length. Therefore, it can be presumed that most research students are reasonably familiar with many of the requirements for writing a research thesis. There will, however, be some postgraduates who have received most of their education overseas and will have little or no experience of completing such a significant academic work as a research thesis in English. There are also some who have been in the workforce for some years and have enrolled as research students; these students may be unfamiliar with the more recent conventions concerning academic writing. Research students who have difficulties with academic English should contact The Learning Centre on either 9385 3890 (Upper Campus) or 9385 4288 (Lower Campus). The Learning Centre’s Internet address is < www.lc.unsw.edu.au>. The staff at The Learning Centre will be able to coach and assist those who need to improve their academic writing skills. Overseas students might also like to take advantage of the diverse range of services provided by UNSW International at the Red Centre on 9385 5333 or at . All postgraduates should ensure they have a copy of the Student Guide and are thoroughly familiar with the sections titled Information for Postgraduate Students and University Rules and Procedures. It would also be beneficial to refer to one or more of the research guides listed in Appendix I. In many cases, the research for your thesis will be completed before you begin to write the first chapter. In other cases, a period spent conducting research will be followed by a shorter period writing up the results. In both instances it is necessary to be generous in allocating time to complete your thesis. Allow for sickness and equipment breakdowns. With candidatures extending to a number of years, there is more than likely going to be a major personal event that will occupy your time for many months and will mean you will not be able to focus on your thesis. Giving birth and raising children, moving house, a family death or illness, or getting married or divorced all take their toll in terms of time and expense, as well as distracting you from completing your thesis. Indeed, some graduates suggest that after you have estimated the time needed to complete a thesis, you should double it!

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The Role of the Supervisor
Undoubtedly, the most important relationship of your candidature is with your supervisor. It is they with whom you work most closely to ensure that you survive your course. They are your most important source of advice, guidance and support throughout your period as a research student at the University of New South Wales. The first task of a thesis supervisor is to ensure that the research topic you have chosen is both original and feasible, and that he/she has sufficient knowledge of the subject area to be able to guide, assist and advise you. Your supervisor is also obliged to inform you about school progression review procedures and the university requirements for producing a successful thesis. Your supervisor should provide you with a copy of the university’s Guidelines for the Supervision of Postgraduate Research and ensure that they have familiarised themselves with the University’s rules in regard to intellectual property. Most Faculties, Schools and Departments provide guidelines for scholarly conventions in the presentation of references, accuracy of quotations and construction of bibliographies.

The Postgraduate Board
The Postgraduate Board is the peak representative body on campus having a number of resources and services to assist you in your candidature. The Board itself consists of elected students whose role is to represent the needs of postgrad students at the University level. The Postgraduate Board provides a 24hr lounge, computer lab and laptop hire service as well as subsidised childcare, legal advisor, email lists, advocacy and information. Combined with services such as The Learning Centre, the Postgraduate Board seeks to assist students during their time at UNSW. For more information, call 9385 6712 (Campaigns/Services Officer) or 9385 6714 (Research/Advocacy Officer)

Content and Format of the Thesis
Some departments have formal word limits for different degrees while others only informally suggest what is normally acceptable. As many faculties have their own requirements in addition to those of the University, it is advisable to consult your supervisor, or postgraduate course co-ordinator, as they are in the position to know precisely what is required by both the faculty and the University in regard to format and word length. The Student Guide provides a clear indication of what is normally expected in terms of word length. A PhD thesis should not normally exceed 100 000 words and a Masters by Research, 75 000 words. These limits apply to the main text of the thesis only, and do not include footnotes. As some departments suggest that tables and figures should appear on separate pages by themselves, you should always seek the advice of your supervisor on such matters. Table 1 provides an outline of the contents of a thesis in the generally accepted order.

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Table 1: Contents, Layout and Format of a Typical PhD Thesis
CONTENTS Title Page COMMENTS All the details as illustrated on the title page must appear. While it is not compulsory to include a symbol alleging copyright, it is advisable if you wish to ensure ownership of your work. A well-prepared abstract enables examiners to identify the objective of the thesis. The abstract should be not more than 350 words in length. While the abstract may be bound in with the thesis, extra copies must be submitted. The Registrar will enclose a copy of the abstract with any letters of invitation to potential examiners of the thesis. Acknowledge any special library, research or financial assistance and the contributions other postgraduates and academic staff may have made. You may also include the contribution made by family members, colleagues, friends or partners. Optional. You may quote an appropriate person or even compose your own poem! Chapters (or Sections) and sub-headings only. Refers to the body of text and appendices, not to introductory pages. Tables, figures and illustrations should be numbered, bear an explanatory legend and be referred to within the text. Where possible graphs and photographs should be displayed and labelled on the same page. If space does not permit you to follow this procedure, type on a separate page and insert the page facing the graph or photograph. Large maps etc. may be folded.

Abstract/Summary

Acknowledgments

Dedication

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Special Names Only if appropriate. or Abbreviations Main Body of Text Begin each chapter on a new page. The text generally begins two lines below the chapter title. You may find it useful to divide it into sections (e.g., Primary Sources, Secondary Sources). Always check with your Department for the format required. Optional. It may be placed in another volume if the source material is confidential. For example, previous publications or large maps. These may be placed in a pocket on the inside of the back cover.

Bibliography

Appendix

Special Enclosure

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CHAPTER THREE COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Thesis production costs are rising every year due to the increasing complexity and cost of home computers, printers, binding, photocopying and photographic reproduction. In the past, many postgraduates had their thesis typed by a computer professional from hand written notes. This approach is rarely used now. Since the early 1990s, many postgraduates have purchased their own home computer. Most postgraduates, however, rely on their school, faculty or university to supply computer services. UNSW postgraduates are fortunate in that they have access to the Postgraduate Board’s 24 Hour Computer Lab (take your student card to Security to have the bar code activated). The Postgraduate Board also maintains a few computers in the postgraduate lounge, and provides a laptop hiring service. For information regarding laptop hire contact the Postgraduate Board staff on 9385 6712 or 9385 6713.

The Internet as a Research Tool
The Internet or web is an excellent source of information. Most major news services and government departments have websites which provide the latest in statistical information along with links to other sites that could further facilitate both qualitative and quantitative research. The internet contains a multitude of domain-specific search engines to find journal articles and related documentation. Information about online resources, as well as online access to journal articles, is available through the library web site, . It must be noted that caution should be used in utilising the internet as a tool for information. In much the way encyclopaedias are not used for research, the internet is fraught with difficulties. It is imperative that any references used in your work come from credible sources as many pages on the internet are not authored, out of date or biased. When utilising the internet ensure that the information can be verified as the work of acknowledged authors and/or contains credible references. While there is no denying it is an excellent research tool, information contained on the internet is often unsourced and could potentially jeopardise the integrity of your research. There are many ‘junk’ sites on the web, so learn to be selective and make sure that, as with books and journals, you are employing and quoting from an authoritative and respected source. It is advisable to check the University library for recent theses in your topic area. A library search can be conducted online via the Library’s Internet site. The UNSW Library is the

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lead institution in the Australian Digital Thesis Program (ADTP). The aim of the ADTP is to ensure that every PhD thesis submitted at an Australian university is made available via the Internet. At the time of writing this guide, several hundred PhD theses were available through the University Library’s website, . If you would like your thesis on the web, contact the ADTP through their website, which is www.library.unsw.edu.au/thesis/adt-ADT/info/info.html, or through the UNSW ADTP coordinator, Carol Terry, at c.terry@unsw.edu.au, or 9385 2654.

Personal Computers and Software
If you decide to buy your own computer, there are many factors to consider. You can expect to pay upwards of $2,000 for new hardware, software and a basic printer. Check departmental notice boards for advertisements of second-hand computers for sale, but make sure you know what you’re after. Laptop computers are frequently advertised on the postgraduate email list (for instructions on the mailing list and how to subscribe, visit the Postgraduate Board’s web site at ). Finally, some companies will lease personal computers for set periods, though this could prove to be expensive. There are essentially two types of computers available: IBM compatible computers (commonly known as personal computers or PCs) and Apple Macintoshes (Macs). Both have their positive and negative points. A majority of the research students at UNSW would now be completing their thesis on a home computer that is either an IBM or based on the IBM system. However, there are still a large number of students who will swear that Macs are the best. Since the introduction of the iMac there is virtually seamless compatibility between all computers made by the major manufacturers. The compatibility of recently manufactured computers means that choice, these days, is largely based on the standard of service and your ability or preference for using a specific operating system. You may want to give some thought to purchasing a laptop. Although they are more expensive than desktop computers, their flexibility and the convenience of being able to transfer data directly from a university computer to your laptop, and vice versa, may make owning a laptop worth the cost. You will also need to allocate some time to reviewing the wide range of software packages available. Fellow students and departmental staff are often good sources of advice. Keep in mind that some programs may be made for a computer or a computer system that is not compatible with other computers you have access to. Some familiarity with computer compatibility is necessary if you wish to revise your work or print it out on another brand of computer. Saving and using text in Rich Text Format (RTF) is often a way of successfully

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revising text on both IBM and Macintosh formatted computers. It is generally to your advantage to choose equipment and software that is in common use in your department, school or Faculty. You may have trouble printing your thesis if it has been written or laid out with a rare or obsolete program. It is advisable to maintain anti-virus software, with up-to-date virus definition lists, especially if you are using a computer that is shared with other people. Anti-virus software is available to download for all UNSW students, with simple instructions for installation, from the academic computing support unit web site . The academic computing support unit also distributes software, provides computing support for UNSW computers, and runs training courses for UNSW staff. Some final words of advice: don’t forget to back up your work on a regular basis. At least two copies of your floppy disk, zip disk, or CD should also be stored at another location in case of loss or damage. Floppy discs are easily damaged and are notorious for becoming unreadable for no apparent reason. Don’t rely on keeping your thesis on the hard drive of a computer. They can crash and leave you with nothing to show for your efforts. As completing a research thesis can become a frustrating and arduous experience that could see you hunched over a computer for a number of years the following section aims to provide you with advice that may assist you in avoiding injuries that result from computer over-use.

Ergonomic Factors: Avoiding Overuse Injuries2
Long periods of study at a desk can have adverse effects on your health, particularly your musculo-skeletal system (muscles, bones and joints). It is important to be aware of the health risks associated with prolonged keyboard use. Overuse injuries (including Repetitive Strain Injury [RSI] and many other disorders) usually result from excessive tension in the muscles, joints, tendons and nerves. They can occur with any activity, particularly those involving fixed head postures and repetitive arm movements, such as computer use. Recurrent or persistent feelings of discomfort, heaviness, weakness or tenderness should not be ignored, as these may be early warning signs. They may progress to aching and/or pain in the neck, shoulders, upper arm, forearms, wrists, fingers or in a combination of these areas. Tingling, swelling and sensations of pins and needles may also be related to overuse injury. These symptoms heal rapidly if they are investigated early and aggravating factors are removed. When you first start to type or spend long periods at a desk, you may
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“Avoiding Overuse Injuries” was compiled by Mary McBean and Trish Kemp

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experience some of these feelings as your muscles become conditioned. Should they persist beyond a week, you should seek advice from a physiotherapist or doctor specialising in musculo-skeletal injuries. To avoid developing overuse injuries, follow the suggestions listed here. Arrange your furniture and equipment so that you can adopt the posture shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Correct Word Processing Posture * Adjust your chair height so that, with your fingers on the middle row of keys, your forearm is parallel to the floor. * Your shoulders should be relaxed and your upper arms hanging comfortably at your sides. * Use a footrest if necessary to ensure your thigh is nearly parallel to the floor. * Adjust the backrest to the chair so that it fits into and supports your lower back. * Position your screen so that you do not need to bend your head or turn it to the side. The papers you work from should also be raised off the desk and placed directly in front of you. Note: No one posture can be maintained for long periods of time without discomfort or fatigue build-up. Short breaks to stand, stretch and walk even a short distance should be taken at least every hour.

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Figure 2: Correct Hand Position Place the keyboard directly in front of you. Do not type with the wrists resting on the desk or the front of the keyboard. Keep a soft touch on the keys and avoid the bent-up wrist position shown even when resting (see Figure 2). Regular pause exercises will improve your productivity and help lessen the build-up of fatigue. These exercises should not be taken to the point of pain or discomfort. Stretch into strain, not pain! Ideally the exercises should be done standing, but many can be done seated. Examples of the types of exercises that can be done are shown in Figure 3. They have been compiled by Mrs Mary McBean, the University of Sydney Rehabilitation Co-ordinator, Occupational Physiotherapist.

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Figure 3: Pause Exercises
POSTURE: 1. Place palms across the small of your back, and arch the spine 10-20 times.

SHOULDERS: 1. Circle shoulders backwards and forwards 5 to l5 times.

2. Swing one arm down in front of the opposite hip, following with your eyes. Then swing arm up and backwards; follow with the eyes. Repeat with each arm l0 to 20 times.

3. Lift arms forward, circle hands at wrist, drop hands to the side, repeat circling: raise arms above head, repeat circling 5 to 15 times. Swing arms by sides, raising to shoulder height occasionally.

HEAD AND NECK:

1. Turn head to look over one shoulder then down over the opposite hip. Repeat in each direction 5 to 15 times.

2. Keeping your head level, tuck in chin as far as possible. Then poke chin forwards.

HANDS AND ARMS

1. Lift arms forward to a stop sign. Slowly push palms down as far as possible. Then push up to stop sign again 5 to l0 times.

2.Place palms of hands together in front of chest, tips of fingers pointing up. Push left and right alternately 10 to 20 times.

Finally, it is worth finding a relaxation technique which you can use - deep breathing, contract-relax or ‘letting go’ are useful techniques. Meditation and yoga can also be used outside of work. Practise your technique and use it for short periods as necessary. Regular exercise will help maintain the general health of your musculo-skeletal system.

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CHAPTER FOUR STYLISTIC CONVENTIONS
Abbreviations
The appropriate use of abbreviations is an essential ingredient of most successful theses. An abbreviation must be defined when first used in the text, unless you have a list of abbreviations in the introductory section. For example: the University of New South Wales Student Guild (UNSWSG) is concerned with the welfare and rights of all students at the University of New South Wales while the Postgraduate Board (PGB) is concerned with addressing problems that are specific to postgraduates. The PGB is affiliated at a national level with the Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations (CAPA). Most of the teaching and the administrative staff of the University of New South Wales (UNSW) are members of the National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU).

Referencing Sources of Information
An intelligent use of source materials and adequate referencing are among the most important features of a successful thesis. While most postgraduates who have successfully completed their undergraduate studies at this university will be well aware of the conventions of referencing and how to employ source materials, many postgraduates enrolling in an Australian university for the first time may be unsure of these conventions. The primary aim of referencing is to ensure that your thesis is constructed from credible sources. Referencing is employed whether you quote from another source directly or refer to a proposition or an idea expressed by another author. Another reason for supplying references (sometimes called footnotes) is to allow the reader to check that you have employed your sources in such a way that they reflect the original author’s intention. Referencing also helps indicate your awareness and mastery of the literature in a specific area. A credible source is one which is itself referenced and can be classified as either a primary or secondary source. In undertaking to complete a thesis, it is advisable to employ as many primary sources as possible so as to ensure originality. A primary source originates with its author and is often the result of extended research by that author. Official documents, Acts or legislation, Government policy, White and Green Papers as well as official censuses and graphs are also regarded as primary sources. In the sciences, a student’s own research project could itself be a primary source. In employing original source materials such as official documents, it is better when referencing to include as much information as possible

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to avoid the possibility of being accused of not referencing adequately. As the nature of primary sources varies enormously depending on the area of study, some latitude in style is usually acceptable. A secondary source is essentially a work based on primary source materials. Most books in the university library can be regarded as secondary sources. If in doubt about the advisability of employing particular sources, do not hesitate to seek the approval of your supervisor.

Methods of Referencing
There are a number of referencing conventions that are generally regarded as acceptable for a research thesis. There are, however, two methods that predominate throughout the English-speaking world. They are the Oxford method, which mainly numbers references and places them at the bottom of the page, and the Harvard Method. Over the past five years the Harvard method has gained greater acceptance because of its relative simplicity. All that is required when using the Harvard method is to place the author’s family name and the year of publication followed by the relevant page number (s) in brackets in the body of the work. The full details of the cited work are given in the list of references, placed at either the end of each chapter or after the conclusion. In the list of references, the full details are usually set out as in the example below. Currie, J. & Newson, J. (1998), Universities and Globalisation: Critical Perspectives, Sage Publications, California, U. S. A. The above example includes a number of widely used conventions. Firstly, the book’s title is distinguished from other details by being placed in italics. Secondly, the year of publication is placed in brackets after the authors’ family names and initials, not at the end as in the Oxford system. When located within the text, the above reference should be expressed in the following form following a quotation from the above work. Corporate managerialism and line management have replaced elected deans and marginalised faculty senates and academic councils, leading to a general decline in collegiality. These business practices have lead to insularity among academics, greater closed individualism, and a loss of a sense of community (Currie & Newson: 1998: 4). As in essay writing, when quoting directly, the source must be cited word for word. If a quotation is generally longer than three lines it is customary to indent it. The above is an

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example of a long indented quotation, as is the one below from Foucault’s famous work published in 1977, titled Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. The practice of placing individuals under ‘observation’ is a natural extension of justice imbued with disciplinary methods and examination procedures. Is it surprising that the cellular prison, with its rectangle chronologies, forced labour, its authorities of surveillance and registration, its experts in normality, who continue to multiply the functions of the judge, should have become the modern instruments of penalty? Is it surprising that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, hospitals, [universities,] which all resemble prisons (Foucault: 1977: 227-228) The above quotation includes yet another rarely used stylistic convention. The word in square brackets was not part of the original quote but was thought by the writer to be appropriate and within the context of the author’s original idea. Both quotations were distinguished from the rest of the text not only by indentation, but also by employing single spacing instead of continuing to use a space-and-a-half. Please note that it is not acceptable academic practice to cite a quotation by someone else without reference to the original source. This convention is more rigorously enforced in the case of a PhD or any other research thesis. You should also consult the original source so as to ensure that it is employed in the context its author intended. It is not advisable to rely on the accuracy and integrity of another writer who has used the same source. Most research students are finding themselves making a greater use of material from Internet sources. At the present time, there is no dominant referencing method that is used for Internet sources. However, as internet sites are regularly updated there is an increasing awareness that the date plays an important role in locating sources of information. As a consequence, the following method for citing Internet sources is finding wide acceptance: Author(s). Name of Page Date of Posting/Revision. Name of Institution. Date of Access . The following provides an example of the above method: Felluga, D. 1999. Purdue University theory2 Undergraduate Guide to Literary Theory. 17 December, 15 November http://omni.cc.purdue.edu%7Efellauga/

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Users of the Harvard and associated methods of referencing will find, however, that the abbreviated citing in the text could prove to be too long and look cumbersome. A suggested method of text referencing using the Harvard method would be as follows. Name of Author Date Page Name

Using the above work the textual reference could best cited as follows (Felluga: 15/11/2000: Undergrad. Guide to Lit. Theory). The fact that the page name is being cited instead of a page number would alert the reader to the reference being an Internet source. As the Internet is relatively new research tool it would seem that referencing has been given greater latitude than other sources. In light of the difficulties posed by using the Harvard method for Internet sources some consideration should be given to employing the Oxford referencing method. In the Oxford system only a number appears in the text, which is then duplicated in the reference list at the end of the work. The reference list contains the full details of the cited work in numerical order.

Bibliographies
The basic principle with respect to bibliographies and footnotes always remains the same: the reader must be given a clear and accurate guide to the sources. Bibliographical lists must contain all the relevant material consulted in the course of the preparation of the thesis. Reference lists and bibliographies are distinguished by the fact that the former includes only works that have been cited while the latter generally refers to the candidate’s much broader reading of the topic. Most works included in a bibliography are not cited in the text. One should note that the distinction made here between references and a bibliography is not a binding rule but a generally observed convention. Bibliographies may be set out alphabetically by name of author or they may be divided into sections. You should decide, in consultation with your supervisor, on the most appropriate form of presentation. Where no specific instructions are offered and you are given a choice, it would generally be advisable to adopt the format of the leading journal in your discipline. Abacus for Accounting, the Australian Journal for Chemistry for Chemistry and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for Psychology are some examples. Considerable variations are possible in bibliographical systems but

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you should not forget that once you have chosen a system, you should adhere to it to ensure consistency.

Referencing Software
A number of software packages that aid in managing and formatting references are available, and highly advisable. Two commonly used reference management programs are Endnote and Reference Manager. These programs are used to keep lists of references, together with all the relevant information on the reference, such as journal name, author names and year of publication, and to format references into lists at the end of documents generated with word processing programs such as Microsoft Word. Reference information can be downloaded directly from internet sources into your reference lists. To aid in compiling papers and theses, as well as obtaining advice on the use of these packages, it is probably best to use the software that is used by your supervisor or other members of your school.

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CHAPTER FIVE THE UNIVERSITY’S FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS
The conventions listed below need to be understood and applied carefully, as no thesis can be accepted for examination if it is not formatted in the appropriate manner. For example, every page of text should be set up according to the dimensions given below.

Setting the Margins
Edge Left Right Top Bottom Margin (mm) 40 20 30 25

N.B. These are the minimum settings required. Remember that the thesis will be bound and that the edges are trimmed in the process.

Other University Requirements
Paper size Printer Spacing A4 (approx. 297 mm x 210 mm) Print using a quality laser printer. One and a half or double (check preference); footnotes and quotations are generally single-spaced. Not less than 12 point (10 for footnotes); must be legible. Only a sans serif font can be used in a PhD thesis. A sans serif font is generally one in which the letters are flat on the bottom edge. For example, Palatino, Times, New York and Courier are sans serif fonts while Comic Sans MS is not. All pages must be numbered consecutively from the first page of the introduction to the last page of the thesis. In some cases it is preferable to number the preface and contents pages separately, using Roman numerals.

Font

Page numbering

17

A more detailed account of the university’s formatting requirements and policy with regard to diagrams, drawings, photographs and other artefacts that form part of the thesis is given in the thesis submission kit that is available from SLARSO (see chapter 1 for contact details). These guidelines have been reproduced in Appendix IV.

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CHAPTER SIX PROOFREADING
Your thesis will undergo several revisions before you are entirely happy with it. Make sure you allow time to read over it to correct or modify drafts, as well as proofreading the final version. Once the thesis has been completed, students are understandably anxious to have it ready for submission as soon as possible, but it is worth emphasising that time spent in proofreading is well invested. Examiners do not react favourably to carelessly prepared work, and delays in the award of the degree because corrections have to be made may be worse than delays in submission because of the time needed for a careful check. It is advisable not to proofread from a computer screen. Apart from straining your eyes, you will find that errors are easily missed. To avoid this, always print out the manuscript and place a ruler under each line when reading - this will reduce your tendency to skim. Use a red pen for corrections. For every correction, mark an ‘X’ at the left-hand margin to make your corrections easier to find. If whole pages need to be deleted, leave the pages in place and put a line across them to mark them for deletion. To insert text, mark the place for insertion with an asterisk (*) and write in the margin “word insert”, plus a number (as some pages may require more than one insertion), then write the insertion on a separate piece of paper with the appropriate number. This allows more room for clearer writing. Do not squeeze the insertion between lines of text if it consists of more than a few words. Make sure you are not the only person to proofread your thesis. You will soon tire of looking at the thesis in its different stages of development, so you are almost certain to overlook mistakes and miss errors. Family members, friends and fellow students can be approached as potential proofreaders. Some supervisors will assist but they are in no way obligated to render such a service. Read thesis chapters through in their entirety, checking titles, subtitles, sentences, punctuation, capitalisation, indented items, footnote numbering and page numbers. Give particular attention to the beginnings of pages, paragraphs, and sections. Some people tend to skim these crucial spots when proofreading, but mistakes at these points will “leap out” at your examiner or reader. Try to proof numbers and columns with the assistance of a friend. Read the figures aloud to your friend and have that person mark the corrections and changes on the copy being proofread.

19

Make sure your titles, subtitles and page numbers match those in the table of contents. Double-check references to figures, photographs and tables. Examine numbers and totals. Recheck all calculations and look for misplaced commas and decimal points. Scrutinise features that come in sets, such as quotation marks, parentheses and dashes. If proofing for long periods, put your material aside for a short break. Proofreading can quickly turn into reading if your document is long. After a break, re-read the last few lines to refresh your memory. Care taken at this stage of thesis production can ensure that examiners are not antagonised by repeated minor mistakes, and it can save you from the prospect of a tedious length of time spent after examination amending the text.

Spelling and Grammar Checkers
All modern computers have a spell check function. While its use can identify many typographical errors, it does not eliminate the need for detailed proofreading, as spell checkers do not check grammar or syntax. They will therefore not identify correctly spelt words that are in the wrong context. Also, make sure that your language settings are appropriate: for instance, decide whether you want words spelt according to British or US English conventions. Most “grammar checkers”, such as the standard one available with Microsoft Word, are extremely limited and prone to errors, especially in long, complex sentences. Often they are inappropriate for scientific writing. Use them with caution! There is no substitute for careful proofreading.

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CHAPTER SEVEN PRINTING, COPYING AND BINDING THE THESIS
Copies and Photocopying
You will normally be required to submit four copies of a PhD thesis. For a Masters, three or four copies are necessary depending on your Faculty (current guidelines are attached in Appendix IV, but it is best to check the requirements with your Faculty Office). It is better, however, to make a few more copies for later distribution to friends and prospective employers. If you do not have time to copy the thesis yourself, you might approach one of the larger instant print businesses. These include Snap and Kwik Kopy at Bondi and Fast Print on Anzac Parade in Kingsford. Photocopying is far more easily done before the thesis is bound. Often it will be easier (and sometimes, cheaper) to laser print all the copies you need, rather than photocopying. Laser prints are also better quality than photocopies. Any diagrams etc. pasted onto the typed page may result in a black line on the photocopy where the edges occur. To overcome this problem, use liquid paper to white out the unwanted lines on the copy, then use the copy as the master for further copies. If possible, avoid the problem altogether by using electronic versions of diagrams so that they can be formatted and printed out with the text.

Laser Printing
Most students are now choosing to print the final draft of their thesis on a laser printer. The advantage of laser printing is that the text produced is clear and distinct - in fact close to typeset quality - and thus easily reproduced. There are a number of locations on campus, including the 24-Hour Postgraduate Computer Lab, where printers are available for student use. While most charge by the page to print your thesis, there is currently no charge for using the printer at the 24-Hour Postgraduate Computer Lab so long as you provide your own paper. Most schools offer laser printers for postgraduate use.

Binding Requirements
Until recently, all higher degree theses submitted for examination had to be presented in a hardbound format. It is now relatively common to use spiral binding, at least with the initial submission, so that amendments can be made more easily and cheaply. However, the use of temporary binding for examination does not mean the thesis is never hard bound. The UNSW rules specify that after the examination, the PhD will not be awarded until the

21

candidate has had at least one copy of the (corrected) thesis bound in permanent form for the Library. All binding costs are recoverable from the University if you have been awarded an Australian Government scholarship. Some other scholarships include a provision which allows the holder to have the binding costs refunded. Some schools are also willing to cover binding costs, however there is no university policy on who may have their binding costs refunded. Check with the senior Administrative Officer in your school as they will know and have copies of the appropriate form for recovering binding costs. If you are eligible for a refund of your binding costs, you must produce a completed copy of the appropriate form along with a written receipt from the bookbinders in order to obtain a full refund. Appendix IV lists a number of binders who are familiar with UNSW requirements. Prices vary greatly, so it is worth shopping around, especially if you are not eligible to have your binding costs refunded. University regulations stipulate that a label should be fixed to the cover clearly identifying the name of the candidate, the title of the thesis, and the year of submission. When it comes time to put the thesis between hard covers, you may have the thesis paper sewn and bound in boards covered with backcloth or buckram or other binding fabric (see Appendix IV). Provided you have a typed title page, the only lettering required is on the spine. Details outlining the requirements may be found in Appendix IV. Check with the binder that the number of pages to be bound is not so heavy that the binding will disintegrate if dropped. Most hardbound volumes can accommodate only 500 pages. If you are forced to bind the thesis in two volumes ensure that each volume is marked as Volume 1 or 2 and that each volume has a title page. If not, it is very easy for the volumes to be separated during examination or later in the Library. Do not bind any laser printed pages. Library authorities have noted a deterioration of texts from certain laser printers over long periods of time (ten to fifteen years). Only bind your photocopied pages, and remember, the Library copy/copies should be on acid free paper.

Amendments and Rewrites
Unfortunately, your thesis examiners may not view your work as the masterpiece you may have thought it was. You may be informed that your thesis will only be passed after some alterations have been made and re-assessed. In the case of suggested minor alterations, the Higher Degree Committee may decide that the degree will be awarded subject to the corrections being completed to the satisfaction of the Supervisor and the Head of School.

22

If all the recommended changes have been completed to their satisfaction, they should sign a certificate, which validates the fact that the recommended changes have been made. A bound copy of the corrected thesis is then given to the University library where it will be kept for an indefinite period. In some instances, it may not be necessary to re-bind the thesis as minor corrections may be made neatly in black ink or ballpoint pen. If the completed thesis includes some sections that have been amended, these can be included by pasting them in the appropriate place in the text. More substantial revisions may require the amended thesis to be reprinted and rebound. In cases where you have been advised that the thesis will only be passed if major alterations are carried out it is necessary to follow the instructions of the Higher Degree Committee and re-submit the corrected thesis for a second examination.

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CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSION
The writing of this “thesis” took several weeks and the proofreading took many days. A PhD or research Masters thesis will take much longer, and the task is an onerous one. Having essays or articles published on aspects of your thesis could well contribute to the finished quality and acceptance of the final product. This process will keep your thoughts in order during your candidature. The frustrating experience of assembling tables, figures, references, and supervisor’s editing will be spread out over a more agreeable period - the last few months of your work will then be a less harrowing experience for you and your friends. Remember to collect a thesis submission kit from the Scholarships, Loans, and Research Students Office and to give the Registrar at least 8 weeks notice in writing of your intention to submit (see chapter 1). If you wish to comment on this Thesis Guide or provide additional information, please contact the Postgraduate Research/Advocacy Officer at the Postgraduate Resource Centre by e-mailing pg.research@unsw.edu.au, or phoning 9385 6713. All suggestions are greatly appreciated and could well be considered for inclusion in any future edition of this work. Good luck, and you are most welcome to make use of the services provided by the Postgraduate Board and the Student Guild - your money has been invested in providing them.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Department of French Studies (1984). Guidelines for Thesis Writing, University of Sydney, Australia. Sharpe, E. J. (1978). Hints on the Preparation of an Academic Thesis, Department of Religious Studies, University of Sydney. Turabian, Kate J. (1976). Student’s Guide for Writing College Papers, (3rd edn.), Chicago. University of New South Wales, Calendar 2001. 2001 Student Guide. Faculty Handbooks 2001. Guidelines for the Supervision of Postgraduate Research 2000. Postgraduate Co-ordinators’ Seminar, 1992 (Reference Manual). Postgraduate Research @ UNSW (1998). Intellectual Property Policy (2000). Optimising Postgraduate Research Supervision in the Scientific and Technological Disciplines, Draft Policy Report, January, 1998.

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APPENDIX I THESIS WRITING AND RESEARCH SKILLS REFERENCE LIST
Allen, G .R. (1973). The Graduate Students’ Guide to Theses and Dissertations: A Practical Manual for Writing and Research, San Francisco, USA. Ausinfo: Department of Finance and Administration (1998). The Little Book of Style, Canberra, Australia. Babbie, F. (1998). The Practice of Social Research, 8th edits, New York, USA. Barass, R. (1978). Scientists Must Write: A Guide to Better Writing for Scientists, Engineers and Students, London, U.K. Bell, J. (1999). Doing Your Research Project, 3rd edition, Philadelphia, USA. Berry, R. (1994). The Research Project: How to Write it, New York, USA. Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. & Tight, M. (1996). How to Research, Philadelphia, USA. Behling, J. H. (1984), Guidelines for Preparing the Research Proposal, New York, USA . Booth, V. (1984). Communicating in Science: Writing and Speaking, Cambridge, U.K.. Cash, P. (1983). How to Write a Research Paper, New York, 1983. Chicago University Press (1993). The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors and Publishers, 14th edition, Chicago, USA. Clancy, J. & Ballard, B. (1986). Essay Writing for Students: A Practical Guide, Melbourne, Australia. Cullen, D., Pearson, M., Saha, L. & Spear, R. H. (1994). Establishing Effective PhD Supervision, Canberra, Australia. Davis, W. (1997). Scientific Papers & Presentation, New York, USA.

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Day, R. A. (1989). How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 3rd edition, Sydney, Australia. Delmont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, D. (1997). Supervising the PhD: a Guide to Success, Philadelphia, USA. Elphinstone, L. & Schweitzer (1998), How to Get a Research Degree, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, Australia. Ely, M., Vinz, R., Donniny, M. & Anzui, M. (1997). Writing Qualitative Research, London, U.K. Fitzgerald, A. (1999). Intellectual Property, Pyrmont, New South Wales, Australia. Fitzpatrick, J., Secrist, J. & Wright, D. (1998), Secrets for a Successful Dissertation, California, USA. Gibaldi, S. (1999). MLA Handbook for Writing Research Papers, New York, USA. Howard, K. & Sharp, J. A. (1983). The Management of a Student Research Project, Aldershot, U.K. Huff, A. (1999). Writing for Scholarly Publications, California, USA. Jones, S. (1999). Doing Internet Research, California, USA. Kiley, M. & Mullins, G. (1998). Quality in Postgraduate Research: Managing the New Agenda, Proceedings of the 1998 Quality in Postgraduate Research Conference, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Krathwohl, D. (1988). How To Prepare a Research Proposal: 3rd Edn., New York, USA. La Trobe University Postgraduate Association (1991). Women & Postgraduate Study, Victoria, Australia. Lewins, F. (1985). Writing a Thesis, 2nd edition, Canberra, Australia. Luey, B. (1987). Handbook for Academic Authors, New York, USA.

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Mauch, J. & Birch, J. (1989), Guide to Successful Theses and Dissertations: Conception to Publication, New York, USA. Murray-Smith, S. (1989). Right Words: A Guide to English Usage in Australia, 2nd edition, Melbourne, Australia. Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. (1999). Writing Academic English, New York, USA. Pennings, P., Kemon, A. & Kleinnijenhuis, J. (1999). Doing Research in Political Science, London, U.K. Phillips, E. & Pugh, D. S. (1987). How to Get a PhD, Philadelphia, USA. The University of New South Wales (2000). Guidelines for the Supervision of Postgraduate Research, Sydney, Australia. Sorensen, S. (2000). Student Writers Handbook, California, USA. Sternberg, D. (1981). How to complete and survive a doctoral dissertation, New York, USA. Swetnam, D. (1997). Writing your Dissertation, New York, USA. Taylor, G. (1986). A Guide to Thesis Research, Department Of Geography, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. Williams, D. (1989). A Guide to Critical Essay Writing, Sydney, Australia. Woolstor, D. et al. (1990). Effective Writing Strategies for Engineers & Scientists, Michigan, USA.

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APPENDIX II DEPARTMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A THESIS
The Postgraduate Board receives many enquiries about specific departmental requirements on the writing, preparation and presentation of postgraduate theses. Following is a list of Postgraduate Course Coordinators for each school or department who should be able to give you the information you need, as well as answer most general questions concerning your candidature.

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SCHOOL
Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Chemistry Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Science Computer Science Economics and Management Electrical Engineering Geography and Oceanography History Mathematics and Statistics Physics Politics Politics

CONTACT

PHONE EMAIL

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE ACADEMY

A/Prof J Lai Dr Cliff Woodward A/Prof S-C Robert Lo Dr Obada Kayali Dr R. I. McKay Prof CS Newton Dr Paul Oslington A/Prof J Arnold Prof R McLean Prof P Dennis Dr Wendy Catchpole Dr Heiko Timmers A/Prof Hugh Smith Prof James Cotton

6268 8272 6268 8318 6268 8439 6268 8329 6268 8169 6268 8181 6268 8720 6268 8212 6268 8314 6268 8867 6268 8890 6268 8807 6268 8862 6268 8844

j-lai@adfa.edu.au c.woodward@adfa.edu.au r.lo@adfa.edu.au o.kayali@adfa.edu.au r-mckay@adfa.edu.au c-newton@adfa.edu.au p.oslington@adfa.edu.au j-arnold@adfa.edu.au r.mclean@adfa.edu.au p-dennis@adfa.edu.au w-catchpole@adfa.edu.au h.timmers@adfa.edu.au h-smith@unsw.edu.au j-cotton@adfa.edu.au

AUSTRALIAN GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGMENT AGSM MBA Program ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Asian Studies Chinese Studies Chinese Studies Education Studies Education Studies Education Studies Education Studies Education Studies Education Studies (GERRIC) English English European Studies Program French Department German & Russian Department Spanish & Latin American Studies History History David Reeve 9385 1019 d.reeve@unsw.edu.au h.hendrishchke@unsw.edu.au r.machali@unsw.edu.au p.chandler@unsw.edu.au p.jin@unsw.edu.au j.mccormick@unsw.edu.au rwh@unsw.edu.au s.wiard@unsw.edu.au m.gross@unsw.edu.au a.brewster@unsw.edu.au b.ashcroft@unsw.edu.au j.milfull@unsw.edu.au m.blackman@unsw.edu.au l.stern@unsw.edu.au s.gregory@unsw.edu.au I.tyrell@unsw.edu.au jeant@unsw.edu.au Prof R Kohn Chris Kelly 9931 9265 9931 9225 r.kohn@unsw.edu.au chrisk@agsm.unsw.edu.au

A/Prof H. Hendrishchke 9385 2416 Dr. R. Machali Dr Paul Chandler Dr Putai Jin Dr. J. McCormick Dr. Robert Howard Ms S Wiard Prof M. Gross Dr Anne Brewster A/Prof Bill Ashcroft John Milfull Dr Maurice Blackman Mrs L. Stern Dr. S. Gregory A/Prof Ian Tyrell Dr Jean Taylor 9385 2186 9385 1978 9385 1976 9385 1987 9385 1954 9385 1950 9385 1971 9385 2302 9385 2283 9385 3051 9385 3231 9385 2382 9385 2397 9385 2345 9385 2340

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Housing Studies Linguistics Media and Communications Modern Language Studies Modern Language Studies Music and Music Education Music and Music Education Music and Music Education Philosophy Philosophy Philosophy Political Science Political Science Science and Technology Studies Science and Technology Studies Social Science and Policy Social Work Social Work Social Work Social Work Sociology Spanish & Latin American Studies Theatre, Film and Dance Theatre, Film and Dance Women’s Studies BUILT ENVIRONMENT Architecture Built Environment (coursework) Building (Real Estate)

Prof. Ralph Hall A/Prof P. Collins Prof Phillip Bell Dr O. Reinhardt Dr Gregory Evon Dr A.R. Walker Dr C. Logan Dr G. McPherson Dr. P. Cam A/Prof S. Cohen Dr Rosalyn Diprose A.Prof Gavin Kitching Prof Marc Williams Dr DP Miller Anthony Corones Dr H Colebatch Dr. R.J. Roberts Ms Eileen Pittaway Carmel Flaskas Dr. B. Ferguson Frances Lovejoy Dr. S. Gregory Dr George Kouvaros Ms Clare Grant

9385 2427 9385 2307 9385 6811 9385 2326 9385 2492 9385 6944 9385 4873 9385 4944 9385 2373 9385 2320 9385 1027 9385 3624 9385 2394 9385 2359 9385 2357 9385 3571 9385 1959 9385 1849 9385 1960 9385 1859 9385 2301 9385 2397 9385 4861 9385 5009

r.hall@unsw.edu.au p.collins@unsw.edu.au p.bell@unsw.edu.au o.reinhardt@unsw.edu.au g.evon@unsw.edu.au aw@unsw.edu.au c.logan@unsw.edu.au a.mcpherson@unsw.edu.au p.cam@unsw.edu.au s.cohen@unsw.edu.au r.diprose@unsw.edu.au g.kitching@unsw.edu.au marc.williams@unsw.edu.au dp.miller@unsw.edu.au a.corones@unsw.edu.au h.colebatch@unsw.edu.au r.roberts@unsw.edu.au e.pittaway@unsw.edu.au c.flaskas@unsw.edu.au b.ferguson@unsw.edu.au f.lovejoy@unsw.edu.au s.gregory@unsw.edu.au g.kouvaros@unsw.edu.au clare.grant@unsw.edu.au hbowenr@unsw.edu.au

Dr H. Bowen-Raddeker 9385 2335

Professor A. Cuthbert Julia Hauman A/Prof R. Cardew

9385 4837 9385 4786 9385 6685 9385 4822 9385 5274 9385 4801 9385 4742 9385 4843 9385 4768 9385 5613

a.cuthbert@unsw.edu.au juliah@unsw.edu.au r.cardew@unsw.edu.au p.marsden@unsw.edu.au b.judd@unsw.edu.au b.lawson@unsw.edu.au oyad@fbe.unsw.edu.au l.corkery@unsw.edu.au t.wu@unsw.edu.au p.murphy@unsw.edu.au

Building Construction Management Mr P Marsden Building Construction Management Dr B. Judd Built Environment (research) Industrial Design Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture Planning & Urban Development Dr Bill Lawson Dr Oya Demirbilek Ms L. Corkery Professor Tong Wu A/Prof Peter Murphy

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COLLEGE OF FINE ART Art Education Art History and Theory Art Education COFA Administratiom Design Studies School of Art Dr P McKeon Dr J Bennett A/Prof Neil Brown Mr H Romero Mr A Walpole Ms Rosemary Vickers 9385 O711 9385 O790 9385 0775 9385 O728 9385 O627 9385 O612 p.mckeon@unsw.edu.au j.bennett@unsw.edu.au neil.brown@unsw.edu.au h.romero@unsw.edu.au a.walpole@unsw.edu.au r.vickers@unsw.edu.au

COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS Accounting Prof K. Trotman 9385 5831 9385 5912 9385 3391 9385 1886 9385 3507 9385 5895 9385 5869 9385 5858 9385 3293 9385 3292 9385 3380 9385 3076 k.trotman@unsw.edu.au p.luckett@unsw.edu.au e.valdez@unsw.edu.au b.subba@unsw.edu.au a.heah@unsw.edu.au d. dwyer@unsw.edu.au t.pham@unsw.edu.au f.moshirian@unsw.edu.au a.terry@unsw.edu.au c.taylor@unsw.edu.au j.piggott@unsw.edu.au r.hill@unsw.edu.au

Accounting M Com (Hons) & PhD A/Prof Peter Luckett Actuarial Studies Actuarial Studies Administration Administration Banking & Finance Banking and Finance Business Law and Taxation Business Law and Taxation Economics Economics Industrial Relations and Organisational Behaviour Information Systems, Technology and Management Information Systems, Technology and Management International Business Marketing Marketing ENGINEERING Biomedical Engineering Prof Albert Avolio Ms T. Benton Dr Cheung-sok Suh Professor M. Uncles Ms M. Decelis Professor M. Quinlan Dr Emil Valdez Bindya Subba Agnes Heah Diane Dwyer A/Prof Toan Pham A/Prof F. Moshirian A/Prof A. Terry Mr John Taylor Prof J Piggott Dr. R. Hill

9385 7149

m.quinlan@unsw.edu.au

Professor R. Edmundson 9385 4240

b.edmundson@unsw.edu.au

9385 5679 9385 5883 9385 3385 9385 3385

t.benton@unsw.edu.au c.suh@unsw.edu.au m.uncles@unsw.edu.au m.decelis@unsw.edu.au

9385 3924 9385 6848

a.avolio@unsw.edu.au j.noble@unsw.edu.au

Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering Jenny Noble Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry Prof Tuan Pham A/Prof J.F Stubington

9385 4338

john.stubington@unsw.edu.au

9385 5267 9385 5061 9385 5061

tuan.pham@unsw.edu.au k.irvine@unsw.edu.au m.bradford@unsw.edu.au

Civil and Environmental EngineeringMs K Irvine Civil and Environmental EngineeringProf Mark Bradford

32

Civil and Environmental EngineeringProfessor R. Gilbert Computer Science and Engineering A/Prof A Nymeyer Computer Science and Engineering Nicola Kwan Computer Science and Engineering A/Prof Arun Sharma Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering Geomatic Enigineering Geomatic Enigineering Geomatic Enigineering Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Mining Engineering Mining Engineering Petroleum Engineering Petroleum Engineering Petroleum Engineering Institute of Environmental Studies Institute of Environmental Studies Ms Sharon Turnbull Prof Masud Behnia Dr Mary Rolfe Prof Kerry Byrne Shirley Ratinac A/Prof Chee Yee Kwok Professor B. Celler Cindy Fuller Mr. L. Daras Ms Helve Frangoulis Dr Ewan Masters

9385 5059 9385 4028 9385 6873 9385 5518 9385 4987 9385 5300 9385 4009 9385 4000 9385 4182 9385 4182 9385 4186

i.gilbert@unsw.edu.au anymeyer@unsw.edu.au nicolak@unsw.edu.au arun@cse.unsw.edu.au s.ratinac@unsw.edu.au cy.kwok@unsw.edu.au b.celler@unsw.edu.au c.fuller@unsw.edu.au l.daras@unsw.edu.au h.frangoulis@unsw.edu.au e.masters@unsw.edu.au

9385 4088

k.byrne@unsw.edu.au

9385 5782

mary.rolfe@unsw.edu.au

9385 4253

m.behnia@unsw.edu.au

9385 4085

s.turnbull@unsw.edu.au b.hebblewhite@unsw.edu.au j.galvin@unsw.edu.au v.pinczewski@unsw.edu.au a-lippiatt@adfa.edu.au sheik.rahman@unsw.edu.au r.harding@unsw.edu.au m.jussawalla@unsw.edu.au

Prof Bruce Hebblewhite 9385 5006 Professor J. Galvin 9385 4515

Professor Val Pinczewski 9385 5190 Ms J. Lippiatt A/Prof Sheik Rahman A/Prof Ronnie Harding Meherlyn Jussawalla 9385 5188 9385 5297 9385 5687 9385 5687

INTERNATIONAL STUDENT CENTRE International Student Centre LAW Law Law Law Taxation Studies Taxation Studies MEDICINE Anatomy Anatomy Prof. D. Tracey Dr. P. Carrive 9385 2471 9385 2465 d.tracey@unsw.edu.au p.carrive@unsw.edu.au Kerrie Daley Prof David Dixon Mr Abgus Corbett Professor Y. Grbich Ian Douglas 9385 3284 9385 2485 9385 2249 9385 9347 9385 9331 k.daley@unsw.edu.au d.dixon@unsw.edu.au a.corbett@unsw.edu.au y.grbich@unsw.edu.au i.douglas@unsw.edu.au Ms Betty Chow 9385 5334 b.chow@unsw.edu.au

33

Clinical School - Greater Murray Area Health Service Clinical School - Prince of Wales Hospital Clinical School - Prince of Wales Hospital Clinical School - St Vincent’s Hospital A/Prof W Sewell 9361 1209 w.sewell@cfi.unsw.edu.au A/Prof Bruce Pussell 9382 4411 b.pussell@unsw.edu.au Janette Murdoch 9382 2773 j.murdoch@unsw.edu.au Prof Mohamed Khadra 02 6938 6586 m.khadra@unsw.edu.au

School of Community Medicine, Health Services Management and Medical Education Public Health and Community Medicine Medical Education and Health Promotion Healthcare facilities, hospital and health service management Medical Sciences Pathology Physiology and Pharmacology Psychiatry Psychiatry Women’s and Children’s Health Women’s and Children’s Health Women’s and Children’s Health Dr. M. McLaws Prof. Eugenie Lumbers A/Prof. A. Lloyd Dr Vimal Kapoor Dr Ute Vollmer-Conna Professor GB Parker Prof. MJ Bennett Prof. Richard Henry 9385 2586 9385 1057 9385 2528 9385 3741 9385 2945 9382 4367 9382 6777 9382 1799 m.mclaws@unsw.edu.au e.lumbers@unsw.edu.au a.lloyd@unsw.edu.au v.kapoor@unsw.edu.au ute@unsw.edu.au g.parker@unsw.edu.au bennettm@sesahs.nsw.gov.au r.henry@unsw.edu.au v.hammond@unsw.edu.au Dr Jan Ritchie 9385 2445 j.ritchie@unsw.edu.au A/Prof R. Richmond 9385 2512 r.richmond@unsw.edu.au

Ms Veronica Hammond 9382 6777

OFFICE OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY Office of Business and Technology Ms Margaret Brennan SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Applied Bioscience Applied Bioscience Aviation (Dept) Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Biological Science Biological Science Biological Science Biotechnology Biotechnology Geography Geology Dr Danny Lee A/Prof. P Greenaway 9385 3572 9385 2067 d.lee@unsw.edu.au p.greenaway@unsw.edu.au r.mcmurtrie@unsw.edu.au l.mazzaroli@unsw.edu.au f.foong@unsw.edu.au r.lee@unsw.edu.au i.burnley@unsw.edu.au a.dunlop@unsw.edu.au Professor P. Gray Mr R. Greenwood Lili Suhartono 9385 2057 9385 4364 9385 6767 p.gray@unsw.edu.au r.greenwood@unsw.edu.au aviation@unsw.edu.au 9385 5543 m.brennan@unsw.edu.au

A/Prof Ross McMurtrie 9385 3264 Dr. L. Mazzaroli Dr Frances Foong Ms Robin Lee A/Prof Ian Burnley Dr. A. Dunlop 9385 2126 9385 3872 9385 2050 9385 4390 9385 4265

34

Geology Food Science and Techonolgy Food Science and Techonolgy Materials Science and Technology Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics Microbiology and Immunology Microbiology and Immunology Physics Physics Psychology Psychology Psychology Psychology Safety Science

Dr Jankowski

9385 4271

j.jankowski@unsw.edu.au m.wootton@unsw.edu.au k.buckle@unsw.edu.au d.young@unsw.edu.au s.penev@unsw.edu.au p.blennerhasset@unsw.edu.au jeya@maths.unsw.edu.au a.collins@unsw.edu.au s.kjelleberg@unsw.edu.au r.stening@unsw.edu.au j.oitmaa@unsw.edu.au m.taft@unsw.edu.au j.cranney@unsw.edu.au t.clulow@unsw.edu.au j.bright@unsw.edu.au r.r.hall@unsw.edu.au

A/Prof Michael Wootton 9385 4369 Professor K. Buckle Prof. DJ Young Dr. Spridon Penev Dr P Blennerhasset Prof Jeya Jeyakumar Dr. Andrew Collins Prof Staffan Kjelleberg A/Prof R.Stening Prof. J.Oitmaa A/Prof Marcus Taft Dr. J. Cranney Mr T.J Clulow Dr Jim Bright Mr Roger Hall 9385 4378 9385 4322 9385 7023 9385 7066 9385 7046 9385 2101 9385 2102 9385 4584 9385 4596 9385 3026 9385 3527 9385 3028 9385 3050 9385 5680

35

APPENDIX III HIGHER DEGREE THESES: CONFIDENTIALITY AND COPYRIGHT
The Copyright Act 1988 (as amended) Protection
Under the Australian Copyright Act 1968-76, the first owner of a copyright in a thesis is the author (Section 35 (1)). Copyright is automatic in Australia and commences from the time of making a work, i.e. writing. No registration is necessary. However, the “maker” must be a “qualified person” (Section 32, 89 and 90). That is ‘an Australian citizen, an Australian protected person or a person resident in Australia’ (Section32 (4)). Since Australia is a member of both international Copyright Conventions, the Berne Union and the Universal Copyright Convention, protection is afforded overseas. Protection in countries of the Berne Union requires no formalities. This covers most of Western Europe, Canada, New Zealand, parts of Asia and Scandinavia. However, the Universal Copyright Convention (covering USA and Russia) requires the display of the copyright notice, the copyright owner’s name and the year. All three elements must be present in the notice. The copyright notice has no legal relevance for Australian authors in Australia. Its domestic usefulness is a practical one – it might, if prominently displayed, deter unauthorised users.

Infringement
Generally, copyright is infringed by a person who does any act compromised in the copyright in a work without the licence of the owner or copyright. Where the legitimate work of an author is pirated or plagiarised, the onus is on the pirate to dispute the existence of copyright, or the plaintiff’s ownership of it. Note however, that the Act does permit the use of ‘substantial parts’ of the works without the copyright owner’s permission, but only for certain defined purposes: research or study (Section 40), criticism and review (Section 41), reporting news (Section 42), and judicial proceedings (Section 43). The University’s insistence on lodgement of the thesis in the Library (as detailed in the previous section), brings this aspect into focus (Section51 (2)):

36

Where a manuscript, or a copy, of a thesis or other similar literary work that has not been published is kept in a library of a university or other similar institution, the copyright in the thesis or other work is not infringed by the making of a copy of the thesis or other work by or on behalf of the librarian of the library if the copy is supplied to a person who satisfies the librarian, or a person acting on behalf of the librarian, that he (sic) requires the copy for the purposes of research or private study and that he will not use it for any other purposes.

Remedies
The Australian Copyright Council is able to give free advice to authors who feel their rights may have been infringed, but the nature of this advice does depend largely on the circumstances of each case. The Council cannot act for the author, but frequently works with the author’s solicitor in a consultative capacity in cases where the employment of a solicitor becomes necessary. Where this occurs, the author’s costs can be substantial, but may be recoverable from the infringing party. Again, this depends on the circumstances of the case. Legal advice may be obtained from the Student Guild solicitor, Phone 9385 5454. If an author suspects that copyright has been infringed the Australian Copyright Council should be contacted immediately.

37

APPENDIX IV UNIVERSITY THESIS WRITING REGULATIONS
The following is a collection of the more specific University documents on thesis writing for a Higher Degree. These documents are taken from the thesis submission kit that is available from the Scholarships, Loans, and Research Students Office (see chapter 1). It is advisable to confirm your thesis requirements at a departmental or school level. It is advisable to confirm your thesis requirements at a departmental or school level. A thesis kit containing these documents can be obtained from the student centre (New South Q) in the Chancellery building. Please note: the web version does not contain this section where the printed version does. The differences are due to differing formats which makes it impossible to convert some pages into a PDF format. A copy of the printed guide can be sent to you if you email your address to campaigns@unsw.edu.au. This missing information was taken from the Thesis Submission Pack which is available from New South Q on the Kensington campus (download from or phone: (02) 9385 3093)

38

The Postgraduate Board (PGB) is the peak representative student body at UNSW and helps to ensure that the interests and rights of postgraduate students are promoted at all levels of the university. The PGB provides: - Representation of postgrad issues on university committees - Advocacy/assistance in academic matters - 24hr computer lab and lounge with kitchen facilities - Laptop hire - Subsidised childcare facilities and legal advice - Publications, information and seminars Phone: 9385 6713 for details or drop into the PG Lounge, 1st Floor, East Wing, Quandrangle Building (inside the Student Guild).

Postgraduate Thesis Guide Postgraduate Thesis Guide copyright UNSW Postgrduate Board 2002 copyright UNSW PostgraduateBoard 2001 www.postgrad.unsw.edu.au

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