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HUE - 2006


TRANSLATION 5 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview of translating Vietnamese and English scientific texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms related to science and technology as well as the typical structures frequently used in scientific and technological texts.
Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the
Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English socio-politic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students.
By the end of the course, the students will be able to:

obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English scientific and technological documents. -

get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of scientific and technological texts in their translations.


accurately translate scientific and technological texts into English and Vietnamese.

On the completion of this course book, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu
Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages for their kind help.
Errors are unavoidable in this course book. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book.
Hue, November 14th, 2006
Nguyen Van Tuan


Chapter 1:


Lesson 1:

VËt liÖu míi -Mét c«ng nghÖ mòi nhän

Khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu trªn thÕ giíi ngµy nay ph¸t triÓn rÊt nhanh vµ m¹nh, liªn tiÕp tung ra thÞ tr-êng hµng lo¹t vËt liÖu míi víi tÝnh n¨ng -u viÖt ch-a tõng thÊy, t¸c ®éng ngay ®Õn thay ®æi diÖn m¹o vµ t¨ng hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ cïng søc c¹nh tranh, nhÊt lµ trªn c¸c lÜnh vùc x©y dùng kÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng, c«ng nghiÖp…
VËt liÖu lu«n lµ mét trong nh÷ng s¶n phÈm chñ chèt quyÕt ®Þnh søc m¹nh kinh tÕ, quèc phßng, an ninh cña mçi quèc gia.
C«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu míi ë n-íc ta hiÖn nay lµ mét trong nh÷ng khu vùc c«ng nghÑ ®-îc coi lµ mòi nhän, cã vai trß gãp phÇn t¹o ra b-íc n©ng cao râ rÖt vµ hiÖu qu¶ vµ søc c¹nh tranh cña nÒn kinh tÕ còng nh- t¨ng c-¬ng søc m¹nh an ninh, quèc phßng. Ngµnh khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu n-íc ta cã thÞ tr-êng réng lín ®Ó ®-a nhanh c¸c s¸ng chÕ míi, s¶n phÈm míi cña m×nh vµo thùc tiÔn s¶n xuÊt vµ xuÊt khÈu.
Víi ®éi ngò c¸n bé khoa häc, kü thuËt ngµy cµng tr-ëng thµnh, ph-¬ng tiÖn nghiªn cøu, thö nghiÖm ®-îc Nhµ n-íc ®Çu t- trang bÞ tõng b-íc hiÖn ®¹i, chóng ta ®· nghiªn cøu, chÕ t¹o thµnh c«ng nhiÒu lo¹i vËt liÖu míi ®-îc c¸c ngµnh kinh tÕ, an ninh, quèc phßng ®ãn nhËn, gãp phÇn t¨ng søc c¹nh tranh cña hµng ho¸ ViÖt
Nam. Mét sè vËt liÖu míi ®-îc xuÊt khÈu.
Tµi nguyªn n-íc ta dåi dµo, ®a d¹ng, ®éc ®¸o, t¹o ra thÕ m¹nh cho c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu míi, lµm ra s¶n phÈm míi chÊt l-îng cao, gi¸ thµnh h¹, cung cÊp cho ngµnh then chèt cña kinh tÕ quèc d©n nhn¨ng l-¬ng, x©y dùng kÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng, c¸c c«ng nghiÖp ®iÖn tö, c¬ khÝ, vËt liÖu d©n dông vµ xuÊt khÈu hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ cao.
Kh¾c phôc nhanh t×nh tr¹ng cßn l¹c hËu, ph©n t¸n, thiÕu ®ång bé cña hÖ thèng c¬ së nghiªn cøu khoa häc vµ céng nghÖ vËt liÖu.
Giíi khoa häc b¸m s¸t thùc tiÔn s¶n xuÊt ®Ó b¾t nh¹y nhu cÇu thÞ tr-êng vµ c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt gâ cöa c¬ quan khoa häc ®Ó ®Æt hµng.
Nhµ n-íc cã c¬ chÕ, chÝnh s¸ch thÝch hîp ®æi míi thiÕt bÞ nghiªn cøu, n©ng cao ®éi ngò khoa häc vËt liÖu, còng nh- chÝnh s¸ch cÇn

3 thiÕt ®Ó rót ng¾n thêi gian tõ ph¸t minh, s¸ng chÕ ®Õn s¶n xuÊt trùc tiÕp. TriÓn väng khoa häc vµ c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu míi n-íc ta rÊt s¸ng sña.

- c«ng nghÖ vËt liÖu : material technology
- tung ra thÞ tr-êng : bring into the market
- tÝnh n¨ng -u viÖt : perfect feature
- diÖn m¹o : face
- hiÖu qu¶ kinh tÕ : economic effect/ efficiency
- kÕt cÊu h¹ tÇng : infrastructure
- mòi nhän : key factor
- cã vai trß : play an important role
- søc c¹nh tranh : competition
- ®éc ®¸o : unique
- c«ng nghiÖp ®iÖn tö : electronic industry

b¸m s¸t thùc tiÔn : have a hold of reality

- Kh¾c phôc : overcome

Suggested Translation :

Nowadays, material technology and science in the world have strongly and rapidly developed, bringing into the market a variety of new materials with perfect features that have immediate effects on changing the countenance and promoting the economic effectiveness as well as competition especially in the infrastructure building, industry and so on. Materials are always one of the major products, which decide the power of economy, national defense, security of each country. Now, new material technology in our country is one of the fields, which is considered essential and makes contributions to the remarkable enhancement of effectiveness and the competing ability of the economy to the reinforcement of security and national defense. Material technology and science sector in our country has a large market to apply new inventions, new products into production and export.
With a staff of science and technology which is more and more developing, researching and testing facilities which are more and more modernly equipped, we have studied and successfully made a variety of new materials used in economic sector, security, national defense, partly increasing the competing ability of Vietnamese goods. Some of our new materials have been exported. 4
Out resources are abundant, diversified our unique, which facilitates our material technology to manufacture new products with high quality, low price, providing for the essential sectors of the national economy such as power, infrastructure building, electronic industry, mechanics, high economical domestic and export materials.
To overcome the state of backwardness, divergence, lack unification of the basic system of research and material technology and science, the circle of science have hold of production reality to catch of with the market demand and manufactures have knocked on the door of scientific organizations to order. The State has had suitable mechanisms and policies, renewed he research equipment and improved the quality of the staff as well as the necessary policy to shorten the time from invention to direst production. The prospect of our new material technology and science of our country is very bright.


Lesson 2:
1. Chemicals enter our food in various ways and for various reasons. Farmers use herbicides to kill weeds, pesticides to kill insects, fungicides to kill mold and fertilizers to promote growth. All of them are very harmful to health and also to the environment. After harvesting, most crops are subjected to further "post-harvest" chemical treatment in order to protect them from fungus.
Japanese rice, for example, is sprayed with methyl bromide, which can cause mental disorders and speech impediments. Fresh fruits and vegetables are sprayed with sulfites, to which many people are allergic. Bananas, mangoes and other tropical fruit are sprayed with even more poisonous chemicals.
- Reason : lý do
* for various reasons : v× nhiÒu lý do
- Herbicide : thuèc diÖt cá
- Fungicide : thuèc diÖt nÊm mèc
- Fertilizer : ph©n bãn
- To be harmful to : cã h¹i
- To be subjected to : chÞu ph¶i
- Post-harvest treatment : xö lý sau thu ho¹ch
- Fungus : nÊm mèc
- To spray : phun
- Mental disorder : rèi lo¹n thµn kinh
- Speech impediment : rèi lo¹n ng«n ng÷
- To be allergic : bÞ dÞ øng
2. Although fertility rates in poor countries have declined in recent years, the UN has estimated that the world‟s population should stabilize at approximately 10.2 billion people by the year
2100, when the number dying will match the number being born. This figure is two and a quarter times the present world population. A long-held and popular belief is that population growth in poor countries is the major cause of poverty. The “population explosion”, it is argued, is wiping out any economic development which the poor countries may achieve. The remedy to poverty is seen, therefore, to be increased birth control. This view has come under severe criticism by poor countries and their supporters in wealthy nations. They argue that large families and rapid population growth are consequences of poverty rather than its cause. Many of the poor consider a large family to be essential for survival in poor countries. In a society lacking social welfare payments, children are seen as a source of security in old age and when illness or unemployment strike. Children are also regarded as a means of bringing in additional income at an early age. In addition, because child mortality rates are high, a large family is considered necessary to ensure that at least one son survives to adulthood. Another argument is that employment opportunities and adequate social security schemes are the key to falling birth rates.

- Fertility rate: tỷ lệ sinh đẻ
- To decline: giảm xuống
- To estimate: ước tính
- It is estimated that…..: Người ta ước tính rằng……
- To stabilize: làm ổn định

- It is important to stabilize our population growth rates.
- To match: sánh bằng
- Worldly pleasures cannot match those joys.
Những thú vui trần tục không thể sánh bằng những niềm vui này.
- Belief : niềm tin to have belief in something: tin tưởng cái gì freedom of belief: tự do tính ngưỡng
The patient comes to the hospital in the belief that he will be cured of his chronic disease. Bệnh nhân đến bệnh viện với niềm tin là mình sẽ được chữa khỏi căn bệnh mãn tính
- poverty: sự nghèo khổ
- Hunger eradication and poverty alleviation: xóa đói giảm nghèo
- population explosion/boom: bùng nổ dân số
- To wipe out: xoá sạch
- To achieve: đạt được
- Economic development: Sự phát triển kinh tế
- Consequence: hậu quả
- Social welfare payment: trợ cấp phúc lợi xã hội
- To be regarded as : được xem là
- additional income : khoản thu nhập thêm
- adequate: đủ
3. The natural world is under violent assault. The seas and the rivers are being poisoned by radioactive wastes, by chemical discharges and by the dumping of dangerous toxins and raw sewage. The air we breathe is polluted by smoke and fumes from factories and motor vehicles. It is little wonder forests and lakes are being destroyed and everywhere wildlife is disappearing.
The irreversible loss of biodiversity has a serious impact on the ability of maintaining species including humans to survive because humans depend on species diversity and healthy ecosystems. The destruction continues despite the warnings of the scientific community and the deep concern of millions of ordinary people. Governments and industries throughout the world are intensifying their efforts to extract the earth's mineral riches and to plunder its living resources. The great rain forests and the frozen continents alike are seriously threatened.
However, we can create environmentally-clean industries, harness the power of the sun, wind and waves for our energy needs and manage the finite resources of the earth.

Suggested Translation :
1. Hoá chất xâm nhập thực phẩm của chúng ta bằng nhiều cách và vì nhiều lý do khác nhau.
Nông dân sử dụng thuốc diệt cỏ để diệt cỏ dại, thuốc trừ sâu để diệt sâu bọ, và thuốc fiệt nấm để diệt nấm mốc và phân bón để tăng sự phát triển. Tất cả các loại hoá chất này rất độc hại với sức khoẻ và môi trường của chúng ta. Sau khi thu hoạch, phần lớn nông sản phải được xử lý hoá chất sau thu hoạch, Chẳng hạn như lúa gạo ở Nhật Bản được người ta phun thuốc methyl bromide.
Loại thuốc này có thể gây ra rối loạn thần kinh và rối loạn ngôn ngữ. Trái cây và rau tươi được phun thuốc sulfite. Loại thuốc gây dị ứng cho nhiều người. Chuối, xoài và các loại trái cây nhiệt đới khác được phun những loại hoá chất thậm chí độc hại hơn.
2. Trong những năm gần đây, mặc dù tỷ lệ sinh đẻ ở các nước nghèo có giảm xuống, nhưng Liên
Hiệp Quốc ước tính rằng đến năm 2100 tỷ lệ sinh tử sẽ bằng nhau và lúc đó dân số thế giới sẽ ổn định ở mức xấp xỉ 10,2 tỉ người, tăng 2,25 lần so với dân số thế giới hiện nay. Lâu nay nhiều

7 người cho rằng phát triển dân số ở các nước nghèo là nguyên nhân chính gây ra nạn đói nghèo.
Sự bùng nổ dân số đang huỷ hoại mọi thành quả kinh tế mà các nước này đã đạt được. Do vậy, cần phải đẩy mạnh công tác sinh đẻ có kế hoạch để thoát khỏi cảnh đói nghèo. Tuy nhiên, quan điểm này bị các nước nghèo và một số người ở các nước giàu phê phán gay gắt. Họ cho rằng gia đình đông con và dân số tăng nhanh là hậu quả hơn là nguyên nhân của sự đói nghèo. Nhiều người nghèo xem gia đình đông con là cần thiết cho sự sống còn của các nước nghèo. Con cái là cơ sở đảm bảo cho tuổi già cũng như lúc ốm đau hay bị thất nghiệp ở những nước không có trợ cấp phúc lợi xã hội. Con cái cũng là nguồn nhân lực góp phần vào việc tăng thu nhập cho gia đình ngay lúc chúng còn nhỏ. Hơn nữa, do tỷ lệ trẻ em tử vong cao nên gia đình đông con thật sự cần thiết để đảm bảo chắc chắn ít nhất có một đứa con trai sống sót cho đến tuổi trưởng thành.
Một quan điểm khác cho rằng cơ hội tìm được việc làm và đảm bảo bảo phúc lợi xã hội thực sự đáng được xem là giải pháp cơ bản hạn chế sinh đẻ hữu hiệu nhất.
3. Thế giới tự nhiên đang bị tấn công dữ dội. Biển và sông đang bị ô nhiễm nặng do chất thải hạt nhân, chất thải hóa học và rác thải độc hại chưa xử lý. Không khí chúng ta thở cũng bị ô nhiễm do khói và khí thải của nhà máy và xe cộ. Cũng chẳng phải ngạc nhiên khi rừng và hồ cũng dang bị tàn phá và cuộc sống hoang dã khắp mọi nơi đang biến mất. Việc biến mất mà không cứu vãn nổi của đa dạng sinh học đã tác động rất lớn đến khả năng duy trì sự sống còn của các loài bao gồm cả con người vì con người phụ thuộc vào đa loài và môi trường sinh thái lành mạnh.
Cho dù giới khoa học cảnh báo và hàng triệu người dân thường bày tỏ mối quan tâm sâu sắc nhưng sự tàn phá vẫn cứ tiếp diễn. Các chính phủ và ngành công nghiệp trên khắp thế giới đang nổ lực khai thác nguồn khoáng sản phong phú và nguồn sinh vật dồi dào. Rừng rậm nhiệt đới cũng như các lục địa đóng băng đang bị đe doạ nghiêm trọng. Tuy nhiên chúng ta cũng có thể xây dựng nền công nghiệp thân thiện với môi trường, khai thác năng lượng từ mặt trời, gió và sóng biển để phục vụ cho nhu cầu năng lượng của chúng ta và quản lý nguồn năng lượng hạn hữu trên trái đất này.

Lesson 3:
Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. However, it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America, South-East Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations, and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest, much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan.
No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil, where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. These heavy payments, which affect the poor the most, have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America, Europe and Japan- the aptly named „hamburger connection‟.


Suggested Translation :
Sù gia t¨ng d©n sè lµ mét nh©n tè g©y ra n¹n ph¸ rõng nhiÖt ®íi.
Tuy nhiªn, nÕu cho r»ng viÖc më réng mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp tù cung tù cÊp ®Ó nu«i sèng nhiÒu miÖng ¨n h¬n lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh, th×
®©y lµ mét gi¶i thÝch v« c¨n cø. §¹i bé phËn rõng ë Ch©u Mü La
Tinh, §N¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng bÞ tµn ph¸ lµ do viÖc khai hoang ®Ó trång c¸c lo¹i n«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu vµ do c¸c ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç
, chø kh«ng ph¶i do n¹n du canh, du c- vµ t¸ ®iÒn g©y nªn. Hµng n¨m ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç ®· ph¸ huû 4500 km2 rõng, phÇn lín gç
®-îc xuÊt khÈu sang Mü vµ NhËt.
Mèi liªn hÖ gi÷a n¹n ph¸ rõng vµ nhu cÇu thµnh lËp x· héi phån vinh ®-îc thÊy râ nÐt nhÊt ë Trung Mü vµ Brazin n¬i nh÷ng c¸nh rõng nhiÖt ®íi ®· bÞ biÕn thµnh ®ång cá ch¨n th¶ v× viÖc nu«i gia sóc mang l¹i c¸c kho¶n lîi nhuËn xuÊt khÈu gióp tr¶ nî n-íc ngoµi. Kho¶n nî n-íc ngoµi khæng lå ®ang ®Ì nÆng lªn vai d©n nghÌo chñ yÕu ®-îc dïng ®Ó trang tr¶i cho c¸c kho¶n mua s¾m xa xØ cña chÝnh phñ vµ qu©n ®éi. ViÖc x©y dùng c¸c ®iÒn trang ch¨n th¶ réng lín lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh dÉn ®Õn viÖc ph¸ huû 2000 km2 rõng nhiÖt ®íi hµng n¨m ë Trung vµ Nam Mü. §Êt khai hoang chñ yÕu dïng cho viÖc nu«i bß xuÊt khÈu phôc vô cho ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp thøc ¨n nhanh ë B¾c Mü, Ch©u ¢u vµ NhËt- vïng xøng vìi tªn gäi lµ “ vïng giao l-u hamburger ”

Lesson 4:


At its source, the Rheinwaldhorn Glacier in Switzerland, the Rhein River is crystal clear. But, by the time it reaches the North Sea near Rotterdam after a 1,320-kilometer journey, it has become a poisonous cocktail of chemicals and sewage. Germany, like other industrial nations, shows little respect for her rivers even though the health and prosperity of her people depend on the availability of clean water.
The most obvious cause of river pollution is industry. German rivers contain thousands of different chemicals discharged by factories and mines. In 1990, a million fish in the Mosel and
Saar Rivers died when cyanide was carelessly released from a factory. Germany has laws to prevent this sort of thing, but, as in most other industrial nations, penalties are too light to act as a deterrent. Surprisingly, however, factories account for less than 10% of the pollutants found in North
American rivers, thanks to the Clean Water Act passed in 1972. The major source - responsible for 65% of all river pollution - is agriculture. Farmers use large amounts of toxic chemicals on their crops in order to kill weeds and insects, and the residues are washed into nearby rivers by rain. As long as the use of these chemicals is permitted, there is no way to prevent runoff pollution. 9

Sewage from nearby towns and villages is another major cause of river pollution. Many large cities lack sewage treatment facilities and the funds with which to build them. It is true that traditional waste water treatment plants are very expensive to build and operate, but cheap alternatives are now available. Sanitation engineers in New York have developed a system that uses microbes and marsh plants to transform raw sewage into clean water. The bacteria produce methane gas, which can be sold to power companies and burned to generate electricity.
The Clean Water Act has led to a steady improvement in the U.S.A. Fish can now be seen swimming in rivers that were once full of deadly chemicals, and ducks have returned to formerly polluted lakes. The improvement is largely due to careful monitoring of waste water from factories and strict enforcement of the law. Now, most companies are eager to present an environmentally- friendly image and are willing to pay for it. But further improvement will require changes in current farming practices. Hopefully, the growing popularity of organically grown produce will eventually lead to the necessary transformation.

- source : nguån (s«ng)
* The source of the Red River : nguån s«ng Hång
* Where does the Perfume River have its source?
S«ng H-¬ng b¾t nguån tõ ®©u?
- to be crystal clear : trong nh- pha lª
* a necklace of crystal : vßng cæ lµm b»ng pha lª
- to show respect to sb : t«n träng ai
- poisonous : ®éc, cã ®éc
* poisonous chemicals : ho¸ chÊt ®éc h¹i
* poisonous snakes : r¾n ®éc
* poisonous tongue : miÖng l-ìi ®éc ®Þa
- cocktail : hçn hîp
- sewage : chÊt th¶i
* sewage treatment : (sù) xö lý chÊt th¶i
- prosperity : sù thÞnh v-îng, sù giµu cã, cña c¶i
* to live in prosperity : sèng trong giµu sang
* a life of happiness and prosperity
- prosperous : thÞnh v-îng
* a prosperous year : mét n¨m thÞnh v-îng
* a prosperous business : mét doanh nghiÖp ¨n ra lµm nªn
- to discharge sth : th¶i c¸i g×

- cyanide : chÊt xi a nua
- penalty : xö ph¹t
* the penalty for (not) doing sth : viÖc xö ph¹t v× (kh«ng)
®· lµm g×
* death penalty : h×nh ph¹t tö h×nh
- deterrent : biÖn ph¸p ng¨n ngõa
- to account for : chiÕm
- pollutant : chÊt g©y « nhiÔm
- Clean Water Act : ®¹o luËt n-íc s¹ch
- to be passed : ®-îc th«ng qua
- toxic chemical : ho¸ chÊt ®éc h¹i
- weed : cá d¹i
- insect : c«n trïng
- residue : phÇn cßn d-, phÇn ch-a dïng hÕt
- to be washed : bÞ tr«i d¹t
- sewage treatment facilities : nh÷ng c¬ së xö lý chÊt th¶i
- microbe : vi khuÈn
- to generate electricity : ph¸t ®iÖn
- to monitor : gi¸m s¸t
* to monitor a project : gi¸m s¸t mét dù ¸n
- strict enforcement of law : nghiªm chØnh chÊp hµnh luËt ph¸p

Lesson 5:


What do the Okavango Swamp in Botswana, the Pantanal Marsh in Brazil and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam have in common? All are wetlands, and all are threatened by development. Wetlands
-bogs, marshes, swamps and estuaries - exist in every region of the earth and shelter a wide variety of animals, birds, fish, insects and plants. Their unique ecosystems help to purify water and to prevent flooding, and fish come to them to spawn.
Why are they threatened? Many are being drained in order to provide land for farming. Their rich alluvial soil is very fertile, but without a constant supply of water, it soon becomes barren. The
World Bank and other international development agencies have encouraged the draining of wetlands in the Third World with grants and loans, but have failed to allow for the environmental cost of their well-meant projects. In Thailand, old canals were filled in order to eliminate malaria; but this has resulted in disastrous floods. In Iraq, the Tigris Delta has been drained to facilitate a military campaign against Shiite rebels. The vast area thus reclaimed may help to feed Iraq's cities, but at great cost to the indigenous wildlife and to the traditional lifestyle of local villagers.

Another threat to wetlands is the construction of dams for hydroelectric projects. Although these provide necessary electricity without causing air pollution, they also interrupt the flow of water on which the wetland ecology depends. Swamps and marshes are also very vulnerable to acid rain, chemical runoff from farms and sewage from villages. The Danube Delta, a 500,000hectare wilderness visited by over 300 species of bird, has been badly polluted by pesticides as a result of projects carried out from 1983 to 1990 to cultivate the area.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, which came into force in
1975, identifies 450 major wetland areas in need of protection. With an annual budget of less than $600,000, it is hard to see how the Convention can save the world's wetlands from projects paid for by the World Bank, the European Union and other powerful agencies currently more concerned with feeding people today than with protecting their environment for the future.

- to be in danger : bÞ nguy hiÓm
- the Mekong Delta : §ång b»ng s«ng Cöu Long
- to have sth in common: cã ®iÒu g× chun, gièng nhau
- wetland ; vïng ®Çm lÇy
- estuary : cöa s«ng
- unique : ®éc ®¸o, ®éc nhÊt
- ecosystem: hÖ sinh th¸i
- to purify: lµm tinh khiÕt
* purify water : lµm cho n-íc tinh khiÕt
- to spawn : sinh s¶n, ®Î trøng
- alluvial soil : ®Êt phï sa
- fertile : ph× nhiªu
* fertile land : vïng ®Êt ph× nhiªu
- barren : b¹c mµu, hoang ho¸
- grants and loans : kho¶n viÖn trî vµ cho vay
- canal : kªnh ®µo
- to be filled : san lÊp
- malaria : bÖnh sèt rÐt
- to eliminate : xo¸ bá
- to result in : g©y ra
- to be drained : x¶ n-íc, tho¸t n-íc
- indigenous : b¶n ®Þa
- traditional lifestyle : lèi sèng truyÒn thèng

- dam : ®Ëp
- hydroelectric project : dù ¸n thuû ®iÖn
- to interrupt : can thiÖp
- flow of water : dßng ch¶y
- to be vulnerable to : cã thÓ bÞ, dÔ bÞ
* people who are vulnerable to criticism : ng-êi dÔ bÞ phª b×nh - pesticide : thuèc trõ s©u
- to cultivate : canh t¸c, trång trät
- to come into force/effect : cã hiÖu lùc
- annual budget : ng©n s¸ch hµng n¨m
- convention : c«ng -íc
- to be paid for : ®-îc chi tr¶, ®-îc tµi trî
* The projects are paid for by the World Bank : nh÷ng dù ¸n
®ã ®-îc Ng©n Hµng ThÕ Giíi tµi trî.
- to be corncerned with : quan t©m ®Õn

Lesson 6:


The Mediterranean Sea is closed except for a small gap between Spain and Morocco. Because of this, it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. Rivers flowing into the sea from surrounding countries bring massive amounts of industrial, agricultural and human waste from factories, farms and cities. Oil spilled by tankers and from port terminals adds to the pollution. Still more pollutants fall from the sky as acid rain.
From ancient times, the sea has been regarded as a convenient disposal site for the waste products of human civilization. But by the 1970s, the ecological ruin of the Mediterranean was beginning to alarm not only environmental activists concerned with dying dolphins and seals, but also fishermen and local residents. It also disturbed people involved in the tourist industry when complaints by visitors of raw sewage on beaches and foul-smelling water began to hit the headlines.
Finally, representatives of surrounding nations adopted a plan known as the Nicosia Charter designed to protect the sea from further damage. The plan called for the construction of proper sewage treatment facilities for 25 major cities and 75 smaller communities, and the setting up of
25 centers for the disposal of dangerous wastes.
The Mediterranean is not the only sea with problems. Studies have shown that the Baltic is suffocating. Large quantities of nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates from farms in

Scandinavia, Russia and Poland are washed into the sea, where they stimulate the growth of algae that consume the oxygen needed by fish. The seven adjacent nations have agreed on the need to cut the flow of nutrients and pollutants, but not on how to finance the necessary measures.
The North Sea is more open than the Baltic, and is constantly rinsed; but it too is suffering a major crisis. In 1988, about 70% of the native seal population died of a mysterious illness thought to be caused by toxic chemicals in the fish they ate. The two biggest sources of pollution are sewage from Britain and toxic chemicals from German factories. Britain has recently agreed to ban the discharge of sewage into coastal waters and the dumping of sludge at sea by 1998; but by privatizing its waste treatment industry, the British Government has reduced the likelihood that its commitments will be met. Germany, whose rivers deliver millions of tons of zinc and thousands of tons of other metals into the North Sea, has also made promises that the costs of unification between West and East have rendered impossible to fulfill. If the necessary steps are not taken within the next 20 years, the North Sea fishing industry will probably be wiped out, along with many species of mammal.

- the Mediterranean Sea : §Þa Trung H¶i
- except for : ngo¹i tõ
* The mistakes. essay








- acid rain : m-a a-xÝt
- massive # great : lín,vÜ ®¹i
- oil spill : v¸ng dÇu
- to be spilled : bÞ loang, bÞ trµn, t¹o thµnh v¸ng
- to be regarded as : ®-îc xem lµ
* The immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this area : hÖ thèng kªnh r¹ch mªnh m«ng ®-îc xem lµ c¸i duyªn cã mét kh«ng hai cña vïng nµy.
- disposal site : b·i r¸c th¶i
- human civilization : v¨n minh nh©n lo¹i
- ruin : sù tµn lôi
- to be ruined : bÞ lôi tµn, bÞ sôp ®æ
- to alarm : bo¸ ®éng
* Everybody was alarmed that war might break out.
Mäi ng-êi ®-îc b¸o ®éng r»ng chiÕn tranh cã thÓ x¶y ra.
- environmental activist : nhµ b¶o vÖ m«i tr-êng, nhµ ho¹t ®éng m«i tr-êng
- dolphin : c¸ heo

- seal : h¶i cÈu
- local ressident/inhabitant : c- d©n ®Þa ph-¬ng
- to be/get involved in : cã dÝnh lÝu tíi, cã liªn quan tíi
* The prominent scientific research.







C¸c nhµ khoa häc tÇm cì/cã tiÕng/næi tiÕng ®· tham gia vµo c«ng tr×nh nghiªn cøu khoa häc nµy.
- foul-smelling water : n-íc cã mïi thèi
- representative : ng-êi ®¹i diÖn
- to adopt: chÊp nhËn
* The Congress adopted new measures.
§¹i héi ®· chÊp nhËn c¸c biÖn ph¸p míi.
- to be designed : ®-îc thiÕt kÕ/viÕt ra
- Charter : B¶n hiÕn ch-¬ng
- to call for : kªu gäi
* The Government called for foreign investment.
ChÝnh phñ ®· kªu gäi ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi.
- community : céng ®ång
* The Vietnamese Community :
Céng ®ång ng-êi ViÖt
* a speech community : céng ®ång ng«n ng÷
- to suffocate : ng¹t thë
- nutrient : chÊt nu«i d-ìng, ph©n bãn
- to stimulate : kÝch thÝch
* They have used a special substance to stimulate the growth of these plants.
Hä ®· dïng mét lo¹i chÊt ®Æc biÖt ®Ó kÝch thÝch sù t¨ng tr-ëng cña nh÷ng c©y nµy.
- the growth of algae: sù ph¸t triÓn cña t¶o biÓn
- to consume # to use : sö dông
- to rinse : x¶/tÈy
* to rinse soap out of clothes : x¶ xµ phßng khái quÇn ¸o
- mysterious illness : c¨n bÖnh kh«ng râ nguyªn nh©n
- to ban # to prohibit : cÊm
* to ban firecrackers : cÊm ®èt ph¸o

- commitment : sù cam kÕt, sù rµng buéc
* Marriage should be a five-year renewable contract not a life-long commitment.
H«n nh©n nªn lµ mét b¶n hîp ®ång 5 n¨m cã gia h¹n h¬n lµ mét sù rµng buéc trän ®êi.
- to take necessary steps/measure : thùc thi c¸c biÖn ph¸p cÇn thiÕt - to be wiped out : bÞ xo¸ s¹ch

Lesson 7:


The tropical rainforests are being destroyed primarily by greedy businessmen for a quick profit. What they don't realize is that they could make a lot more money in the long run by preserving the forests. A study by the New York Institute of Economic Botany found that one hectare of South American rainforest could produce $400-worth of fruit every year. If rubber, drugs, rattan, nuts and other products of the forest are also sold, the value of a hectare of rainforest over a 10-year period could exceed $10,000. If, on the other hand, all the trees were cut down for sale and cattle raised on the exposed land, a mere $4,000 could be earned before the soil became totally barren. So over the long term, conservatio n and sustainable use of the forest turns out to be far more profitable.
If the destruction of rainforests continues at the present rate, they will disap pear completely by the year 2040. This will have serious consequences - economic, political and environmental - for the nations concerned. Yet most Third World governments maintain short-sighted policies encouraging the export of timber. Such policies will only be changed if the politicians can be convinced of the long-term benefits of conservation. Several
European countries now prohibit the import of all tropical hardwood from countries lacking strict conservation and forest-management regulations. If the government of Japan, which buys over half of the tropical hardwood sold on the world market, were to adopt similar import restrictions, the situation might improve greatly. Rich countries could also help by offering financial assistance to countries such as Belize and Costa Rica which protect their rainforests and denying it to nations lacking effective conservation policies.
Several large conservation groups have bought entire forests, and are now helping the indigenous people to earn a living through sustainable use of the forest. Major drug manufacturers ought to do likewise, in view of the enormous profits they could make by discovering and marketing cures for serious diseases. Merck, an American drug company, paid a million dollars to Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute in exchange for the supply of botanical samples. This sum represents less than 0.1% of Merck's 1993 research

16 budget. The company could easily afford to make a much larger investment in order to preserve the forests in which its future - and ours - lies.

- tropical rainforest : rõng rËm nhiÖt ®íi
- to be destroyed : bÞ tµn ph¸
- profit : lîi nhuËn
* to sell sth at a profit
- in the long run : rèt cuéc lµ
- to preserve : b¶o tån
* to preserve the world‟s cultural heritage : b¶o tån di s¶n v¨n ho¸ thÕ giíi
* to preserve the national identity : gi÷ g×n b¶n s¾c d©n téc - exceed : v-ît qu¸
* to exceed the speed limit : v-ît qu¸ tèc ®é giíi h¹n
- nut : h¹t chøa dÇu
* cashewnut: h¹t ®iÒu
- to cut down for sale : ®èn ®Ó b¸n
- cattle raising : ch¨n nu«i gia sóc
- exposed land : vïng ®Êt trèng
- sustainable use : sö dông bÒn v÷ng/l©u dµi
- to turn out to be : rèt cuéc lµ
- short-sighted policy : chÝnh s¸ch thiÓn cËn
- to be convinced : bÞ thuyÕt phôc
- long-term benefit : lîi Ých l©u dµi
- short-term benefit : lîi Ých tr-íc m¾t
- to prohibit: cÊm
* to prohibit the production of : cÊm s¶n xuÊt
- forest-management regulation : ®iÒu lÖ qu¶n lý rõng
- restriction : sù h¹n ®Þnh
- financial assistance : gióp ®ì vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh
- to lack : thiÕu
* to lack capital : thiÕu vèn
- to earn a living : kiÕm sèng

- in view of : nh»m ®Ó
- in exchange for : nh»m trao ®æi c¸i g×

Lesson 8:


With daytime temperatures reaching 50°C and less than 10 centimeters of rain per year, the
Negev Desert in Israel has a hostile climate. Yet recently, it has become a major food-producing region, thanks to the introduction of new farming techniques. Vegetables and fruit are grown using trickle irrigation, a system in which each plant receives a small but sufficient amount of water and fertilizers through perforated plastic pipes. Most of the water is pumped up from underground. Since this is too salty for normal plants, agricultural scientists had to develop special varieties of salt-resistant plants. Now the region produces fruit, vegetables, cereals, peanuts and cotton, and is home to half a million people.
Nearby Egypt is confronted with a double curse: rapid population growth and encroaching deserts. The only way for the country to feed its people is by reversing the process of desertification. Researchers are now experimenting with a resin which can absorb an amount of water equal to several hundred times its own weight. When mixed with soil, it helps the earth to retain moisture. The resin, which was originally developed in Japan for use in paper diapers, could enable Egyptian farmers to grow crops on arid land and eventually restore the forests which once covered North Africa.
In Iran, large sand dunes are sprayed with oil. When this dries, it keeps the sand in one place and retains moisture. Grass seed is then planted, followed soon by saplings. Farmers are later able to grow vegetables on the land reclaimed from the desert. The new forests are protected from goats and sheep by guards riding motorcycles. This is very important, because overgrazing is one of the main causes of desertification. Camels, incidentally, present no problems; their flat feet do not disturb the soil and their sharp teeth cut the grass instead of tearing it out as goats and sheep do.
Agriculture and reforestation need water. This can be drawn from underground, using solarpowered pumps, but eventually the source must dry up. Seawater could be used, but removing the salt requires a very expensive and time-consuming process. The only alternative is to bring fresh water from areas in which it is plentiful. In Libya, Kirgistan and India, great waterways have been built to bring water from mountain streams to arid regions targeted for cultivation.
With enough money and effort, the battle against the desert can be won. But unless population growth is controlled, our victory over the desert will turn out to be only a mirage.

- temprature : nhiÖt ®é
- reach : ®¹t ®-îc, lªn ®Õn

* the growth rates reach 12%
* the mountains reach the sea.
( nói v-¬n ra biÓn.)
- hostile climate : khÝ hËu kh¾c nghiÖt
- food-producing region : vïng s¶n xuÊt l-¬ng thùc
- the introduction of : viÖc ¸p dông, viÖc ®-a (c¸i g×)vµo....
- farming technique : kü thuËt canh t¸c
- irrigation system : hÖ thèng t-íi, hÖ thèng thuû lîi
- sufficient : ®ñ
* sufficient amount : mét l-îng ®Çy ®ñ
- perforated plastic pipe : èng nhùa cã læ xung quanh
- to be pumped up from the ground : b¬m tõ m¹ch n-íc ngÇm lªn
- salt-resistant plant : c©y chèng ®-îc mÆn, c©y thÝch nghi víi
®Êt m¨n
- cereal : ngò cèc
- to be confronted with : ®-¬ng ®Çu víi
- to reverse: lµm ®¶o ng-îc, chèng l¹i
- process of desertification : qu¸ tr×nh sa m¹c ho¸
- to absorb : thÈm thÊu, hót n-íc
- moisture : ®é Èm
- arid land : ®Êt kh« c»n
- solar-powered pump : b¬m ch¹y b»ng n¨ng l-¬ng mÆt trêi
- time-consuming : mÊt thêi gian
* time consuming work : c«ng viÖc chiÕm nhiÒu thêi gian
- alternative : mét gi¶i ph¸p thay thÕ
- waterway : ®-êng dÉn n-íc
- to be targeted for : nh»m ®Ó, ®-îc nh¾m ®Õn ®Ó lµm g×


Lesson 9:


Over a thousand species of animals are threatened with extinction, and humans are directly or indirectly to blame.
Most of the big cats - lions, tigers, panthers, leopards and cheetahs - have 5 been hunted for thousands of years, sometimes to protect livestock, but more often for sport or for their skins. The
Asiatic Lion once inhabited a vast area from Israel to India; now only a few hundred remain, under strict protection, in the Gir Forest of India. The Barbary Leopard, once found throughout North
Africa, is even rarer: no more than 50 exist. The Bengal Tiger has been much luckier; thanks to strict measures taken in 1972 by the Indian Government, it is now thriving.
Hunters - or rather poachers, since their victims are under legal protection -also threaten elephants, killed for their ivory tusks, and rhinoceroses, whose horns are used to make traditional Chinese medicine and handles for Yemeni daggers. The situation regarding rhinos is particularly desperate: fewer than 8,000 remain in Africa, just over 1,000 in North India and even fewer in Indonesia.
Many of the primates are also suffering from human aggression, but the main cause of their decline in numbers is environmental. Deforestation has severely reduced the natural habitat of the OrangUtan in Sumatra, the Golden Lion Tamarin in Brazil, the Lion-tailed Macaque in India and the Red
Lemur in Madagascar, to name just a few of the worst cases.
The panda's greatest enemy is its own natural vulnerability. Not only is it dependent on a single source of food - a special kind of bamboo which sud- denly flowers and then dies once every 60 years - but it also has great difficulty breeding, especially in captivity. Even if it could be completely protected from poachers, who face the death penalty if caught, and from encroachment by loggers and farmers, it may become extinct, as fewer than a thousand now remain.
Marine animals face three main dangers, all resulting from human activity. Some types of whale have been hunted almost to extinction for their meat, oil and bone. The blue whale, the largest mammal in the world, has become one of the rarest, owing to the use of radar by modern whaling ships. Dolphins often swim with tuna and tend to get caught in the large nets used by many tuna fishermen. The largest of these nets, known as drift nets, catch all sea creatures indiscriminately, resulting in serious depletion of fish stocks as well as the loss of dolphins and other marine animals.
For the inhabitants of shallow coastal waters, pollution is a major hazard. The disappearance of the
Monk Seal from the Caribean Sea may be attributed both to pollution and drift-net fishing.

- to be threatened by/with extinction : bÞ ®e do¹ diÖt chñng
- to blame : ®æ lçi
* to blame sb for sth : ®æ lçi cho ai vÒ c¸i g×

* He blamed the teacher for his failure.
( H¾n ®æ lçi lµ thÇy gi¸o ®· lµm h¾n thÊt b¹i.)
- livestock : gia cÇm
- to inhabit : sèng
- strict protection : b¶o vÖ nghiªm ngÆt
- ivory tusk : ngµ voi
- rhinoceros: tª gi¸c
- to suffer from : chÞu ph¶i
- aggression :

sù x©m l-îc

- decline : gi¶m
* decline in number : gi¶m vÒ sè l-îng
- natural habitat : vïng c- tró tù nhiªn
- panda : gÊu tróc
- in captivity : (nu«i) trong chuång
- logger : ng-êi khai th¸c gç
- to encroach upon : x©m ph¹m
- encroachment : sù x©m ph¹m
- to face the danger: ®-¬ng ®Çu víi nguy hiÓm, ®èi mÆt víi nguy c¬ - whale : c¸ voi
- marine animal : ®éng vËt biÓn
- to be attributed to : do, nhê

Lesson 10:


After a long and desperate struggle to save endangered species from extinction, conservationists are finally winning victories over individual greed and official lethargy. The establishment of the
World Wildlife Fund in 1961 began a new era of aggressive campaigning which culminated in the 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. The CITES bans or restricts trade in over 2,000 different species of animal, bird and plant. Unfortunately, it depends for enforcement on its 103 member nations, and many of them are very lax. Britain, for example, had only four customs officers in charge of CITES enforcement as of 1990. Some member nations failed to ratify the agreement, while others retained special exemptions. Japan, for example, which ratified the Convention in 1980 and was at one time responsible for one half of the world's trade in endangered species, insisted on importing products made from 11 of the most

21 endangered species in order to protect the livelihoods of a few thousand artisans and the profits of large corporations.
The WWF was so concerned about loopholes and lax enforcement of the CITES that it set up a special monitoring organization named TRAFFIC (Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in
Commerce) which frequently uncovers illegal trade ignored or even encouraged by the authorities of member nations.
The most visible success of the wildlife conservation movement has been the complete ban on the ivory trade, imposed in January 1990 at a time when fewer than 600,000 African elephants remained. There is, however, a much earlier precedent. In 1907, the American Bison Society reported that only a few hundred bison remained and demanded action; Congress responded with legislation establishing reserves in Oklahoma and Montana, and the native buffalo survived.
Recently, farmers have started raising bison instead of cows (buffalo meat is lower in calories and cholesterol than beef) and the population has increased to over 60,000.
Crocodiles, alligators and caiman are also benefiting from the commercial farming approach. In theory, so could all endangered species which can be raised in captivity and which have commercial value. This could free up precious conservation funds for use elsewhere. Ironically, the elephant population increased in countries which paid for conservation efforts through the official sale of ivory, and will probably decrease now that such funds are no longer available.
Another factor which may help endangered species if carefully managed is the rapid growth of ecotourism. East Africans replaced guns with cameras in their safari parks long ago when they realized the tourist potential of their vast wildlife reserves. More recently, West Africans have discovered that their gorillas are worth more alive than dead and have started protecting these vulnerable assets from poachers. The challenge is to expand tourism without damaging the animals' habitats.

- desperate : kh«ng khoan nh-îng
* desperate struggle : ®Êu tranh kh«ng khoan nh-îng
- endangered species : loµi cã nguy c¬ diÖt chñng
- The World Wildlife Fund : Quü §éng VËt Hoang D· ThÕ Giíi
- era : kû nguyªn
- culminate : ®¹t ®Õn ®Ønh ®iÓm
- customs officer : h¶i quan
- to be in charge of : chÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm vÒ
- ratify : phª chuÈn, ký (hiÖp ®Þnh)
* to ratify the agreement : phª chuÈn hiÖp ®Þnh

- artisan : nghÖ nh©n
- wildlife conservation movement : phong trµo b¶o vÖ ®éng vËt hoang d·
- illegal trade : bu«n b¸n bÊt hîp ph¸p
- bison : bß rõng
- potential : tiÒm n¨ng
* tourist potential : tiÒm n¨ng du lÞch
- challenge : th¸ch thøc
- gorilla : ®-êi -¬i
- vulnerable : dÔ bÞ lµm h¹i
* Young birds are vulnerable to predators.
Chim non rÊt dÔ bÞ thó ¨n thÞt lµm h¹i.

Lesson 11:


Chemicals enter our food in various ways and for various reasons. Farmers use herbicides to kill weeds, pesticides to kill insects, fungicides to kill mold and fertilizers to promote growth. All of them are harmful to health and also to the environment, as Rachel Carson observed over 30 years ago in her provocative book, Silent Spring. Air pollution and acid rain also contribute to the chemical cocktail in which our food is grown.
After harvesting, most crops are subjected to further "post-harvest" chemical treatment in order to protect them from fungus and keep them looking fresh. Japanese rice, for example, is sprayed once a year with methyl bromide, which can cause mental disorders and speech impediments.
Fresh fruits and vegetables are sprayed with sulfites, to which many people are allergic. Bananas, mangoes and other tropical fruit are sprayed with even more dangerous chemicals.
Meat eaters are exposed to even greater risks. For one thing, they are ten times more likely to die from a heart attack than vegetarians. For another, meat accounts for more than half of all pesticides consumed by Americans. Moreover, meat contains antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline, used to prevent disease in farm animals, and also hormones used to promote growth.
Excessive consumption of the former leads to a breakdown of the human immune system, while the latter leads to hormone imbalance and diseases such as thyrotoxicosis.
Finally, there are the additives used by food manufacturers - thousands of them, including preservatives, colors, flavors, aromas and emulsifiers. The use of preservatives is often justified by the need to prevent food poisoning. Nitrates used in ham, for example, prevent contamination by salmonella germs. In most cases, however, additives are used simply to make food look, taste

23 or smell better and thus increase profits. If consumers could be certain that all additives used were completely safe, there would be no problem. In fact, however, most of the additives used in
Britain have never been tested for safety, and of those that have been tested, many have been shown to cause health problems ranging from allergies to cancer. Excessive consumption of food additives has also been linked to low academic achievement and mental instability.

- reason : lý do
* for various reasons : v× nhiÒu lý do
- herbicide : thuèc diÖt cá
- fungicide : thuèc diÖt nÊm mèc
- fertilizer : ph©n bãn
- to be harmful to : cã h¹i
- to contribute to : ®ãng gãp
* He company. has







¤ng ta ®· ®ãng gãp nhiÒu cho sù ph¸t triÓn cña c«ng ty.
- to be subjected to : chÞu ph¶i
- post-harvest treatment : xö lý sau thu ho¹ch
- fungus : nÊm mèc
- to spray : phun
- mental disorder : rèi lo¹n thµn kinh
- speech impediment : rèi lo¹n ng«n ng÷
- to be allergic : bÞ dÞ øng
- antibiotics : kh¸ng sinh
- immune system : hÖ miÔn dÞch
- imbalance : sù mÊt c©n ®èi
- additive : chÊt phô gia
- preservative : chÊt b¶o qu¶n
- flavour : mïi
- aroma : h-¬ng
- contamination : sù nhiÔm khuÈn
- to be tested for safety : kiÓm tra an toµn
- excessive : qu¸ nhiÒu
* excessive consumption : dïng qu¸ nhiÒu
- mental instability : bÊt æn tinh thÇn




Lesson 12:


In an average year, 11,000 tons of herbicides and 2,000 tons of insecticides are sprayed on British farms. A large proportion of this is washed into the soil or nearby rivers, but much is absorbed by the crops themselves, and thus eventually consumed by humans. That these chemicals are harmful to human health is no longer in doubt. Until recently, however, it was assumed that farmers could not survive without using them. Not any more.
Organic farming, which shuns the use of agricultural chemicals, is not a new phenomenon; on the contrary, all farming was organic until the introduction of DDT early this century. It is now, however, enjoying new popularity as more and more health-conscious consumers demand organically grown food and as the long-term costs of dependence on agricultural chemicals become clearer. Traditionally, farmers rotated their crops each year. Modern farmers, on the contrary, cultivate a single crop on the same soil for many years. This leads to declining fertility of the soil, compensated for by the use of more and more chemical fertilizers. It also results in the proliferation of insects, which have to be killed by powerful chemicals that also wipe out natural predators such as ladybugs and frogs.
Ordinary farmers are starting to rebel against lower crop yields and higher bills for agricultural chemicals and are turning to organic farming instead. Many now rotate crops, allowing the soil to recover its fertility and starving insects which feed only on a certain grain and cannot survive when their only source of food is replaced by a different crop. Others interplant several crops together, each protecting the other from pest attacks and soil depletion. Farmers prevent the growth of weeds by planting on narrow ridges, a practice known as ridge tillage. Organic farming has also benefited from the development of biological pest control, the use of one type of insect to get rid of another.
This was first used with success in the 1880s, when Australian beetles saved the Californian citrus industry. Now that many insects have developed resistance to all known types of pesticide, biological pest control may turn out to be the only effective approach.
Organic farming tends to be somewhat labor-intensive. Instead of spraying crops from helicopters and planting and harvesting with huge machines, the farmer has to get his hands dirty. This may be one reason why the only organic farmers until now were idealists. But recently a new breed of organic farmer has appeared on the scene, one whose hands never become dirty because his or her only tool is a computer. The new farm is a fully automated factory in which temperature, humidity, light, carbon dioxide density and the supply of nutrients are controlled by a computer.
Vegetables are grown all year round and supplied fresh on demand; and no chemicals are needed.
So far, only lettuce and spinach are grown this way, but the new factory farms will soon be producing tomatoes, green peppers, strawberries and other high-value products.

- average : trung b×nh, b×nh qu©n

* average temperature : nhiÖt ®é trung b×nh
* average height : chiÒu cao trung b×nh
* The age of boys in this clas is 15.
Tuæi trung b×nh cña c¸c cËu bÐ trong líp lµ 15.
* on average : tÝnh b×nh qu©n
- herbicide : thuèc diÖt cá
- insecticide : thuèc trï s©u
- proportion : tØ lÖ. phÇn
* The proportion of imports is worrying the government.
(Tû lÖ nhËp khÈu lµm chÝnh phñ lo l¾ng.)
* in proportion to : t-¬ng xøng víi
* payment in proportion to the work done : tr¶ c«ng t-¬ng xøng víi c«ng viÖc ®-îc thùc hiÖn
- to compensate : båi th-êng
* Nothing can compensate for the loss of our health.
* compensation : sù båi th-êng
He received $
in compesation/by compensation/as copensation for the loss.
- proliferation : sù s¶n sinh
- to rebel against : chèng l¹i
- yield : n¨ng suÊt
- high bill for : chi phÝ cao cho
- to be replaced by : ®-îc thay thÕ bëi
- fertility : ®é ph× nhiªu
- to interplant : xen canh
- to interplant several crops
- pest attack

: sù ph¸ ho¹i cña c«n trïng

- to benefit from : h-ëng lîi tõ
- to get rid of : xo¸ bá
- to develop resistance to : kh¸ng l¹i




Lesson 13:


Every year, the average British family throws away more than half a ton of rubbish. What happens to it? Nearly all of it ends up on a rubbish dump, where it is left to decay. This is unpleasant to see and smell. It can also be dangerous, since decaying organic waste gives off methane gas which can explode suddenly. Other types of garbage discharge toxic liquids which seep into underground water resources. Moreover, space for new landfills is becoming increasingly hard to find.
Garbage can also be burned. Twenty-five percent of all British rubbish is paper. This, like the methane gas emitted by rotting waste, can be used as fuel to burn some of the other components of garbage. But incineration results in the emission of dangerous pollutants such as dioxin and chlorine from paper, mercury from old batteries and lead from paint, and the resulting ash is usually highly toxic. Furthermore, glass and metals can only be melted, not burned.
Recycling thus makes a lot of sense. Not only does it reduce the volume of garbage, it also saves scarce resources. Waste paper can be processed into pulp and made into new paper. In Japan, over
59% of all waste paper is dealt with in this way, saving thousands of trees. Glass bottles can be melted down to make Other glass products. Most European cities have "bottle banks" where empty bottles can be left for collection and recycling. Metal waste is very profitable. It can be sorted, using magnets, into low-value ferrous metals and high-value nonferrous metals such as silver, aluminum and chrome, for sale to scrap metal dealers and eventual recycling. When organic waste, such as leftover food, is kept in bins and allowed to rot, it can be used as compost on gardens and fields. Home compost kits which emit no unpleasant smells and do not attract flies are now available; and large-scale municipal composting plants are now being built to produce cheap organic fertilizer.
Plastic waste is the most awkward type to recycle, since there are so many different varieties, each melting at a different temperature and each giving off toxic gas. A German company named VEBA
Oel AG has recently developed a technique for processing plastics into the oil from which they were originally made.
Recycling is seldom profitable. One reason is the cost of sorting the garbage 5 into different types.
This cost could be eliminated, however, by requiring householders to sort their own waste.
Different types of garbage would be collected on different days and delivered to the appropriate processing center. A second problem is that recycled paper, plastic and glass cost more than newly manufactured materials. If the fees for dumping waste were raised, however, and used to subsidize the sale of recycled materials, then these materials could be sold at competitive prices.
Volkswagen, the German auto manufacturer, has recently set a new recycling standard. Starting with the 1992 Golf, all of its new cars will be recyclable. The company guarantees to take back without charge every car it produces whenever the current owner decides to get rid of it. If automobiles can be completely recycled, why not other products?


- garbage : r¸c
- rubbish : r¸c
* rubbish dump : ®èng r¸c
- to decay : thèi röa
* decaying organic waste : r¸c th¶i h÷u c¬ ®ang thèi röa
- methane gas: khÝ mª tan
- to explode : næ tung
* When the boiler exploded many people were injured.
Khi nåi h¬i næ nhiÒu ng-êi ®· bÞ th-¬ng.
* to explode a bomb : lµm cho bom næ
* At last his anger exploded.
Cuèi cïng c¬n giËn d÷ cña anh ta ®· bïng næ.
- liquid : chÊt láng
* If you add too much liquid the mixture wil not be thick enough. NÕu b¹n thªm qu¸ nhiÒu chÊt láng, th× hçn hîp kh«ng ®ñ ®Æc.
- to seep : rØ, thÊm
* water seeping through the roof of the tunnel n-íc rØ ra qua m¸i tÇng hÇm
- to emit : th¶i ra
* The volcano emits smoke, lava and ashes.
Nói löa phun ra khãi, nham th¹ch vµ tro bôi.
- component : thµnh phÇn

incineration : sù thiªu huû, lß thiªu

- imission : sù th¶i ra
- mercury : thuû ng©n
- to melt : ch¶y láng
* The ice melted when the sun shone on it.
B¨ng tan ra khi mÆt trêi chiÕu lªn nã.
- to recycle : t¸i sinh, t¸i chÕ
* recycled plastic : nhùa t¸i sinh
- volume : khèi l-îng
- to process : xö lý

- to be dealt with : ®-îc gi¶i quyÕt
- collection : sù thu gom
- municipal : thuéc thµnh phè
* municipal

transport system : hÖ thèng giao th«ng thµnh

- magnet : nam ch©m
- ferrous : thuéc vÒ s¾t
* ferrous and non-ferrous metals : kim lo¹i ®en vµ kim lo¹i mµu - to scrap : lo¹i bá
- compost : ph©n h÷u c¬
- composting plant : nhµ m¸y ph©n h÷u c¬
- awkward : bÊt tiÖn, khã sö dông,g©y khã kh¨n
* awkward


* You put me in an awkward position : b¹n ®Æt t«i vµo mét t×nh tr¹ng khã xö.
- to process sth into sth : chÕ biÕn c¸i g× thµnh c¸i g×.
- to sort sth into sth : ph©n lo¹i c¸i g× thµnh c¸i g×.
- to deliver : giao, ph©n phèi
- to subsidize : bao cÊp, trî cÊp
* subsidized industries : c¸c ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp ®-îc bao cÊp

Lesson 14:


April 22nd being Earth Day, my wife and I decided to clean up the valley behind our village. With the help of a couple of neighbors, we pulled out all of the litter from the bushes and piled it up beside the road. There were dozens of used tires, proving my theory that most of the litter was left by drivers. Other items of note included several bicycles, a toaster and eight fashionable shoes, none matching. The most numerous category, however, was empty drink cans, of which there were enough to build a jumbo jet.
I personally feel that litterbugs should be thrown into prison and made to chew old car tires and empty cans for the rest of their lives. Unfortunately, however, they are very hard to catch, as most of them sneak out under cover of darkness to do their evil deeds. A more practical solution would be to put the burden of collection on dealers. If, for example, tire retailers were obliged by law to collect one used tire for every new one they sold, very few would be dumped. The used tires could either be recycled or used as fuel to generate electricity. In Britain, there is a power station which is fueled solely by used tires. Alternatively, the government could introduce a penalty tax on dispos-

30 able items such as tires and drink containers, which would be refunded to whoever returned the items for recycling.
Most of the discarded cans littering the countryside were bought from vending machines. The most effective solution, therefore, is to ban such machines. This would also help reduce demand for energy, since the average vending machine consumes 600 watts of electricity 24 hours a day, 365 days every year, and it would cut consumption of antisocial products such as cigarettes, beer and bubble gum.
Recycling enthusiasts often propose that drinks be sold in glass bottles instead of cans, since bottles can be washed and used again. Having injured myself several times on broken bottles when hiking,
I am inclined to disagree. Glass, unlike plastic or metal, does not decay. If you leave a glass bottle, a plastic bottle, an aluminum can and a paper container outside in the sunshine and rain, the paper container will decompose within three months, the aluminum can and plastic bottle will last 500 years, but the glass bottle will remain forever.
Recycling is an excellent idea, but it is not a solution to the problem of litter. The answer, in fact, is to use biodegradable materials for all disposable products. One such material, made from cornstarch, is as tough as plastic but decomposes and disappears within a year of exposure to the elements, with no jagged edges to harm the unwary hiker and no toxins to pollute the river.
Moreover, it is nutritious, and could be used to feed imprisoned litterbugs, thus saving taxpayers a lot of money.

- used tire : vá lèp xe ®· dïng råi
- to prove : chøng minh, chøng tá
* They prove that they are right.
Hä chøng minh lµ m×nh ®óng.
* He proves hÝmelf to be an expert on English.
¤ng ta chøng tá m×nh rÊt l·o luyÖn tiÕng Anh.
- fashionable : hîp thêi trang
* fashionable clothes : ¸o quÇn hîp thêi trang
- litterbug : ng-êi x¶ r¸c
- to be thrown into prison : bá tï
- to sneak out to do sth : lÐn lót lµm c¸i g×, trèn chui trèn lòi lµm c¸i g×.
- retailer : ng-êi b¸n lÎ
- to be obliged to do sth: bÞ b¾t buéc lµm c¸i g×
- practical solution : gi¶i ph¸p thùc tÕ
- vending machine : m¸y b¸n hµng tù ®éng

- to be inclined to do sth : cã chiÒu h-íng lµm c¸i g×
- to decompose : ph©n huû
- biodegradable material : chÊt cã thÓ ph©n huû b»ng sinh häc
- cornstarch : bét ng«
- jagged edge : cã c¹nh lëm chëm
* a piece of glass with jagged edges mét m¶nh thuû tinh cã c¹nh lëm chëm
- unwary: kh«ng thËn träng, kh«ng c¶nh gi¸c
- nutritious : bæ d-ìng

Lesson 15:


Situated on a basin surrounded by snow-capped mountains, Mexico City might be one of the world's most beautiful capitals. Instead, it is the most polluted. Toxic smoke from 35,000 factories and exhaust gas from three million motor vehicles frequently get trapped over the city by a natural phenomenon known as thermal inversion, forcing 16 million residents to breathe a cocktail of toxic gases. In 1986 it was so bad that dead birds dropped out of the sky.
Mexico City may be the worst, but cities throughout the world suffer similar problems. In 1953, a deadly smog killed more than 4,000 Londoners and led to the world's first legislation aimed at reducing air pollution. The situation improved greatly with the construction of higher factory chimneys and a ban on domestic coal fires.
Urban air pollution consists of five main ingredients: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone and suspended particulate matter. These are accompanied by various other toxic gases, depending on what local factories are producing. Approximately 1.3 million tons of toxic chemicals are released into American skies every year. Only seven of the 320 chemicals are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. In some areas, air pollution is so severe that one in 10 residents is likely to suffer from cancer sooner or later. Elsewhere, over a 100 million
Americans breathe air which is certain to harm them over the long term.
Sulfur dioxide is emitted mainly by coal-fired power stations, oil refineries, factories and foundries. In the 1960s it was a serious problem in Japanese cit5 ies. Since the introduction of strict controls in 1972, however, sulfur dioxide has become less of a problem. On the other hand, there has been a drastic increase in the emission of nitrogen oxides. These are also given off when coal, oil and gas are burned, but the main source is motor vehicles. The relentless increase in the number of cars and trucks on the roads has cancelled out any benefits from the decrease in sulfur emissions.

Auto exhaust gas also contains carbon monoxide - another poison - and reacts with sunlight to form ozone, another harmful gas. The fifth member of the evil toxic quintet is suspended particulate matter, small particles of a tarlike substance containing over 400 different harmful ingredients. The biggest 5 cause of SPM is exhaust gas from diesel engines, and trucks in particular. These five gases, alone or together, cause lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis, eye diseases and many other ailments familiar to city dwellers.

- smog = smoke + fog : må hãng
- mask : mÆt n¹
* gas mask : mÆt

n¹ phßng h¬i ®éc

- to be situated # to be located : n»m, to¹ l¹c, chiÕm cø
- snow-capped mountain : nói cã tuyÕt phñ
- exhaust gas : khÝ th¶i tõ « t«- phenomenon : hiÖn tîng
- similar : t¬ng tù
* to be similar to : t¬ng tù víi
- thermal : thuéc vÒ nhiÖt
* thermal spring : suèi nЬc nãng
- to lead to : dÉn ®Õn, g©y ra
* The road leads to my school.
Con ®êng dÉn ®Õn trêng t«i.
- legislation : luËt, ®¹o luËt
- to be aimed at : nh»m ®Ó lµm g×
* My project is aimed at helping poor people.
Dù ¸n cña t«i nh»m gióp d©n nghÌo.
- chimney : èng khãi
- domestic : thuéc vÒ trong nhµ
* domestic animals : vËt nu«i
* Horses, cows and sheep are domestic animals.
Ngùa, bß, vµ cõu lµ nh÷ng vËt nu«i.
- to consist of # to be made up of

: gåm cã, bao gåm

* The committee consists of 10 members.
Uû ban gåm 10 ngêi.
- suspended : treo l¬ l÷ng

* to be suspended in air : l¬ l÷ng trong kh«ng khÝ
- to be accompanied by : cïng víi
- to be released : th¶i ra
* Toxic chemicals are released into the sky.
Ho¸ chÊt ®éc h¹i bÞ th¶i ra trong khÝ quyÓn.
* to release a man from prison : th¶ mét ngêi ra khái tï
- severe : nghiªm träng, d÷ déi, nghiªm nghÞ
* a severe pain : c¬n ®au d÷ déi
* a severe look : c¸i nh×n nghiªm nghÞ
- a drastic increase : mét sù gia t¨ng ®¸ng kÓ
- a relentless increase : mét sù gia t¨ng nh¶y vät
- chronic bronchitis : bÖnh viªm phæi m·n tÝnh.

Lesson 16:


When a cloud of toxic gas escaped from a U.S. factory in Bhopal, India, in 1984, killing thousands of people, Americans said it couldn't happen at home. They are wrong. The same gas, methyl isocyanate, is emitted every day from chemical plants in the U.S.A., along with more than
300 other kinds of chemical, many of which are known to cause cancer. A study by the
Environmental Protection Agency in 1989 revealed that 205 factories were emitting dangerous quantities of harmful chemicals into the air, threatening the health of nearby residents.
Factories are by no means the only source of air pollution. Power stations, oil refineries and metal foundries also emit large quantities of pollutants. Citizens have no right to complain about air pollution, however, if they drive an automobile: cars and trucks are the biggest source of toxic carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter.
In 1990, U.S. legislators made a brave attempt to reduce harmful emissions by introducing strict new controls. In order to comply with the new Clean Air Act, power stations, factories, smelters, oil refineries and large bakeries had to install expensive new antipollution equipment and automobile manufacturers had to design cleaner engines or fit efficient catalytic converters to tailpipes. The new law was expected to cost Americans about $25 billion a year, but was nevertheless widely supported by both manufacturers and consumers.
Air pollution authorities in California have had to go far beyond the limits of federal law in order to tackle the haze in Los Angeles, North America's most polluted city. Regulations on auto emissions - already the world's strictest - will become even stricter in the year 2003, when 10% of all new vehicles sold in California must be zero-emission vehicles. Emission limits have been imposed not only on the major sources of pollution but also on bakeries, lawn mowers, chain saws, gas water heaters and even floor polish.


Clean air has begun to take priority over corporate profits in the West, thanks to the growing power of the environmental lobby. Elsewhere, however, economic development still takes precedence over the environment. In Benxi, China, the smog is so thick that for six months a year, maximum visibility is only 50 meters. Factories in Cracow, Poland, pump an estimated
10,000 tons of toxic gases into the air every day. India's most famous monument, the Taj Mahal, is cracked and yellow after years of exposure to pollutants from nearby iron foundries in and around Agra. These cities, and thousands like them, can afford neither to clean up their factories and foundries nor to close them down. Unless they receive technological and financial help from rich industrialized nations, their residents may never breathe pure air.

- Environmental Protection Agency : C¬ Quan B¶o VÖ M«i tr-êng
- to threaten : ®e do¹
* to threaten to do sth : ®e do¹ lµm c¸i g×
- to make an attempt : cè g¾ng
- strict : nghiªm tóc, nghiªm ngÆt
- to go far beyond the limit : v-ît qu¸ giíi h¹n
- to be imposed on : g©y t¸c ®éng cho, g©y ¶nh h-ëng cho
- monument : di tÝch

Lesson 17:


The production of plastics, drugs and farm chemicals results in a number of dangerous by-products: poisonous gases which cause air pollution, acid rain and global warming, deadly liquids which pollute nearby rivers and underground water resources, and toxic solid waste which has to be burned or dumped at great risk to the environment. Mines and oil refineries also produce hazardous waste, but the chemical industry is the worst culprit.
Some years ago, a huge quantity of toxic waste was found in Love Canal, a residential area near
Niagara Falls. This discovery was followed by an investi- gation which revealed over 35,000 toxic waste dumps all over the U.S.A. Many people were found to be suffering from serious illnesses related to the poisonous chemicals in their neighborhoods and even beneath their homes, but nobody was prepared to accept responsibility until public opinion and a series of lawsuits forced the federal government to take action. A "Superfund" was set up to pay for the cleaning up of toxic waste sites. The huge costs were to be born by the companies which produced and dumped the waste, and by taxes on newly produced waste.
Toxic waste dumps contain PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), cadmium, chromium, arsenic, lead, dioxin and many other dangerous substances. PCBs 20 cause cancer and reproductive disorders.
The Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation illegally dumped them in 89 different locations near

35 their gas pipelines, contaminating local drinking water. The penalty? A $15-million fine, in a year when the company earned $1,300 million in profits. "Itai Itai" Disease was caused by cadmium dumped in the Jinzu River in Japan. When people ate rice grown in nearby paddy fields, their bones became brittle and they suffered extreme pain. More than a hundred people died.
Problems like these occur because of inadequate control by the authorities. Factory managers offer waste disposal contracts to the lowest bidder, with no concern as to where the waste is dumped.
Truck drivers merely follow orders, collecting their deadly cargoes and dumping them as instructed, often late at night. Waste disposal companies make huge profits without having to provide any details to the authorities.
The situation will not improve until governments introduce strict controls on the disposal of hazardous waste. Both producers and disposers must be required to inform local authorities and residents about every kilogram of toxic waste: where it was produced, who transported it and where it ended up. Operators who do not disclose such information, make false reports or dump waste illegally must be severely punished.

- deadly secret : bÝ mËt chÕt ng-êi
- by-product : phã phÈm
- oil-refinery : nhµ m¸y läc dÇu
- hazardous : nguy hiÓm
- culprit : téi ph¹m
- residential area : vïng d©n c- investigation : cuéc ®iÒu tra
- to be related to : cã liªn quan ®Õn
- to be prepared to # to be ready to : s½n sµng
- responsibility : tr¸ch nhiÖm
* to take full responsibility for : chÞu hoµn toµn tr¸ch nhiÖm vÒ
- public opinion : d- luËn, ý kiÕn c«ng chóng
- to make huge profit : kiÕm ®-îc nhiÒu tÒn lêi, thu ®-îc kho¶n lîi khæng lå
- bidder : ng-êi ®Êu thÇu, nhµ thÇu
- to be punished : bÞ ph¹t

Lesson 18:


The disposal of toxic waste used to be easy. It was put in big steel drums, transported by truck to isolated places and then dumped. When this method was finally banned, companies began to buy up old mines and other convenient sites in which to dump their waste. When there were no more cheap sites and local residents began to sue them for polluting their water resources, companies began to load their waste on ships and dump it in the sea. Soon, this practice was banned, and the waste was instead burned in special incinerator ships. The highly toxic ash which remained was then illegally dumped in the sea or taken to the Third World, where government officials agreed to accept the waste in exchange for desperately needed foreign money and large bribes.
In 1987 and 1988, toxic waste from Italy was illegally dumped in Koko, Nigeria. It was falsely classified as harmless, but when the drums leaked and many people became ill, the Nigerian government demanded that it be removed. It was eventually returned to Italy on a ship named the
Karin B. As a result of this incident - just one of many - the United Nations Environment
Program drafted an international agreement on waste disposal which was adopted at the Basel
Convention in 1989. The agreement lists 47 dangerous chemicals which cannot be exported or imported by any of the 60-plus nations which have so far accepted it. The European Union ratified the agreement in 1992. The U.S.A. and Japan have accepted it on principle but not yet ratified it.
As the possibilities for waste disposal in local and foreign landfills decrease, chemical companies are having to consider more creative alternatives. The obvious solution would be to eliminate the waste at source, with new production techniques. This might be possible for many, but not all of the millions of chemicals produced by modern industry; it would, however, be very costly. Another possibility is to treat the waste with chemicals or bacteria in order to make it harmless. Scientists at Stanford University have already succeeded in using bacteria to break down two dangerous chemicals, trichloroethylene and w vinyl chloride, and are hopeful that many more can be treated in this way.
The suggestion that toxic waste might be recycled was not taken seriously until 1993, when a small American company named Molten Metal Technology began testing its Catalytic Extraction
Processing technology for commercial use. Toxic waste is injected into a pool of molten iron and breaks down into the elements of which it is composed. These can be recovered and used again.

- steel drum : thïng chøa b»ng thÐp
- isolated : c« lËp
* an isolated place : n¬i biÖt lËp, n¬i hoang v¾ng, n¬i bá hoang - mine : hÇm má
* a coal mine : má than
- site : b·i

- to sue : th-a kiÖn
- to dump : ®æ (r¸c...)
- in exchange for : trao ®æi, giao l-u
- bribe : kho¶n tiÒn hèi lé
* to receive a bribe : nhËn tiÒn hèi lé
- to be classified : ®-îc ph©n lo¹i
- to leak : rß rÜ
- to draft : so¹n th¶o
- international agreement : hiÖp ®Þnh quèc tÕ
- to eliminate : huû bá
- landfill : ®Êt ®¾p
- to treat waste by bacteria : xö lý r¸c th¶i b»ng vi khuÈn
- to be recycled : ®-îc t¸i chÕ, ®-îc t¸i sinh
- Molten Metal Technology : c«ng nghÖ nãng ch¶y kim lo¹i


Lesson 19:


Many of Europe's power stations and factories burn coal or oil. This results in the emission of large quantities of sulfur dioxide and smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. These gases are released through tall chimneys into the sky, where they mix with water vapor in clouds to form sulfuric and nitric acid. After being blown great distances by prevailing winds, these clouds condense into acid rain and fall on land and sea, causing considerable harm.
Many of Scandinavia's beautiful lakes have become too acidic to support life. Trees throughout
Germany are dying because of the acidity of the soil. Church bells in Belgium and the
Netherlands have lost their purity of sound and the magnificent stained glass windows of
Chartres Cathedral have lost their luster, owing to corrosion from acid rain. It also corrodes bridges, statues, rails, almost anything made of metal, including, ironically, the motor vehicles which are partly responsible for it through their emissions of nitrogen oxides. It dissolves stone, bricks and mortar too. Many of Europe's finest historical buildings have been irreparably damaged by acid rain and smog. Acid rain is a problem not only for Europe. In Quebec, 100,000 square kilometers of valuable maple forests have been damaged, resulting in serious losses for the maple syrup industry. Acid rain does not respect international frontiers. Much of the sulfur which killed thousands of lakes in Canada came from power plants in the U.S.A.; and forest damage in Japan has been blamed to some extent on Chinese factories and power stations.
Acid rain is also dangerous to humans. People who exercise outdoors when there is acid vapor in the air they breathe may suffer lung and kidney disease, 5 sore eyes and skin irritation. Five million Britons are exposed to lead poisoning from their tap water because lead in their water pipes is being dissolved by acid in the water supply. Moreover, alpine regions in which forests have been decimated by acid rain are prone to suffer sudden floods and avalanches capable of destroying entire villages.
Over 150 years ago, the world's first air pollution official wrote the following comments in his book Air and Rain: "when the air has so much acid... there is no hope for vegetation... galvanized iron is useless... stone and bricks of buildings crumble." Scientists have learned a lot about acid rain since Robert Angus Smith's far-sighted comments on air pollution in Britain were first published; but governments have been very slow to take remedial action.

- consequence : hËu qu¶
* environmental consequence: hËu qu¶ m«i tr-êng
- to mix : trén lÉn, hoµ trén
* to mix with : trén víi
- water vapor : h¬i n-íc
- to form : t¹o ra

- to be blown : bÞ thæi ®i, bÞ cuèn


- to condense into : nÐn l¹i, c« l¹i
- acidity : tÝnh a xÝt
- purity : sù thuÇn khiÕt, sù tinh khiÕt
- corrosion : sù bµo mßn, sù xãi mßn
- to dissolve : lµm tan r·, lµm ph©n huû
- to be damaged : bÞ h- h¹i
- to some extent : ë mét møc ®é nµo ®ã
- to exercise outdoors : tËp thÓ dôc ngoµi trêi
- kidney disease : bÖnh thËn
- to be prone to : thiªn vÒ, dÔ
* He is prone to lose his temper.
H¾n dÔ næi giËn.

Lesson 20:


What do withered trees, dead fish and retarded babies have in common? They are all victims of acid rain. It kills trees by attacking their roots. It cripples fish by destroying their gills. It dissolves the lead in old water pipes, poisoning the water supply and indirectly causing the birth of retarded babies.
The annual costs of acid rain for farmers, fisheries, public authorities and private companies are enormous. Any computation would have to include losses of farm and fishery products, repairs to damaged buildings and bridges, health care for people whose lungs were harmed by acid fog and measures taken to combat the effects of acid rain, such as pouring lime into rivers to reduce their acidity. It is thus hard to accept the claim by government representatives that effective measures to eliminate or reduce acid rain would be too costly. They would certainly require considerable expense initially; but they would give rise to vast savings in the long run.
The biggest source of the gases responsible for acid rain is coal-fired power stations. Three of these monsters in Britain together account for one third of all nationwide emissions of sulfur dioxide. There are various ways in which such emissions could be cut. One approach would involve burning low-sulfur coal imported from Canada, or replacing coal altogether with North
Sea oil or natural gas, both of which are low-sulfur fuels. Better still, non-polluting sources such as wind and sunshine could be exploited.

Another approach involves the use of fluidized-bed combustion technology to remove sulfur as coal is burned. This process has only recently been developed and remains very expensive. Much older technology would suffice for a third approach, flue-gas desulfurization, which filters the smoke as it goes up the chimney. This process was invented in Britain in 1880 but neglected there for more than a century. In Germany, it has been installed in nearly all power stations.
A Japanese company has recently developed a process for converting waste gas into fertilizer.
The smoke is mixed with ammonia and then treated with electronic rays. The resulting product can be sold to farmers, thereby subsidizing the cost of eliminating the waste gas. Likewise, a power plant at Kalundborg in Denmark removes sulfur from its flue gases and sells some of it to a local sulfuric acid manufacturer. The rest is converted to gypsum and sold to a plasterboard manufacturer. It has been estimated that a 50% cut in sulfur dioxide emissions could be paid for by a mere
0.5% increase in electricity charges. So far, 21 nations have become members of the "30%
Club" by committing themselves to a 30% reduction of sulfur emissions over 1980 levels, including some with more ambitious targets. But sulfur emissions can and should be eliminated entirely. Notes:
- withered : kh«, hÐo, khinh miÖt
* a withered tree : mät c©y kh«
* a withered flower : mét hoa hÐo
* a withered glance : mét c¸i nh×n khinh miÖt
- retarded ; ph¸t triÓn chËm ( vÒ thÓ chÊt)
* a retarded child : mét ®øa trÎ ph¸t triÓn thÓ chÊt chËm
- to have sth in common : cã chung c¸i g×, gièng nhau
- victim : n¹n nh©n
- root : rÔ c©y
* trees with long roots : c©y cã rÔ dµi
* to have roots in : cã nguån gèc tõ
- to cripple : lµm cho tµn phÕ, g©y tæn th-¬ng
- gill : mang
- lead : ch×
- water pipe : èng dÉn n-íc
- enormous : lín, khæng lå
* an enormous breakfast : mét b÷a ¨n s¸ng thÞnh so¹n
- to be harmed by : bÞ g©y h¹i bëi

- to combat the effect : chèng l¹i nh÷ng t¸c h¹i/hËu qu¶
- to pour : ®æ
- lime : v«i
- costly # expensive : ®¾t ®á, tèn nhiÒu tiÒn
- considerable expense : kho¶n chi phÝ ®¸ng kÓ
- to give rise to vast savings : tiÕt kiÖm ®-îc mét kho¶n tiÒn lín - coal-fired power station : nhµ m¸y n¨ng l-îng ch¹y b»ng than
- monster : qu¸i vËt
- approach : ph-¬ng ph¸p, ®-êng h-íng
- to replace sth with sth : thay c¸i g× b»ng c¸i g×
- non-polluting source : nguån ( n¨ng l-îng...) kh«ng g©y « nhiÔm/s¹ch - to be exploited : ®-îc khai th¸c, bÞ bãc lét
- ammonia : khÝ a m« ni ¾c
- combusion : ®èt
- to suffice : ®ñ ®Ó, ®¸p øng nhu cÇu cña
* Will $10 suffice for the trip?
LiÖu 10 ®« la cã ®ñ cho chuyÕn ®i kh«ng?
- gypsum : th¹ch cao
- to be estimated : -íc tÝnh
* It is estimated that.....: Ng-êi ta -íc tÝnh r»ng

Lesson 21:


The global climate is controlled by very complex factors, such as thermal currents in the air and sea, cloud movements and volcanic eruptions. The most powerful factor is the sun, without which the earth would be a frozen wilderness. Sunshine warms the earth, but most of the heat reaching the earth's surface would be radiated back into space were it not for the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere. These gases, the most important of which is carbon dioxide, act as a blanket around the earth, allowing the heat of the sun to enter but preventing some of it from leaving.
Since the Industrial Revolution, the density of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been steadily increasing. In 1850, it was about 280 parts per million. By 1990, it had risen to 375 ppm. If this trend continues at the present rate, the figure will have risen to 560 ppm by the year

2030. This, together with the steady accumulation of methane, nitrous oxide and CFCs
(chlorofluorocarbons), will have a major impact on the world's climate. Researchers with the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported in 1990 that within 30 years, mean global temperatures would rise by 1.8°C and within 80 years by 3.5°C if present trends continued.
This increase in global temperatures resulting from what is commonly known as the
Greenhouse Effect might seem attractive to residents of Scandinavia, Canada and Siberia, where winters are long and harsh. However, it will have a number of very unpleasant consequences for people living elsewhere. There will be severe droughts in India, Africa,
Australia and Brazil. The vast U.S. grain belt may turn into a dust bowl. Hurricanes, which only develop when temperatures exceed 26°C, will become more common and more severe.
Along with other diseases, malaria, a disease carried by mosquitoes which are unable to breed at temperatures below 22°C, will spread throughout the Mediterranean region, Mexico and
If global temperatures rise as predicted, with greater increases in the polar regions, much of the ice covering Greenland and Antarctica will melt, resulting in a rise in sea levels. This will lead to severe flooding of coastal areas, particularly in Bangladesh, the Nile Delta and the
Netherlands, and will ruin as much as a third of the world's cropland. Some island nations Kiribati, Maldives and Tuvalu - may disappear entirely, and the damage to cities such as
Amsterdam, Venice and Miami will be enormous. It is estimated that 45 million people will lose their homes as a result of flooding, and many more will have to leave areas hit by drought.
Mass migration on such a scale could easily lead to war between neighboring countries.
Moreover, many species of animal, bird and plant may become extinct.

- global : thuéc vÒ toµn cÇu
* global economy : kinh tÕ toµn cÇu
* global temperature : nhiÖt ®é toµn cÇu
* globalization : toµn cÇu ho¸
- complex : phøc t¹p
* a complex system, network : mét hÖ thèng, m¹ng l-íi phøc t¹p - thermal : thuéc vÒ nhiÖt
* thermal current : dßng nhiÖt
* thermal insulation : sù c¸ch nhiÖt
* thermal power station : nhµ m¸y nhiÖt ®iÖn
- volcanic eruption : sù phun trµo cña nói löa
- surface : bÒ mÆt
* the surface of the earth : bÒ mÆt tr¸i ®Êt

- to radiate : bøc x¹
- blanket : c¸i ch¨n, líp bao phñ
* a blanket of fog : líp s-¬ng mï
- to prevent sth from : ng¨n ngõa, b¶o vÖ c¸i g× khái...
- to allow sb to do sth : cho phÐp ai lµm c¸i g×
- density : mËt ®é
* population

density : mËt ®é d©n sè

- steady : ®Òu ®Æn
* a steady increase : mét sù gia t¨ng ®Òu ®Æn
- trend : xu h-íng,chiÒu h-íng
* The

trend of prices is still upwards.

ChiÒu h-íng gi¸ c¶ cßn gia t¨ng.
- figure : con sè
- to accumulate : tÝch luü
- to have an impact on sth : t¸c ®éng lªn c¸i g×
- to be known as : ®-îc biÕt ®Õn nh* To Huu is known as great poet.
Tè H÷u ®-îc biÕt ®Õn nh- mét nhµ th¬ vÜ ®¹i.
- Greenhouse Effect : hiÖu øng nhµ kÝnh
- to be attractive : quyÕn rñ
- harsh : kh¾c nghiÖt
- drought : h¹n h¸n
- grain belt : vµnh ®ai lóa m×
- dust bowl : vïng ®Çy bôi, vïng kh« c»n
- hurricance : b·o, giã lín
- to spread : lan truyÒn
* Fear spread through the village.
Nçi sî lan kh¾p lµng.
- to be predicted : ®-îc dù b¸o
* as predicted : nh- ®· ®-îc dù b¸o
- sea level : mùc n-íc biÓn
- coastal area : vïng duyªn h¶i
- cropland : vïng ®Êt trång, vïng ®Êt canh t¸c
- neighbouring country : n-íc l¸ng giÒng


Chapter 2:


Lesson 22:


For several years, language experts have used computers to help people change some documents from one language to another. Now there is new interest in using computers to translate more information. Scientists once believed this could be done easily. They thought computers could change words from one language to another . They thought computers could make sentences from words by using the rules of the language. However, many words have more than one meaning. The English word “bank” can mean the land along a river, lake or ocean, or it can mean an organization that keeps or lends money. Sentences also can have more than one meaning. The statement “I can fish” can mean I am able to catch fish, or it can mean I work in a factory putting fish into cans. Computers are not able to understand differences in meaning. So scientists have developed a new method of computer translation to solve this problem. They developed a system using a special common language. The “New York Times” newspaper recently explained the system. First, the computer translates information from one language into the common language.
In the common language, each word has only one meaning. Then, the computer translates the information into another language. Powerful computers are not the only machines being used to translate languages. Now people can buy small devices they can hold in their hand. These devices can translate thousands of English words into several languages. Experts say there is more pressure for international trade. And they say Americans are becoming more concerned about relations with other countries. The European Economic Community is pushing language translation. It has said that by next year companies dealing with the European Economic
Community must translate information about products into the ten languages of member countries. Some experts say it may be 25 years before a computer translates as well as people can. They say they do not believe any machine could translate special information such as diplomatic letters or legal document.


translating computer:

2. language expert:

m¸y vi tÝnh dÞch chuyªn gia vÒ ng«n ng÷


information (n):

th«ng tin


to make sentence:

®Æt c©u

5. to solve:

gi¶i quyÕt, xö lý

5. evice (n):

thiÕt bÞ

7. to be concerned:

quan t©m, lo ng¹i

8. diplomatic letter:

th- ngo¹i giao


Suggested Translation :

Trong nhiÒu n¨m, c¸c chuyªn gia vÒ ng«n ng÷ ®· sö dông c¸c m¸y vi tÝnh ®Ó gióp cho con ng-êi chuyÓn ®æi mét sè tµi liÖu tõ ng«n ng÷ nµy sang ng«n ng÷ kh¸c. HiÖn nay, ng-êi ta quan t©m h¬n trong viÖc sö dông c¸c m¸y vi tÝnh ®Ó dÞch thªm th«ng tin. C¸c nhµ khoa häc tõng tin r»ng c«ng viÖc nµy cã thÓ ®-îc thùc hiÖn mét c¸ch dÔ dµng. Hä nghÜ r»ng c¸c m¸y vi tÝnh cã thÓ chuyÓn ®æi c¸c tõ tõ ng«n ng÷ nµy sang ng«n ng÷ kh¸c vµ cã thÓ ®Æt nh÷ng c©u víi c¸c tõ b»ng c¸ch sö dông luËt ng«n ng÷. Tuy nhiªn, nhiÒu tõ cã h¬n mét nghÜa. Tõ “ b ank ” trong tiÕng Anh cã thÓ nghÜa lµ mét kho¶ng
®Êt däc theo mét dßng s«ng, hå hay biÓn hoÆc nghÜa lµ mét tæ chøc gi÷ vµ cho m-în tiÌn. C©u còng cã thÓ cã h¬n mét nghÜa. C©u nãi
“ I can fish ” cã thÓ nghÜa lµ t«i cã thÓ b¾t c¸ hoÆc nghÜa lµ t«i lµm viÖc trong nhµ m¸y ®ãng c¸ hép. M¸y vi tÝnh kh«ng thÓ hiÓu ®-îc sù kh¸c nhau vÒ nghÜa. V× thÕ, c¸c nhµ khoa häc ®· ph¸t triÓn mét ph-¬ng ph¸p míi vÒ dÞch vi tÝnh ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt vÊn ®Ò nµy. Hä ph¸t triÓn mét hÖ thèng mµ sö dông mét ng«n ng÷ chung ®Æc biÖt. Tê b¸o “ N ew York Times ” gÇn ®©y ®· gi¶i thÝch hÖ thèng nµy nh- sau. Tr-íc tiªn, m¸y vi tÝnh dÞch th«ng tin tõ mét ng«n ng÷ sang ng«n ng÷ chung. Trong ng«n ng÷ chung, mçi tõ chØ cã mét nghÜa. Sau ®ã, m¸y vi tÝnh dÞch th«ng tin sang ng«n ng÷ kh¸c.
Kh«ng chØ nh÷ng m¸y vi tÝnh ®a n¨ng míi ®-îc sö dông ®Ó dÞch mµ ng-êi ta cßn cã thÓ mua nh÷ng thiÕt bÞ nhá cÇm tay. Nh÷ng thiÕt bÞ nµy cã thÓ dÞch hµng ngµn tõ tiÕng Anh sang mét vµi ng«n ng÷.
C¸c chuyªn gia nãi r»ng cã nhiÒu lý do ®Ó c¾t nghÜa viÖc quan t©m míi nµy cña Mü trong viÖc dÞch ng«n ng÷. Hä cho biÕt cã thªm mét
¸p lùc ®èi víi nÒn kinh tÕ toµn cÇu vµ ng-êi Mü ngµy cµng quan t©m ®Õn mèi quan hÖ víi c¸c quèc gia kh¸c.
Céng ®ång kinh tÕ
Ch©u ¢u ®ang ®Èy m¹nh viÖc dÞch ng«n ng÷. Nã nãi r»ng n¨m ®Õn c¸c c«ng ty mµ cã quan hÖ lµm ¨n víi Céng ®ång kinh tÕ Ch©u ¢u ph¶i dÞch th«ng tin vÒ s¶n phÈm sang 10 ng«n ng÷ cña c¸c quèc gia thµnh viªn. Mét sè chuyªn gia cho r»ng còng mÊt kho¶ng 25 n¨m n÷a th× m¸y vi tÝnh míi cã thÓ dÞch tèt nh- con ng-êi. Hä còng cho biÕt hä kh«ng tin bÊt cø m¸y nµo cã thÓ dÞch ®-îc nh÷ng th«ng tin
®Æc biÖt nh- th- ngo¹i giao hay tµi liÖu ph¸p luËt.

Lesson 23:

American researchers say they have developed a medicine that has prevented strokes 1 in rats.
They said the vaccine also prevented stroke-like effects of a brain condition called epilepsy 2.
Researchers at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania reported the results of their experiments in the publication “Science”.
The researchers gave the vaccine to 100 laboratory rats. One month later, the researchers gave the rats a nerve poison 3. The medicine protected 70% percent of rats from brain damage that would normally result from the poison.
The researchers also gave the vaccine to the second group of rats. The scientists caused stroke in the rats five months later. The vaccine reduced the resulting brain damage 70%
The researchers say the vaccine causes the body‟s defense system to protect the brain from stroke and injury damage, just as it protects other parts of the body from disease. Vaccines protect against disease because they create proteins in the blood called antibodies 4. These antibodies fight infections caused by bacteria and viruses. The experimental vaccine creates antibodies that block 5 a brain chemical involved in the destruction of the brain cells after strokes or injuries.
The Jefferson Medical College researchers are now planning to test the experimental vaccine on people who are at risk of 6 suffering a stroke. If the vaccine proves safe and effective, it could be used in the future to protect older people against brain damage from strokes and even
Alzheimer‟s disease.
The vaccine would work the same way other vaccines do now. Doctors would give it to people thought to be at risk for stroke or other brain diseases. The antibodies develop in the blood. When a stroke or injury occurs, the antibodies cross into the brain where they are needed and prevent damage. The antibodies cannot cross into the brain until a stroke or injury happens.
The researchers say much more research is needed before the vaccine could be used by most people. But they say their work could be the start of a whole new way to treat brain diseases.

1. stroke (n): c¬n ®ét quþ

epilepsy (n) : chøng ®éng kinh

3. poison (n): chÊt ®éc
4. antibody (n): kh¸ng thÓ

block (n): ng¨n c¶n


to be at risk of: cã kh¶ n¨ng, cã nguy c¬

Suggested Translation :

C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu ng-êi Mü cho r»ng hä võa ph¸t triÓn mét lo¹i thuèc ngõa bÖnh ®ét quþ ë chuét. Hä cho biÕt lo¹i vaccine nµy còng cã thÓ ngõa c¸c ¶nh h-ëng gièng nh- c¬n ®ét quþ ë n·o gäi lµ chøng ®éng kinh. C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu t¹i Tr-êng §¹i häc Y Khoa
Jeferson ë Philadelphia, Pennylvania ®· c«ng bè kÕt qu¶ thÝ nghiÖm cña hä trªn tê b¸o “ Science ” (Khoa häc).
C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu ®· tiªm vaccine vµo 100 con chuét thÝ nghiÖm.
Mét th¸ng sau, hä tiªm thuèc ®éc vµo n·o cña chóng. Thuèc ®· gióp cho 70% sè chuét khái bÞ tæn th-¬ng n·o th-êng do hËu qu¶ cña chÊt ®éc g©y ra.
C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu còng tiªm vaccine vµo nhãm chuét thø hai. N¨m th¸ng sau, c¸c nhµ khoa häc g©y c¬n ®ét quþ ë nh÷ng con chuét nµy. Thuèc lµm gi¶m ®i sù tån t¹i ë n·o ®Õn 70%.
Theo c¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu th× vaccine ®· lµm cho hÖ miÔn nhiÔm b¶o vÖ n·o khái c¬n ®ét quþ vµ tæn th-¬ng, gièng nh- nã b¶o vÖ c¸c bé phËn kh¸c cña c¬ thÓ khái bÖnh tËt. Vaccine ngõa ®-îc bÖnh lµ do chóng t¹o ra mét d¹ng Protªin trong m¸u gäi lµ kh¸ng thÓ. C¸c kh¸ng thÓ nµy chèng l¹i sù nhiÔm trïng g©y ra bëi vi khuÈn vµ vi rót. Vaccine thö nghiÖm t¹o ra kh¸ng thÓ ng¨n chÆn c¸c ho¸ chÊt ë n·o lµm huû ho¹i tÕ b¹o thÇn kinh sau c¸c c¬n ®ét quþ hay tæn th-¬ng. C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu thuéc Tr-êng §¹i häc Jefferson dù ®Þnh tiÕn hµnh thö nghiÖm lo¹i vaccine nµy trªn nh÷ng ng-êi cã nguy c¬ bÞ
®ét quþ. NÕu vaccine tá ra an toµn vµ h÷u hiÖu th× nã cã thÓ ®-îc sö dông trong t-¬ng lai ®Ó b¶o vÖ ng-êi giµ khái bÞ tæn h¹i vÒ n·o v× c¸c c¬n ®ét quþ vµ ngay c¶ bÖnh Alzheimer (bÖnh mÊt trÝ nhí). HiÖn nay, lo¹i vaccine nµy còng ho¹t ®éng nh- c¸c lo¹i vaccine kh¸c. B¸c sÜ sÏ tiªm cho nh÷ng ai ®-îc chÈn ®o¸n cã nguy c¬ ®ét quþ vµ c¸c bÖnh kh¸c vÒ n·o. C¸c chÊt kh¸ng thÓ ph¸t triÓn trong m¸u. Khi c¬n ®ét quþ hay chÊn th-¬ng x¶y ra, c¸c kh¸ng thÓ ®i vµo n·o n¬i mµ cÇn chóng ®Ó ng¨n ngõa tæn th-¬ng. C¸c kh¸ng thÓ kh«ng
®i vµo n·o trõ phi c¬n ®ét quþ hay tæn th-¬ng x¶y ra.

C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu nãi r»ng cÇn ph¶I thùc hiÖn thªm nhiÒu cuéc nghiªn cøu vÒ lo¹i vaccine nµy h¬n n÷a tr-íc khi ®em ra sö dông réng r·i. Nh-ng c«ng viÖc Êy cã thÓ lµ b-íc ®Çu cho mét ph-¬ng ph¸p hoµn toµn míi mÎ ®Î trÞ c¸c bÖnh vÒ n·o.

Lesson 24:
Trong lÞch sö loµi ng-êi khoa häc ®-îc xem nh- cã sø mÖnh gi¶i phãng con ng-êi khái sù ngu dèt, sù mª tÝn, gi¶m ®ãi nghÌo vµ t¨ng tÇm hiÓu biÕt cña con ng-êi vÒ thÕ giíi.
Tê N. A ®· ca ngîi c¸c nhµ khoa truyÒn b¸ ¸nh s¸ng, nh÷ng ng-êi
®-êng cho con ng-êi chinh phôc nh÷ng ph¸t minh kh«ng t-ëng nh®· ®-îc dù b¸o tr-íc.
Nh÷ng ai quan t©m
®ang tr·i qua mét m¹ng nµy x¶y ra ? tr¶ lêi nh÷ng c©u
®©y thÕ tèc

häc cña thêi ®¹i ®ã lµ c¸c nhµ sÏ xua tan bãng ®ªm vµ më ra con thiªn nhiªn. Trong thêi kú ®ã, m¸y bay, tµu ngÇm vµ ®iÖn tho¹i

®Õn ngµnh c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh tin rµng chóng ta cuéc c¸ch m¹ng vÒ m¸y tÝnh. T¹i sao cuéc c¸ch
§iÒu nµy cã mang l¹i hËu qu¶ g× cho x· héi? §Ó hái nµy, cÇn phØa s¬ l-îc vÒ lÞch sö m¸y tÝnh.

tÝnh ®Çu tiªn -bµn tÝnh , do ng-êi
5000 n¨m lµ tiÒn th©n cña m¸y tÝnh kû thø 17, ë Ch©u ¢u ch-a cã g× cã
®é còng nh- ®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh

Trung Quèc ph¸t minh c¸ch hiÖn ®¹i sau nµy. Cho ®Õn thÓ s¸nh b»ng bµn tÝnh vÒ to¸n. M¸y tÝnh ®-îc ph¸t triÓn ®ång thêi ë §øc, Anh vµ Mü ®Ó t¨ng thªm tèc ®é còng nh- ®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n cÇn cho viÖc gi¶i m· th«ng ®iÖp cña kÎ thï.
Ngµy nay , nhiÒu c«ng viÖc trong c¸c kh©u s¶n xuÊt vµ dÞch vô do con ng-êi ®¶m tr¸ch cã thÓ ®-îc thùc hiÖn nhanh h¬n vµ Ýt tèn kÐm h¬n nhê sù trî gióp cña c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh vµ c¸c thiÕt bÞ ®-îc m¸y tÝnh kiÓm so¸t.
Ng-êi m¸y ®ang dÇn thay thÕ c«ng nh©n trong d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt nh- nhµ m¸y chÕ t¹o « t« Fiat cña ý vµ Nissan cña NhËt. Vµo n¨m
1980, 50 robot ®· ®-îc c¸c c«ng ty cña óc sö dông ch¼ng h¹n nhh·ng General Motors Ford, Nissan vµ Simpson Pope
C«ng ty nµo kh«ng sö dông c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh ®Òu kh«ng thÓ c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ ¸p dông c«ng nghÖ nµy. B»ng chøng lµ sù thÊt b¹i cña c«ng nghiÖp s¶n xuÊt ®ång hå Thuþ SÜ trong 2 n¨m võa qua do bÞ ®ång hå ®iÖn tö c¹nh tranh nªn ®· thÊt thu 200 triÖu ®« la mçi n¨m.


Cïng víi viÖc c¬ giíi ho¸ ë mét sè qui tr×nh s¶n xuÊt, b-íc ®Çu
®· g©y ra n¹n thÊt nghiÖp víi sè l-îng lín. Nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n lµnh nghÒ trong ngµnh tiÓu thñ c«ng nghiÖp vèn khan hiÕm tr-íc ®©y, nay bçng d-ng tù hä c¶m thÊy thõa d- vµ thiÕu kü n¨ng trong nÒn c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i.
Nh÷ng ý t-ëng khoa häc vÜ ®¹i nµy ®· ph¸t triÓn vµo thÕ kû 18 vµ
19. Cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp Anh vµo cuèi thÕ kû 18 cµng cñng cè niÒm tin vµo mét x· héi khoa häc kü thuËt mÆc dï lîi nhuËn x· héi thu vµo kh«ng bï ®-îc chi phÝ x· héi bá ra .
Nh÷ng ng-êi khëi x-íng ra viÖc dïng n¨ng l-îng nguyªn tö nhÊn m¹nh r»ng thÕ giíi nµy råi ®©y ch¾c c¾n sÏ trë thµnh mét thÕ giíi cña nguyªn tö. Ng-êi ta còng cho r»ng nh÷ng ng-êi chèng ®èi l¹i viÖc sö dông nguyªn tö ®ang chèng l¹i trµo l-u cña lÞch sö vµ cã mèi quan hÖ gÇn gòi víi dßng hä Luddites - vèn lµ nh÷ng ng-êi chñ tr-¬ng ®Ëp ph¸ m¸y mãc ngay tõ khi cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp b¾t

Suggested Translation :
In the human history, science has been seen as having a mission to liberate people from ignorance and superstition, to lessen human misery, and to increase human understanding of the world. The News Atlantic hailed the scientists of the time as merchants of light who would penetrate the darkness and open the way to man‟s control over nature. At that time, utopian invetions such as aircrafts, submarines, and telephones were foreseen.
People involved in the computer industry believe we are experiencing a computer revolution.
Why is this revolution occuring? What will be its social consequences? To answer these questions , it is necessary to consider briefly the history of computers.
The forerunner of modern computer goes back some 5000 years to the first calculating machine invented by the Chinese- the abacus. Until the 17th century, Europe had nothing to rival the abacus for speed and accuracy of calculation.
Computers were developed simultaneously in Germany, England and the USA to aid the speedy and accurate calculations necessary to decode the enemy‟s messages during World War II.
Many of the jobs now being performed by people in the manufacturing and service sectors of our economy can be done faster and more cheaply by modern computers or electronic devices controlled by computers.

Robot machines are replacing assembly line workers in manufacturing. They have already done so in the Fiat car factory in Italy and the Nissan car plant in Japan. By 1980, 50 robots were in use in Australia by companies such as General Motors, Ford, Nissan and Simpson Pope.
Firms that do not adopt the new computer technology are enable to compete with their cheaper electronic rivals. Such has been the fate of the $200 million a year Swiss watch industry, which was wiped out by electronic watches in a couple of years.
With the mechanization of some work processes, the new factories initially resulted in largescale structural unemployment. Previously, much sought-after, skilled, “cottage industry” artisans suddenly found themselves redundant and de-skilled by the new technology.
The heroic image of science grew through the 18th and 19th centuries. The Industrial Revolution, which started in England in the late 18th century, strongly reinforced faith in a technological society, although the social costs and benefits were far from equal share.
The nuclear energy proponents also pressed the theme that it was inevitable that the world would increasingly go nuclear. It is suggested that the opponents were standing against the tide of history and were akin to the Luddites at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, who broke machines. Lesson 25:
C¸c b¸c sÜ cho thÊy lÇn ®Çu tiªn hä cã thÓ t¸i t¹o c¸c hÖ miÔn nhiÔm cña nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ nhiÔm vi rót bÖnh AIDS b¨nge c¸ch ®ét ngét t¨ng sè l-îng tÕ bµo m¸u mµ vi rót HIV huû diÖt.
Trong lÜnh vùc ®µo t¹o y khoa, nh÷ng viÖc ®· n¨m qua ®-îc ®¸nh dÊu b»ng sù kiÖn næi bËt gia vÒ ®µo t¹o y khoa , nhiÒu tr-êng ®¹i häc vÊn ®Ò ph¶i xem xÐt l¹i néi dung ®µo t¹o ®éi

lµm ®-îc trong nh÷ng lµ viÖc nhiÒu chuyªn trªn thÕ giíi ®· dÆt ngò c¸n bé y tÕ .

Ng-êi thÇy thuèc ngµy nay nªn lµ ng-êi cña søc khoÎ . V× vËy ng-êi thÇy thuèc ®ã cÇn ph¶i biÕt ph¸t hiÖn , gi¶i quyÕt , phôc håi nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò søc khoÎ cña c¸ nh©n vµ céng ®ång.
Râ rµng r»ng mét th©n thÓ khoÎ m¹nh gióp cho mét t©m hån lµnh m¹nh, v× chÝnh nh÷ng t©m hån lµnh m¹nh ®iÒu khiÓn h-íng ®i cña hÖ thèng gi¸ trÞ. Mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh lµ mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh vÒ mÆt thÓ chÊt lÉn tinh thÇn.
Ngµy nay con ng-êi cã khuynh h-íng lo ©u vÒ søc khoÎ thÓ chÊt.
Tuy nhiªn t«i muèn nhÊn m¹nh tíi tÇm quan träng cña søc khoÎ t©m lý. M¹nh khoÎ vÒ mÆt tinh thÇn lµ rÊt quan träng vµ lµ mét ng-êi

51 thùc sù khoÎ m¹nh lµ ng-êi ®¹t ®-îc sù th¨ng b»ng hîp lý gi÷a thÓ chÊt vµ tinh thÇn.

Suggested Translation :
Doctors have shown for the first time they can rebuild the immune systems of people infected with the AIDS virus, dramatically increasing the blood cells that HIV destroys.
In the field of medicine training, what was done in the past years has been remarked by distinguished fact that many specialists and medical colleges in different countries set forth the necessity for reconsidering training subjects for health workers.
Today, the physicians should be considered as men of health. Hence, the responsibility of the physicians is to know how to discover, cure, and rehabilitate the health of the individuals and the community. It is obvious that a healthy body helps a sound mind because it is the sound minds that direct the orientation of the values systems. A healthy man should be healthy not only physically but also mentally. Nowadays people are inclined to worry too much about their physical health. However, I would like to lay stress on the importance of psychological health. Being mentally healthy is very important, and a truly healthy man is one who can enjoy the proper equilibrium between his body and mind.

Lesson 26:
Passage 1:
§a sè nhiÒu ng-êi cho r»ng n¹n nh©n m·n lµ mét vÊn ®Ò. Ýt ra th× nã còng lµ mét vÊn ®Ò r¾c rèi cho t-¬ng lai. Tuy nhiªn ch-a cã cuéc ®iÒu tra lµ cã thÓ vµ nªn lµm c¸i g×. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ ng-êi ta kh«ng thÓ ®ång ý vÒ viÖc ph¶i lµm g×. NhiÒu ng-êi nghÜ r»ng mçi cÆp vî chång nªn tù quyÕt ®Þnh lµ cã bao nhiªu con. Hä nghÜ r»ng chÝnh phñ kh«ng nªn can thiÖp vµo. Tuy nhiªn nhiÒu ng-êi nghÜ r»ng chÝnh phñ kh«ng nªn can thiÖp vµo. Tuy nhiªn nhiÒu ng-êi l¹i nghÜ r»ng chÝnh phñ ph¶i quan t©m ®Õn vÊn ®Ò nh©n m·n. h·y ®Ó vÊn ®Ò kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cho tõng c¸ nh©n lo liÖu
§a sè nh÷ng ng-êi trªn thÕ giíi nghÜ r»ng viÖc kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia
®×nh nªn lµ sù lùa chän cña c¸ nh©n. Nãi c¸ch kh¸c, hä nghÜ r»ng ng-êi d©n nªn quyÕt ®Þnh lµ sinh bao nhiªu con mµ kh«ng cÇn ph¶i lµm theo lêi khuyªn hay lµ sù chØ ®¹o cña chÝnh phñ. NhiÒu ng-êi ñng hé ®iÒu nµy lµ v× lý do t«n gi¸o.

Nh÷ng ng-êi kh¸c th× l¹ ph¶n ®èi viÖc can thiÖp cña chÝnh phñ hay mét tæ chøc t«n gi¸o nµo vµ hä muèn tù do quyÕt ®Þnh lÊy nh÷ng viÖc cña m×nh.
T¹i sao chÝnh phñ nªn kiÓm so¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia
®×nh? NhiÒu ng-êi cho r»ng kh«ng cã mét gi¶i ph¸p kh¶ thi nµo kh¸c v× ng-êi d©n sÏ tiÕp tôc muèn cã qu¸ nhiÒu con c¸i. Hä kh«ng thÓ h¹n chÕ lµ chØ cã 1 hoÆc 2 con. Trong qu¸ khø hä kh«ng h¹n chÕ ®-îc th× cí sao hä cã thÓ h¹n chÕ d-îc trong t-¬ng lai? Rñi thay, hä l¹i cho r»ng viÖc ®Ó cho c¸ nh©n tù quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh th× kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®-îc. Theo nh÷ng ng-êi nµy th× viÖc lùa chän duy nhÊt lµ ®Ó nhµ n-íc ®ãng mét vai trß tÝch cùc trong viÖc kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh.
ChÝnh phñ nªn lµm g× trong vÊn ®Ò nµy? §©y lµ vÊn ®Ò ®ang cßn tranh c¶i. Ng-êi ta kh«ng ®ång ý lµ chÝnh phñ nªn dÝnh lÝu thÕ nµo. ChÝnh phñ cã nªn nãi chÝnh x¸c lµ mét gia ®×nh nªn cã mÊy con kh«ng? ( Th-êng th× 1 hoÆc 2) ChÝnh phñ cã nªn buéc hä ph¶i giíi h¹n ®Õn con sè nµy kh«ng? Lµm thÕ nµo ®Ó chÝnh phñ thùc hiÖn chÝnh s¸ch h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î nh- thÕ? Bè mÑ cña c¸c gia ®×nh ®«ng con kh«ng thÓ h-ëng lîi vÒ c¸c kho¶n häc phÝ cho con c¸i còng nhb¶o hiÓm y tÕ cña ChÝnh phñ. HoÆc lµ chÝnh phñ cã thÓ ph¹t nh÷ng bè mÑ nµy. Nãi c¸ch kh¸c, bã mÑ cña nh÷ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con ph¶i nép ph¹t mät kho¶n tiÒn nµo ®ã cho chÝnh phñ.
Mét kiÕn hoµn toµn tr¸i ng-îc kh¸c cho r»ng chÝnh phñ chØ nªn ®-a ra nh÷ng thuËn lîi cña nh÷ng gia ®×nh Ýt con vµ nh÷ng bÊt lîi cña gia ®×nh ®«ng con.. Hä cho r»ng ng-êi d©n ®ñ th«ng minh ®Ó lµm ®iÒu tèt nhÊt mµ khong cÇn sù kiÓm so¸t hay can thiÖp nµo cña chÝnh phñ. Nh-ng ®©y l¹i lµ mät r¾c rèi thùc sù. NhiÒu ng-êi tin r»ng chØ cã gia ®×nh ®«ng con míi cã thÓ ®¶m b¶o cuéc sèng cña hä trong t-¬ng lai. Hä kh«ng cßn sù lùa chän nµo kh¸c. Tr-íc hÕt chÝnh phñ ph¶i chØ cho hä kÕ ho¹ch b¶o ®¶m an sinh cho tuæi giµ.
ChÝnh phñ ph¶i b¶o ®¶m cho hä vÊn ®Ò an sinh x· héi vµ trî cÊp y tÕ. Tõ ®ã hä cã thÓ chØ sinh Ýt con.
Passage 2 :
Nh©n d©n thÕ giíi d¸nh gi¸ cao nÒn gi¸o dôc bëi lÏ mét nÒn gi¸o dôc tèt mang l¹i mét cuéc sèng tèt h¬n. Mäi ng-êi ®Òu ®ång ý víi
®iÒu nµy. Tuy nhiªn d©n ë c¸c n-íc kh¸c nhau muèn tr-êng häc ph¶i d¹y c¸c ®iÒu kh¸c nhau. Mçi nÒn v¨n hãa cã nh÷ng gi¸ trÞ riªng cña nã, vµ ng-êi d©n muèn tr-êng cña hä d¹y nh÷ng gi¸ trÞ v¨n hãa cña hä.

Chóng ta muèn nãi “ nh†ng gi¸ trÞ ®ã ” lµ g×? Gi¸ trÞ lµ nh†ng
®iÒu mµ ng-êi d©n nghÜ lµ tèt vµ quan träng trong nÒn v¨n hãa cña hä. VÝ dô nh- nÒn v¨n hãa cña b¹n ®Ò cao viÖc lµm viÖc ch¨m chØ.
§iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ ë nÒn v¨n hãa cña b¹n lµm viÖc ch¨m chØ lµ quan träng, vµ ng-êi d©n ®¸nh gi¸ cao sù lµm viÖc ch¨m chØ th× quan träng h¬n c¸c ®øc tÝnh kh¸c. HoÆc gi¶ nÒn v¨n hãa cña b¹n
®¸nh gi¸ cao nhÊt lµ tÝnh thËt thµ. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ nãi thËt lµ quan träng. Vµ nÕu khi nµo còng nãi thËt th× cã thÓ g©y ra nh÷ng r¾c rèi. TÊt c¶ chóng ta ®Òu biÕt ®iÒu ®ã.
Mét vµi gi¸ trÞ v¨n hãa gièng nhau lµ quan träng nh- nhau ë nh÷ng nÒn v¨n hãa kh¸c nhau. Tuy nhiªn cã nhiÒu ®iÓm kh¸c nhau gi÷a nh÷ng nÒn v¨n hãa kh¸c nhau. Trong mét nÒn v¨n hãa, tr-êng häc th-êng d¹y nh÷ng gi¸ trÞ cña nÒn v¨n hãa ®ã. Hay nãi c¸ch kh¸c häc sinh häc nh÷ng gi¸ trÞ v¨n hãa cña ®Êt n-íc chóng t¹i tr-êng.
Mü lµ mét n-íc d©n chñ. Mäi c«ng dan Mü ®Òu cã c¬ héi h-ëng gi¸o dôc miÔn phÝ. ChÝnh phñ liªn bang, bang vµ chÝnh quyÒn ®Þa ph-¬ng tr¶ tiÒn cho c¸c tr-êng c«ng. Mäi c«ng d©n dï giµu hay nghÌo ®Òu cã thÓ ®i häc. Còng cã c¸c tr-êng t- thôc. Häc sinh ë tr-êng tthôc ph¶i ®ãng häc phÝ. Nhµ n-íc kh«ng tr¶ tiÒn cho c¸c häc sinh häc ë c¸c tr-êng t- thôc.
Mét vµi ng-êi cho r»ng tr-êng häc ë Mü cè g¾ng lµm qu¸ nhiÒu ®iÒu cho qu¸ nhiÒu ng-êi. Hä nãi r»ng gi¸o dôc tèt cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng-êi th× kh«ng thÓ ®-îc. Hä nghÜ r»ng nÒn gi¸o dôc Mü nÒn gi¸o dôc chØ nªn d¹y cho nh÷ng ng-êi th«ng minh nhÊt trong x· héi.
Thay v× ®ã th× nÒn gi¸o dôc Mü l¹i dµnh cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng-êi.
Tuy nhiªn, ®a sè ng-êi Mü muèn mäi ng-êi ph¶i cã c¬ héi ®i häc.
Gi¸o dôc cho mäi ng-êi trong mét n-íc d©n chñ lµ rÊt quan träng.
Trong mét n-íc d©n chñ, ng-êi d©n chän nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o chÝnh phñ cña hä. Hä cÇn cã kh¶ n¨ng lùa chän s¸ng suèt. Hä cÇn ph¶i
®-îc ®µo t¹o kü l-ìng ®Ó trë thµnh nh÷ng c«ng d©n tèt trong n-íc d©n chñ.
Tr-êng TiÓu häc : §a sè trÎ con ë Mü b¾t ®Çu ®i häc lóc 5 tuæi.
Chóng häc ë líp vë lßng ( mÉu gi¸o) mét n¨m vµ sau ®ã b¾t ®Çu häc líp 1 lóc 6 tuæi. CÊp häc ®Çu tiªn lµ tr-êng tiÓu häc hay cßn gäi lµ tr-êng cÊp 1. TrÎ con Mü th-êng b¾t ®Çu häc ®äc khi c¸c em häc líp 1 vµ líp 2. C¸c em còng b¾t ®Çu häc sè häc, khoa häc th-êng thøc vµ lÞch sö.
Tr-êng trung häc c¬ së: Sau khi häc xong tiÓu häc c¸c em lªn häc ë bËc trung häc c¬ së ( ®«i khi cßn gäi lµ tr-êng cÊp hai). Trong phÇn lín c¸c tr-êng trung häc c¬ së bao gåm líp 7, líp 8 vµ líp

9. Nh-ng ®«i khi cã tr-êng chØ bao gåm líp 8 vµ líp 9. Häc sinh phæ th«ng c¬ së th-êng tõ 12 ®Õn 14 tuæi.
Tr-êng Trung häc phæ th«ng: Sau khi häc xong phæ th«ng c¬ së th× häc sinh häc tiÕp tr-êng phæ th«ng trung häc ( gåm líp 10, 11 vµ12). Häc sinh tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng trung häc ë ®é tuæi 17 hoÆc
18. Cã nhiÒu lo¹i tr-êng phæ th«ng trung häc kh¸c nhau. Mét vµi tr-êng phæ th«ng trung häc chuÈn bÞ cho häc sinh vµo ®¹i häc. C¸c tr-êng phæ th«ng trung häc kh¸c chuÈn bÞ cho häc sinh c¸c nghÒ kh¸c nhau ( tr-êng trung häc d¹y nghÒ). NhiÒu tr-êng trung häc phæ th«ng c¶ d¹y nghÒ lÉn chuÈn bÞ kiÕn thøc cho häc sinh vµo c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc.
Gi¸o dôc ®¹i häc : Sau khi häc sinh tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng trung häc c¸c em cã thÓ häc tiÕp ë c¸c tr-êng cao ®¼ng hoÆc ®¹i häc.
Cã h¬n 3000 tr-êng cao ®¼ng vµ ®¹i häc ë Mü. Tr-êng cao ®¼ng vµ
®¹i häc t- ë Mü cã møc häc phÝ rÊt cao, nh-ng ®a sè tr-êng ®¹i häc c«ng lËp th× møc häc phÝ rÊt thÊp. ViÖc hæ trî vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh (do chÝnh phñ hæ trî ) th-êng nh»m gióp sinh viªn tr¶ mét phÇn häc phÝ. C¸c h×nh thøc gi¸o dôc ®¹i häc lu«n ®¸p øng nguyÖn väng cho häc sinh tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng trung häc.

Suggested Translation :
Passage 1:
Most people admit that overpopulation is a big problem. At least, it is going to be a big problem in the future. But there is no consensus about what can and should be done. This means that people cannot agree on what to do. Some people think that each couple should decide how many children to have. They think the government should not interfere. Other people, however, think that the government must take care of the overpopulation problem.
Most people around the world think family planning should be a personal choice. In other words, they think people should decide how many children to have without any advice or control by the government. Some people feel this way because of religious reasons.
Others object to having government or religious leaders involved in family planning and population control. They want the freedom to make their own personal decisions.
Why should the government control population planning? Many people say there is no other realistic possibility because people will continue to have too many children. They will not limit themselves to just one or two children. They have not limited themselves in the past. Why should they limit themselves in the future? Unfortunately, they say, it does not work to leave family planning completely up to individuals. The only choice, according to these people, is for the government to take an active role in population planning. What role should government play?
This is a very controversial issue. People do not agree on how governments should be involved.


Should governments tell people exactly how many children they can have (usually one or two)?
Should they force people to limit themselves to this number? How could the government enforce such population control policies? The government could not give benefits (free education, health care, etc.) to parents of larger families. Or it could fine the parents. In other words, parents of larger families would have to pay some money to the government.
At the other extreme, many people think governments should only try to show people the advantages of small families and the disadvantages of large families. They say, "People are intelligent enough to do the best thing with no government control or interference." But this may be the real problem. Many people believe a large family is the only way to have good care in the future. They may have no other choice. First, governments must offer people other ways of planning for security in their old age. They must give them social security and health benefits.
Then, people may want to have small families.
Passage 2:
People all around the world value education because a good education means a better life.
Everyone agrees with that. However, people in different countries want their schools to teach different things. Each culture has its own values, and people want their schools to teach the values of their culture.
What do we mean by "values"? "Values" are people's ideas of the good and important things in their culture. For example, your culture may value hard work. That means in your culture, it is important to work hard, and people value hard work more than many other qualities. Or perhaps your culture values honesty above all. That means it is important to tell the truth. And telling the truth all the time may cause some difficulties. We all know that!
Some of the same values are important in different cultures. There are, however, many differences between cultural groups. Within each culture, schools usually teach the values of that culture. In other words, children learn the cultural values of their country in school.
The United States is a democracy. Everyone in the United States has the opportunity to have free education. Local, state, and federal governments pay for the public schools. Everyone, rich or poor, can go to school. There are also many private schools. People in private schools have to pay tuition. The state does not pay for private education.
Some people say that American schools try to do too much for too many people. It is impossible, they say, to give a good education to everyone. The American educational system, they think, should educate only the most intelligent people in the society. Instead, it tries to educate everyone. 56
However, most Americans want everyone to have a chance to go to school. It is important for a democratic country to have educated people. In a democracy, people choose their government's leaders. They need to be able to think clearly to make these choices. They need a good education to be good citizens in a democracy.
Elementary school: Most children in the United States start school when they are five years old.
They go to kindergarten for a year and then start first grade when they are six. The first school is called "elementary school," or "grade school." American children usually start to read when they are in the first and second grade. They also begin to learn arithmetic and simple science and history. Junior high school: After elementary school, children go to "junior high school" (sometimes it is called "middle school"). In most school systems, junior high school includes seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, but sometimes it is only the seventh and eighth grades. Junior high school students are usually 12 to 14 years old.
High school: High school (grades 10, 11, and 12) comes after junior high school. Students usually graduate from high school when they are 17 or 18. There are different kinds of high schools. Some high schools prepare students to go to college (college preparatory high schools).
Other high schools prepare students for various kinds of work (vocational high schools). Many high schools have both college preparatory courses and vocational courses.
Higher education: When students graduate from high school, they may go on to college or a university. There are more than 3,000 colleges and universities in the United States. Some private colleges and universities are very expensive, but most state universities cost very little. Financial aid (money from the government) is often available to help students pay at least part of their tuition. Some form of higher education is available to every high school graduate.

Lesson 27:
Passage 1:


Last month, American agents seized 1 more than two million tablets of the illegal drug known as
Ecstasy in a raid 2 in the state of California. Federal officials say it was the biggest seizure of the drug in the United Sates. The tablets were seized at Los Angeles International Airport after they arrived on an airplane a market value of about forty million dollars.
Experts say the number of Americans using Ecstasy has risen sharply in recent years. Federal agents have seized about eight million tablets in the past ten months. They say the drug is produced in European laboratories, mainly in The Netherlands.


Ecstasy is not a new drug. A company in Germany fist developed the drug also know as M-D-MA in Nineteen-Twelve. American drug Enforcement Administration officials say a small number of American doctors gave the drug to patients with emotional 3 problems in the late NineteenSeventies. However, the drug was declared illegal in the United States in Nineteen-Eight-Five.
Federal officials say the drug has no accepted medical use. Illegal use of the drug becomes common about ten years ago. Ecstasy has gained popularity among young people who attend nightclubs and all-night dance parties known as raves 4. The drug causes a chemical reaction in the brain. Users of the drug say it makes them feel happy and calm. It also increases good feelings for other people. D-E-A officials say Ecstasy is often taken in combination with other drugs. Ecstasy is said to suppress 5 the need to eat, drink or sleep. As a result, users of the drug may not get enough to drink or become extremely tired.
D-E-A officials say Ecstasy may cause serious side effects. These include increases in body temperature, muscle tension 6, shaking and weakened eyesight. The drug also may cause increase in heart rare and blood pressure.
American officials say scientists are just beginning to study the effects of long-term Ecstasy use.
In one study, scientists found that repeated use of the drug caused brain damage. Another study found that people who use Ecstasy had memory problems that last for weeks after they stopped talking the drug. Both studies suggest that the amount of damage is direct linked to how much of the drug is used.

1.seize (v):

b¾t gi÷


raid (n):

cuéc ruång bè


emotional (adj):


rave (n):


suppress (n):


tension (n): t×nh tr¹ng c¨ng th¼ng, mÖt mái

thuéc vÒ c¶m xóc

cuéc liªn hoan ngÆn chÆn, chÊm døt

Suggested Translation :


C¸c chuyªn gia cho biÕt sè ng-êi Mü sö dông Ecstasy t¨ng ®¸ng kÓ trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y. C¶nh s¸t Liªn Bang ®· b¾t gi÷ kho¶ng 8 triÖu viªn thuèc trong 10 th¸ng qua, Hä cho biÕt lo¹i thuèc nµy
®-îc s¶n xuÊt ë c¸c c«ng ty d-îc phÈm Ch©u ¢u, chñ yÕu lµ ë Hµ
Ecstasy kh«ng ph¶i lµ lo¹i thuèc t©n d-îc. Mét c«ng ty ë §øc lÇn
®Çu tiªn s¶n xuÊt ra lo¹i thuèc nµy d-íi c¸I tªn M-D-M-A vµo n¨m
1912. C¸c quan chøc côc qu¶n lý d-îc Hoa Kú cho biÕt mét sè Ýt b¸c sü ë ®©y ®· dïng thuèc nµy cho c¸c bÖnh nh©n cã vÊn ®Ò vÒ t©m lý vµo cuèi nh÷ng n¨m 1970. Tuy nhiªn, lo¹i thuèc nµy ®· bÞ cÊm sö dông ë Hoa Kú vµo n¨m 1985.
C¸c quan chøc Liªn Bang cho biÕt lo¹i thuèc nµy kh«ng ®-îc phÐp sö dông trong y häc. Tuy nhiªn, sù sö dông tr¸i phÐp lo¹i thuèc nµy ®· trë nªn phæ biÕn c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m. Ecstasy ®-îc sö dông phæ biÕn trong giíi trÎ mµ th-êng tham gia c¸c hép ®ªm vµ c¸c buæi tiÖc khiªu vò th©u ®ªm nh- liªn hoan ch¼ng h¹n. Lo¹i thuèc nµy g©y ra mét ph¶n øng ho¸ häc trong n·o. Nh÷ng ng-êi sö dông thuèc nãi r»ng thuèc t¹o cho hä c¶m gi¸c sung s-íng vµ tØnh t¸o. Nã cßn g©y ra ng÷ng c¶m gi¸c dÔ chÞu cho ng-êi kh¸c. C¸c quan chøc Côc qu¶n lý d-îc phÈm DEA cho biÕt lo¹i Ecstasy nµy th-êng ®-îc sö dông chung víi c¸c lo¹i thuèc kh¸c.
Ng-êi ta cho r»ng Ecstasy g©y biÕng ¨n, biÕng uèng vµ biÕng ngñ.
KÕt qu¶ lµ ng-êi sö dông thuèc lu«n c¶m thÊy kh¸c hoÆc trë nªn mÖt mái kinh khñng.
Theo c¸c quan chøc Côc qu¶n lý d-îc phÈm DEA th× Ecstasy cã thÓ g©y nªn nh÷ng t¸c dông phô nguy hiÓm. Nh÷ng t¸c dông phô nµy gåm sèt cao, mái c¬ b¾p, yÕu mê thÞ lùc. Thuèc cßn lµm t¨ng nhÞp tim vµ huyÕt ¸p.
C¸c quan chøc Hoa Kú cho biÕt c¸c nhµ khoa häc võa míi b¾t ®Çu nghiªn cøu nh÷ng t¸c dông phô khi dïng Ecstasy trong thêi gian dµi. Trong mét nghiªn cøu, c¸c nhµ khoa häc ph¸t hiÖn r»ng nÕu dïng thuèc Ecstasy liªn tôc sÏ g©y bÖnh ë n·o. Mét nghiªn cøu kh¸c cho thÊy ng-êi sö dông Ecstasy sÏ bÞ rèi lo¹n trÝ nhí sau khi ®· nghÜ dïng thuèc vµI tuÇn. C¶ hai nghiªn cøu ®Òu cho r»ng

59 møc ®é nguy h¹i ¶nh h-ëng trùc tiÕp lªn ng-êi sö dông tuú thuéc vµo hµm l-îng thuèc ®-îc sö dông.
Passage 2:


Our program is about the Sun and how activity on it called sunspots can affect us. Before we continue, however, we must warn you not to look directly at the Sun in an effort to see what is happening. Looking directly at the Sun can cause severe damage to the eyes, including blindness.
Special equipment is needed to safely see sun- spots.
Our Sun is a ball of gases at the center of our solar system 1. It is the largest object in the system.
It includes about 98% of all matter in our solar system. The Sun is large enough to hold inside of it more than one million planets the side of Earth.
The distance from the Earth to the Sun is one hundred fifty million kilometers. Even at this great distance, the Sun‟s heat is felt in all areas of the Earth. Such heat is created by solar energy. Solar energy comes from the deep inside the Sun. In the center of the Sun, the temperature and pressure are so great that nuclear reactions 2 take place. These nuclear reactions produce great amounts of energy. The energy is carried to the surface of the Sun where it becomes light and heat. Energy produced in the center of the Sun takes a million years to reach its surface. Without the continuing heat the Sun, all life on the Earth would quickly die.

A number of events take place on and above the surface of the Sun. Violent events are called solar storms. Solar storms usually take place above areas called sunspots. The sunspots appear black when they are seen though special devices that permits scientists to safely look at the Sun.
Some solar storms are seen as bright explosions 3 of light that release 4 huge amount of the Sun‟s energy. Others create huge amount of gas that reach far into space and then return to the surface of the Sun. Solar storms also create coronal 5 mass ejections. Huge amount of energy are released far into space. All of these events are part of solar activity.
Most solar activities take place when an area of the Sun begins to cool. Normal temperature on the surface is about six thousand degrees Celsius. The cooler areas are about four thousand degrees Celsius.
These cool areas fist appear as dark spots near the northern part of the Sun. Some of these spots move slowly down. Others are large for a few days, and then break apart into several smaller spots. All the spots slowly move toward the center of the Sun‟s equator 6.
Scientists say sunspots are caused by magnetic 7activity. They say sunspots can be measured in periods of time that average eleven years. At the moment, magnetic activity on the Sun is greatly increased. Increased sunspot activity is a result. For the next year or so, the Sun is expected to produce the most spots of this eleven- year- period.
Several kinds of communication and electric power interference 8 are caused by a solar activity that is linked to sunspots. This activity is coronal mass ejection. The Sun expels 9 a huge amount of energy. It causes greatly increased magnetic activity in space that can interference with short ware broadcasts or damage satellites. And it can interference with electric power.
Scientists say our solar system needs sun sports to keep our weather normal. They say the sun could be the cause of extremely cold winters if there is no sun sport activity. This program is called the Maunder Minimum. It is named for British scientists E_W Maunder. Scientists say the first recorded Maunder Minimum is believed to have happened between Sixteen-Forty-Five and
Seventeen-Fifteen in the northern part of the world. Scientists call this time the “Little Ice Age”.
The northern areas experienced 10 extremely cold winters during this period. At the same time, few sun sports were observed.

1. Solar system: hÖ mÆt trêi
2. nuclear reaction : ph¶n øng h¹y nh©n

3. explosion (n): sù næ
4. release (v): tho¸t
5. coronal (a): thuéc vÇng quang
6. equator (n): xÝch ®¹o
7. magnetic (n): tõ tr-êng
8. interference (n): sù nhiÔu sãng
9. expel (v): to¶ ra
10 experience (v): tr¶I qua

Suggested Translation :

Ch-¬ng tr×nh cña chóng t«i nãi vÒ mÆt trêi vµ t¸c dông cua nh÷ng
“ v Õt ®en mÆt trêi ” -tøc nh÷ng ho¹t ®éng trªn bÒ mÆt cña nã- ®èi víi chóng ta. Tr-íc khi tiÕp tôc th× dï sao chóng ta còng c¶nh b¸o c¸c b¹n ®õng bao giê nh×n th¼ng vµo mÆt trêi nh»m t×m hiÓu
®iÒu g× ®ang x¶y ra, v× viÖc nµy cã thÓ g©y ra nh÷ng tæn th-¬ng nghiªm träng cho c¬ quan thÞ gi¸c, kÓ c¶ mï loµ. NÕu cã dông cô an toµn, b¹n míi cã thÓ xem c¸c “ v Õt ®en mÆt trêi ” .
MÆt trêi cña chóng ta lµ mét qu¶ cÇu khÝ t¹i trung t©m vµ còng lµ mét vËt thÓ lín nhÊt, bao gåm kho¶ng 98% toµn bé l-îng vËt chÊt trong Th¸i D-¬ng hÖ. MÆt trêi ®ñ lín ®Ó chøa trong nã h¬n mét triÖu hµnh tinh cã kÝch th-íc nh- Tr¸i §Êt.
Kho¶ng c¸ch tõ Tr¸i §Êt ®Õn MÆt Trêi lµ 150 triÖu km. Ngay c¶ víi kho¶ng c¸ch nµy th× søc nãng cña MÆt Trêi vÉn ®-îc c¶m nhËn trªn kh¾p Tr¸i §Êt. T¹i trung t©m MÆt Trêi th× nhiÖt ®é vµ ¸p suÊt lªn cao ®Õn møc c¸c ph¶n øng nguyªn tö x¶y ra. Nh÷ng ph¶n øng nµy t¹o ra mét l-îng n¨ng l-îng khæng lå, thãat ra bÒ mÆt cña MÆt Trêi d-íi d¹ng ¸nh s¸ng vµ nhiÖt. N¨ng l-îng ®-îc s¶n sinh t¹i trung t©m míi hµng triÖu n¨m míi tho¸t ra ®Ðn bÒ mÆt. Kh«ng cã søc nãng liªn tôc cña MÆt Trêi th× toµn bé sù sèng trªn Tr¸I §Êt sÏ nhanh chãng biÕn mÊt.
NhiÒu sù kiÖn x¶y ra trªn vµ t¹i bÒ mÆt cña MÆt Trêi, trong ®ã nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn cã t¸c ®éng m¹nh ®-îc gäi lµ B·o MÆt Trêi. B·o

MÆt Trêi th­êng x¶y ra trªn nh†ng khu vùc cã tªn “ vÕt ®en mÆt trêi ” . “ VÕt ®en mÆt trêi ” lµ nh÷ng vÖt mµu ®en mµ c¸c nhµ khoa häc nh×n thÊy khi quan s¸t MÆt Trêi b»ng c¸c dông cô ®¶m b¶o an toµn. Mét sè c¬n b·o mÆt trêi ®-îc nh×n thÊy nh- nh÷ng vô næ chãi loµ to¶ ra mét l-îng n¨ng l-îng khæng lå. Sè kh¸c l¹i t¹o ra mét l-îng khÝ lín vµo tËn kh«ng gian vµ sau ®ã quay trë l¹i bÒ mÆt cña nã. B·o mÆt trêi còng t¹o ra c¸c vô phón xuÊt vËt chÊt bªn vµnh ®ai MÆt Trêi. Mét l-îng n¨ng l-îng khæng lå ®-îc to¶ vµo kh«ng gian. TÊt c¶ nh÷ng sù kiÖn nµy lµ mét phÇn ho¹t ®éng cña
MÆt Trêi.
PhÇn lín c¸c ho¹t ®éng x¶y ra khi mét vïng MÆt Trêi b¾t ®Çu l¹nh.NhiÖt ®é th«ng th-êng trªn bÒ mÆt lµ kho¶ng 60000C. C¸c khu vùc l¹nh h¬n th× kho¶ng 40000C.
Nh÷ng vïng l¹nh nµy ®Çu tiªn xuÊt hiÖn nh- nh÷ng vÖt ®en gÇn phÝa b¾c MÆt Trêi. Mét sè lan tõ tõ xuèng d-íi. Sè kh¸c cã kÝch th-íc lín trong vµi ngµy ®Çu, råi sau ®ã vì thµnh nh÷ng vÖt nhá h¬n.
TÊt c¶ nh÷ng vÖt nµy tõ tõ di chuyÓn vµo trung t©m cña ®-êng xÝch
®¹o MÆt Trêi.
C¸c nhµ khoa häc cho hay vÕt ®en mÆt trêi do ho¹t ®éng tõ tÝnh g©y ra vµ ho¹t ®éng cña vÕt ®en mÆt trêi cã thÓ ®-îc ®o ®¹c trong kho¶ng thêi gian trung b×nh lµ 11 n¨m. HiÖn nay, ho¹t ®éng tõ tÝnh trªn MÆt Trêi ®ang gia t¨ng m¹nh. Ng-êi ta cho r»ng vµo kho¶ng n¨m tíi, MÆt Trêi sÏ s¶n sinh nhiÒu vÕt ®en nhÊt trong chu kú 11 n¨m.
NhiÒu sù kiÖn nhiÔu sang liªn l¹c vµ ®iÖn n¨ng lµ kÕt qu¶ cña ho¹t ®éng MÆt Trêi cã liªn quan ®Õn c¸c vÕt ®en. Ho¹t ®éng nµy
®-îc coi lµ sù phón xuÊt vËt chÊt trªn vµnh ®ai MÆt Trêi. MÆt
Trêi phãng ra rÊt nhiÒu n¨ng l-îng g©y ra c¸c ho¹t ®éng tõ tÝnh m¹nh mÏ trong kh«ng gian.C¸c ho¹t ®éng nµy g©y nhiÔu c¸c cuéc ph¸t sang ng¾n hoÆc huû ho¹i c¸c vÖ tinh. Nã còng g©y nhiÔu ®iÖn.
C¸c nhµ khoa häc cho biÕt Th¸I D-¬ng hÖ cÇn cã vÕt ®en mÆt trêi
®Ó gi÷ ®IÒu kiÖn thêi tiÕt b×nh th-êng. Hä nãi r»ng MÆt Trêi cã

63 thÓ lµ nguyªn nh©n g©y ra nh÷ng mïa ®«ng l¹nh gi¸ khi kh«ng cã sù ho¹t ®éng cña c¸c vÕt ®en. VÊn ®Ò nµy ®-îc gäi lµ hiÖn t-îng
Maunder Minimum_theo tªn nhµ khoa häc ng-êi Anh. C¸c nhµ khoa häc cho r»ng hiÖn t-îng Maunder Minimum ®-îc chøng kiÕn ®Çu tiªn vµo kho¶ng 1645 vµ 1715 ë phÝa b¾c b¸n cÇu. Hä gäi thêi kú nµy lµ
“ T hêi kú b¨ng hµ t¹m thêi ” . Trong suèt thêi kú nµy, phÇn b¾c b¸n cÇu ®· tr¶I qua nh÷ng mïa ®«ng l¹nh gi¸ vµ lóc ®ã cã Ýt vÕt
®en mÆt trêi ®-îc quan s¸t.

Lesson 28:


H«m nay chóng t«i sÏ ®Ò cËp ®Õn mét thiÕt bÞ nhá mµ b¹n cã thÓ n¾m gän trong lßng bµn tay. Nã gióp t×m ®-êng ®i xuyªn qua c¸c ngän nói,sa m¹c, ®¹i d-¬ng mµ sÏ ch¼ng bao giê b¹n bÞ l¹c c¶.
Trë l¹i thêi ®IÓm ngµy 27 th¸ng S¸u n¨m 1851. Chóng ta ®ang trªn con tµu mang tªn „Flying Cloud‟ trong vïng bieenrDDaij T©y D­¬ng, thuyÒn tr-ëng cña tµu lóc bÊy giê lµ Josiah Cressy.
So víi hiÖn nay, chuyÕn ®i cña thuyÒn tr-ëng Cressy thùc sù lµ mét cuéc du hµnh vÜ ®¹i víi tèc ®é nhanh ch-a tõng cã.
H«m nay chóng t«I xin kÓ vÒ mét vïng ®Êt nhá n»m ë cuèi trêi Nam
Ch©u Mü. Suèt mÊy ngµy trêi, thêi tiÕt v« cïng kh¾c nghiÖt.
ThuyÒn truyÓn tr-ëng kh«ng thÓ x¸c ®Þnh ®-îc vÞ trÝ con tµu.
Ng-êi chÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm h-¬ns dÉn con tµu ph¶i nh×n thÊy mÆt trêi hoÆc mét ng«i sao nµo ®ã ®Ó ®Þnh vÞ nã, thêi tiÕt b·o ®· c¶n trë
®iÒu nµy trong suèt mÊy ngµy liÒn.
Ng-êi ®-a ra h-íng dÉn cho chuyÕn ®i th«ng th-êng vÉn lµ thuyÒn tr-ëng. Tuy nhiªn trªn tµu Flying Cluod th× phu nh©n cña thuyÒn tr-ëng l¹i ®¶m nhiÖm c«ng viÖc nµy.
Tªn bµ lµ Eleanor Cressy. Bµ lµ mét nhµ th¸m hiÓm ®¹i d-¬ng cã tiÕng. Bµ ®-a ra kÕ ho¹ch cho chuyÕn ®i nµy lµ xuyªn qua vïng biÓn ®Çy hiÓm trë gÇn mòi Horn. §©y lµ khu vùc cã nhiÒu ®¶o nhá vµ ®¸ ngÇm. §Ó h-íng dÉn tµu ®i mét c¸ch an toµn, bµ ph¶i lu«n
®Þnh ®-îc vÞ trÝ cña con tµu.

Eleanor Cressy ph¶i ¸p dông ph­¬ng ph¸p mang tªn
“ Dead
Reckoning ” v× bµ kh«ng thÓ nh×n thÊy ¸nh s¸ng mÆt trêi ®Ó x¸c
®Þng vÞ trÝ con tµu mét c¸ch chÝnh x¸c. §©y lµ ph-¬ng ph¸p rÊt khã thùc hiÖn, nã võa mang tÝnh khoa häc võa mang tÝnh pháng
§Ó x¸c ®Þnh vÞ trÝ cña con tµu, bµ Cresy ph¶i biÕt ®-îc vÞ trÝ sau cïng cña nã lµ ë khu vùc nµo. Bµ còng ph¶i ®o¸n ®-îc h-íng cña con tµu, tèc ®ä cña nã vµ møc dao ®éng cña sang hay cña luång n-íc. T¹i khu vùc gÇn mòi Horn, cÇn ph¶I hÕt søc cÈn träng ®Ó kh«ng x¶y ra sai sãt. Cã nhiÒu tµu bÞ ®¾m trong khu vùc nµy. NhiÒu thuû thñ ph¶i thiÖt m¹ng chØ v× mét lçi lÇm trong thuËt ®i biÓn. Trong tõng giê Elaeanor Cressy ph¶i øng dông ph-¬ng ph¸p to¸n häc ®Ó
®Þnh vÞ trÝ cña con tµu. C« cø lµm ®i lµm l¹i viÖc nµy nhiÒu lÇn mét c¸ch cÈn thËn ®Ó kiÓm tra c¸c khiÕm khuyÕt. Sinh m¹ng c¶u thuû thñ ®oµn còng nh- t-¬ng lai cña con tµu míi khæng lå nµy hoµn toµn ®-îc giao phã cho c«.
Kü n¨ng thµnh th¹o cña Elaenor Cressy vÒ lÜnh vùc hµng h¶I ®-îc
®Òn bï xøng ®¸ng vµo ngµy h«m sau. Bµ ®· lÌo l¸i con tµu mét c¸ch
®IÖu nghÖ. Vµo s¸ng ngµy 29 th¸ng 6, thuyÒn tr-ëng Cressy ®· ph¸t hiÖn ra mòi Horn, c¸ch con tµu 8 km vÒ h-íng B¾c. Con tµu chÝnh x¸c ®ang ë vÞ trÝ mµ Eleanor ®· dù ®o¸¬ng ph¸p ®Þnh h-ính h¶i hµnh b»ng la bµn Dead Reckoning cña bµ hoµn toµn chÝnh x¸c.
Con tµu vÉn an toµn vµ sÏ ®I qua San Francisco, California, nã ®I nhanh h¬n bÊt cø con tµu nµo kh¸c. Vµo thêi ®IÓm ®ã cã rÊt Ýt ng-êi thµnh th¹o hµng h¶i nh- Eleanor Cressy.
NghÒ cña Eleanor Cressy vµo thêi ®iÓm 1851 rÊt ®-îc träng dông nh-ng còng l¾m gian tru©n. §Õn cuèi thÕ kû tr-íc, c«ng viÖc cña mét hoa tiªu vÉn kh«ng thay ®æi nhiÒu. ë trªn biÓn hay trªn ®Êt liÒn còng vËy, viÖc t×m mét h-íng ®i chÝnh x¸c lu«n lµ mét vÊn ®Ò nan gi¶i.
Tuy nhiªn trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y, viÖc ®Þnh h-íng trªn biÓn hay trªn ®Êt liÕn ®· trë nªn dÔ dµng h¬n. Ph­¬ng ph¸p ®Þnh vÞ „Lead
Reckoning‟ nay trë nªn lçi thêi. HiÖn nay ng­êi ta kh«ng nhÊt thiÕt ph¶I cã n¨ng khiÕu vÒ hµng h¶i nh- Eleanor Cressy. Hä cã thÓ sö song mét thiÕt bÞ nhá cho phÐp ®Þnh vÞ ®-îc tÊt c¶ c¸c

65 vïng trªn thÐ giíi. ThiÕt bÞ cã sö dông mét bé phËn kü thuËt mang tªn „HÖ thèng ®Þnh vÞ toµn cÇu‟ gäi lµ G-P-S.

G-P-S hiÖn ®ang lµ hÖ thèng duy nhÊt trªn thÕ giíi cã kh¶ n¨ng chØ ra vÞ trÝ chÝnh x¸c cña b¹n trªn qu¶ ®Êt. ThiÕt bÞ nµy kh«ng bÞ thêi tiÕt lµm ¶nh h-ëng. Nã lu«n ë trong tr¹ng th¸i ho¹t ®éng mäi lóc mäi n¬i. Mét sè thiÕt bÞ G-P-S cã thÓ n»m gän trong lßng bµn tay. Còng cã lo¹i kÝch cì lín h¬n ®Ó l¾p ®Æt trong m¸y bay hay tµu biÓn. Tuy nhiªn dï ë kÝch cì nµo ®i n÷a th× thiÕt bÞ vÉn cã tÝnh n¨ng vËn hµnh nh- nhau.

Suggested Translation :

Today we tell about a small device you can hold in your hand. It permits you to find your way across mountains, through deserts and across oceans and never get lost.
Let us begin back on June twenty-seventh, Eighteen-Fifty-One. We are on the sailing ship,
„Flying Cloud”, in the Atlantic Ocean. The captain of the ship is Josiah Cressy.
For many days now, Captain Cressy has made the huge sailing ship travel at speeds that were not.
Today we tell about a small end of the South American continent. The weather has been bad for several days. The captain is not sure where the ship is. The person responsible for guiding the ship must be able to see the Sun or a star to know the position of the ship. The stormy 1 weather has prevented this for several days
The person who plans the directions for a sailing trip is usually the ship‟s captain. On the Flying
Cloud, however, the captain‟s wife does this job.
Her name is Eleanor Cressy. She is famous as an expert navigator 2. She has planned this trip though the dangerous waters near Cape Horn. There are many small islands and underwater rocks here. To guide the ship safely she must know where the ship is at all times.
Eleanor Cressy must use a method called „Dead Recking‟ because she has not been able to see the Sun to find the ship‟s true position. Dead Reckoning is part science, and part guessing.
To find the poison of the Flying Cloud, Mrs.. Cressy must use the last known poison of the ship.
She also has to consider the ship‟s direction, its speed and the movement of the waves or current of the ocean.

Here, near Cape Horn, there can be no mistakes. Many ships have sunk in this part of the world.
Many sailors have died because of a mistake in navigation. Hour after hour Eleanor Cressy's great skill at navigation is rewarded the next day. She has guided the ship perfectly. On the morning of June twenty-ninth, Captain Cressy can see Cape Horn, just eight kilometers to the north. The ship is exactly where Eleanor said it would be. Her Dead Reckoning sailing directions have been correct. The ship is safe and will continue on to San Francisco, California, faster than any sailing ship ever. Few people have ever been as good at navigation as Eleanor Cressy.
Eleanor Cressy's job in Eighteen-Fifty-One was important and extremely 3 difficult. For most of the last century the job of navigator did not change much. At sea or on land, finding the correct direction to travel has always been a problem.
However, within the last several years, the problem of navigation at sea or on land has become very simple. „Dead Reckoning‟ navigation is now a thing of the ancient past. Now, people do not need the skills of Eleanor Cressy to navigate. They can use a simple device that will permit them to navigate anywhere in the world. The device uses a technology called „Global Position System‟, known as G-P-S.
G-P-S is the only system today able to show your exact position on Earth. Weather does not affect the device. It will work anytime, anywhere. Many G-P-S devices can be held in the hand.
Some are larger and meant to be placed in aircraft or ships. Whatever the size, the device works much the same way.

Lesson 29:
A high-tech brain scan2 found the low-tech cause3 of a Chinese woman‟s chronic headaches a rusty pin logged in her brain.
Doctors who extracted the pin said its alignment in Zhang Meihua's skull indicated it had been there for 40 of her 41 years, Xinhua news agency4 said on Saturday.
They expressed shock5 “that one could live for so long a time with a rusty pin stuck in her brain”,
Xinhua said.
The operation6 was performed at Tinan Number 148 Military Hospital in northern Shandong province. Zhang said she began losing the ability to move her arms and legs nimbly7 about 20 years ago, but doctors at the time were stumped8 as to the cause.
It was computerized axial topography9 a CAT scan-and X-rays that revealed10 the offending bit of rusty iron with its man body logged in her brain and its head outside the skull 11 such as an orientation12 likely meant she has been pin-pricked soon after birth before the skull hardened 13.
Zhang, now fully recovered, said she “had no memory of being pierced 14 by a pin in the head”,
Xinhua added.

1. brain (n):

n·o bé

2.high-tech brain scan:

rµ quÐt n·o bé víi kü thuËt cao

3.low-tech cause:

nguyªn nh©n g©y ra do kü thuËt kÐm

4. Xinhua news:

T©n Hoa X· (H·ng Th«ng TÊn Trung

5. shock (n): bÊt ngê

sù söng sèt, sù kÝch ®éng/ c¶m gi¸c

6. operation (n): t¸c/ho¹t ®éng

sù mæ xÎ/ ca mæ, phÈu thuËt/ thao

7. nimbly (adv):

nhanh nhÑn

8. stump (v): bÝ ®i cµ nh¾c vµ lép cép/ lµm cho ai

9. computerized axial topography: lý m¸y tÝnh
10. reveal (v):

chôp ¶nh c¾t theo trôc ®o xö ph¸t hiÖn

11. skull (n):

sä,®Çu l©u/ ®Çu ãc, bé ãc

12. orientation (n):

sù ®Þnh h-íng

13. harden (v):

lµm cho cøng/ cøng l¹i/ r¾n l¹i

14. pierce (v) :

®©m, chäc/khoÐt lç

Suggested Translation :
Mét [c«ng tr×nh y häc] rµ quÐt n·o bé b»ng kü thuËt cao ®· t×m ra
®-îc nguyªn nh©n cña chøng ®au ®Çu kinh niªn cña mét phô n÷ Trung
Quèc lµ do kü thuËt [y häc] thÊp kÐm: mét kim ghim rØ n»m trong bé n·o cña bµ.
H«m thø b¶y, T©n Hoa X· ®· loan tin cho biÕt c¸c b¸c sÜ lÊy kim ra nãi r»ng thÕ n»m cña c©y kim ë trong ®Çu bµ Zhang Meihua, 41 tuæi chøng tá nã ®· n»m trong n·o bé ®Õn 40 n¨m.
T©n Hoa X· bµy tá sù söng sèt khi ghi nhËn “ lµ ng­êi ta ®· cã thÓ sèng mét thêi gian l©u nh- vËy víi mét ®inh ghim rØ dÝnh ë trong n·o ” .
Cuéc gi¶I phÉu ®-îc thùc hiÖn t¹i BÖnh viÖn Qu©n y 148 ë Tinan, phÝa b¾c tØnh S¬n §«ng.
Bµ Zhang nãi r»ng bµ b¾t ®Çu mÊt kh¶ n¨ng nhanh nhÑn khi chuyÓn
®éng ch©n tay c¸ch ®©y kho¶ng 20 n¨m, nh-ng c¸c b¸c sÜ thêi ®ã kh«ng t×m ra ®-îc nguyªn nh©n.
§©y lµ mét vô chôp ¶nh c¾t theo trôc ®o xö lý b»ng m¸y tÝnhph-¬ng ph¸p quÐt CAT vµ tia X ®· ph¸t hiÖn ra phÇn s¾t rØ lµm cho bÖnh nh©n ®au ®ín vãi phÇn chÝnh n»m trong bé n·o bÖnh nh©n, phÇn

®Çu cña kim n»m ë phÝa ngoµI sä.Mét sù chÈn ®Þnh nh- thÕ cã nghÜa lµ bµ ®· bÞ kim chÝch ch¼ng bao l©u sau khi sinh ra tr-íc khi vá sä ho¸ cøng.
T©n Hoa X· cho biÕt thªm r»ng bµ Zhang b©y giê ®· hoµn toµn b×nh phôc. Bµ nãi r»ng “ bµ ®· quªn ®i lµ ®· bÞ kim chÝch trong ®Çu ” .

Lesson 30:
1. Vi rút máy tính là một trong những nguyên nhân gây ra những trục trặc thường xuyên nhất.
Có hai loại vi rút: BOOT VIRUS (loại B) và FILE VIRUS (loại F). Vi rút loại B tấn công vào các tập tin hệ thống của máy, làm cho máy không thể khởi động được hay phá hoại các thông tin cơ bản về cấu hình của hệ thống. Vi rút loại F chỉ tấn công vào từng loại tập tin nhất định, thường gặp nhất là các tập tin có phần mở rộng là EXE, COM. Gần đây đã xuất hiện vi rút MACRO chuyên tấn công các tệp văn bản DOC. Vi rút lây lan thông qua việc trao đổi đĩa mềm giữa các máy tính, trong đó có một máy đã bị nhiễm vi rút. Việc lây nhiễm vi rút trong mạng máy tính cũng là một vấn đề ngày càng trở nên nghiêm trọng hơn. Do vậy, nguyên tắc cơ bản nhất để đề phòng vi rút xâm nhập vào máy tính là tránh sao chép hay chạy các chương trình mà chưa kiểm tra vi rút.
2. Thế giới tự nhiên đang bị tấn công dữ dội. Biển và sông đang bị ô nhiễm nặng do chất thải hạt nhân, chất thải hóa học và rác thải độc hại chưa xử lý. Không khí chúng ta thở cũng bị ô nhiễm do khói và khí thải của nhà máy và xe cộ. Cũng chẳng phải ngạc nhiên khi rừng và hồ cũng dang bị tàn phá và cuộc sống hoang dã khắp mọi nơi đang biến mất. Việc biến mất mà không cứu vãn nổi của đa dạng sinh học đã tác động rất lớn đến khả năng duy trì sự sống còn của các loài bao gồm cả con người vì con người phụ thuộc vào đa loài và môi trường sinh thái lành mạnh.
Cho dù giới khoa học cảnh báo và hàng triệu người dân thường bày tỏ mối quan tâm sâu sắc nhưng sự tàn phá vẫn cứ tiếp diễn. Các chính phủ và ngành công nghiệp trên khắp thế giới đang nổ lực khai thác nguồn khoáng sản phong phú và nguồn sinh vật dồi dào. Rừng rậm nhiệt đới cũng như các lục địa đóng băng đang bị đe doạ nghiêm trọng. Tuy nhiên chúng ta cũng có thể xây dựng nền công nghiệp thân thiện với môi trường, khai thác năng lượng từ mặt trời, gió và sóng biển để phục vụ cho nhu cầu năng lượng của chúng ta và quản lý nguồn năng lượng hạn hữu trên trái đát này

Suggested Translation :
1. Computer viruses is one of the reasons that causes the most problems. There are two types of virus: BOOT VIRUS (type B) and FILE VIRUS (type F). Virus of type B attacks systematic files of a computer, preventing it from setting up, or destroys basic configurative information of the system. Type F virus only infects some certain files, especially those that have the extensions
EXE and COM. Virus MACRO has recently appeared and often attacks documentary file DOC.
Viruses can be spread by the exchanging of floppy disks between computers, among which there is an infected one. The problem of viruses spreading through network is becoming more and more serious. Infected files, after being sent to the memory, will spread virus to other files in the hard disk. Therefore, the most basic principle to protect your computer from viruses is to avoid copying and not to run unformatted programmes without scanning for virus.


2. The natural world is under violent assault. The seas and the rivers are being poisoned by radioactive wastes, by chemical discharges and by the dumping of dangerous toxins and raw sewage. The air we breathe is polluted by smoke and fumes from factories and motor vehicles. It is little wonder forests and lakes are being destroyed and everywhere wildlife is disappearing.
The irreversible loss of biodiversity has a seriuos impact on the ability of maintaining species including humans to survive because humans depend on species diversity and healthy ecosystems. The destruction continues despite the warnings of the scientific community and the deep concern of millions of ordinary people. Governments and industries throughout the world are intensifying their efforts to extract the earth's mineral riches and to plunder its living resources. The great rain forests and the frozen continents alike are seriously threatened.
However, we can create environmentally-clean industries, harness the power of the sun, wind and waves for our energy needs and manage the finite resources of the earth.


Lesson 31:


The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam lies along the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula, bordering the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Cambodia to the west and China to the north.
The country has five quite distinct physical regions: the coast, the delta areas, the central region, the high plateaux and the mountains. Some 24,000 square kilometres of land along the 3,200 kilometre coast is low-lying, mainly saline land which is frequently affected by tidal floods and typhoons. As the soil is not suited to agriculture, fishing and salt production are the chief occupations of the people.
The delta regions cover a total of 47,500 square kilometres of land at the mouth of the Red River in the north and the Mekong in the south. Except for the areas closest to the sea, the land is fertile and suited for all types of agricultural crops, particularly the country's staple, rice.
The central region is about 50,000 square kilometres in area and is 25-300 metres above sea level. Less humid than the coastal or delta areas, it is nevertheless prone to devastating typhoons which make agricultural development difficult, despite the relatively rich soil.
The high plateaux region covers some 95,000 square kilometres with an altitude of 300-900 metres in the north and 300-700 metres in the south. The area is mainly inhabited by ethnic minorities who live in isolated, scattered communities engaged in swidden farming. The burning of the forest has caused soil erosion and consequent environmental problems in the lowland areas. Approximately 114,000 square kilometres of land in the north and south of the country are mountainous, over 700 metres above sea level. The mainly forested area is isolated and also populated by ethnic minorities.
Vietnam has a wet tropical climate, with high humidity. In the south the temperature is fairly constant, but in the north there is quite a wide variation between summer and winter. The central region and high mountains benefit from the altitude which tempers the climate, producing an average 20 degrees C. The dry (October-March) and wet (April-September) seasons are determined by the monsoon winds. Average rainfall is 2,000 millimetres.

- Indochinese peninsula : B¸n ®¶o §«ng D-¬ng
- to border : cã cïng biªn giíi
- high plateaux : vïng cao nguyªn
- saline land : vïng ®Êt mÆn
- tidal : thuéc vÒ thuû triÒu
- flood : lò lôt
- typhoon : b·o

- to be suited for : phï hîp víi
- agricultural crop : c©y n«ng nghiÖp
- altitude : ë ®é cao
- to be inhabited : sèng, c- ngô
- ethnic minority : d©n téc thiÓu sè
- to be isolated : bÞ c« lËp
- scattered : r¶i r¸c
- tropical climate : khÝ hËu nhiÖt ®íi
- humidity : ®é Èm

Lesson 32:


The following analysis of demographic data is based on the 1989 census and sample results compared with past figures to determine trends and implications for development.
Between the 1979 and 1989 censuses the population increased from 52.7 million to 64.4 million, representing an average annual growth rate of 2.1 per cent. It is projected that in five years the population will reach 72.9 million and by the end of the century it will be 80.8 million.

Ethnic minorities
At 8.2 million the ethnic minorities population represents 12.8 per cent of the total population, a
2 per cent rise over the last decade. The six major ethnic minority tribes are : Tay, Thai, Hoa,
Kh'mer, Muong and Nung (see table I.2).

Sex and age group distribution
Viet Nam's population is characterized by more females (33.1 million), than males, (31.3 million) with an average sex ratio of 94.6. However, the ratio varies considerably with the age group. The long years of war, together with emigration and the naturally lower life expectancy of males, have led to a markedly lower proportion of males than females over 35, whereas from birth to 15 years the ratio is reversed and there are more males than females. The age group distribution has also been influenced by the war and migration. However the intense efforts to promote family planning and reduce population growth have curbed the proportion of young people, so that the
0-15 year olds represent less than 40 per cent of the population.

Dependency ratio
The dependency ratio, which estimates the number of individuals whom persons in the working age group (15 - 64 years) must support in addition to themselves, was 98 in 1979, meaning 100 working adults had to support 98 dependents : 84 children and 14 adults. By 1989 the dependency ratio was 86, of whom 73 were 0-14 years.
Currently, the dependency ratio is higher in the rural areas than in the urban centres.

The census counted 12,958,041 households, 20 per cent of which were in urban areas. The national average membership of each household is 5 persons. It is clear that nuclear families are on the increase, particularly in urban areas where each household averaged 4.8 members.
The 1986 child population increased from 23.7 million to 25.1 million in 1989. Children under five constituted 43.1 per cent of the child population in 1986 but only 42.7 per cent in 1989. The declining trend is presumably due in part to family planning measures, though it is also noteworthy that the crude death rate has not noticeably decreased and the fertility rate is still 4 per woman of childbearing age.
The child-woman ratio is calculated as the number of children (0-14 years) per 1,000 women of childbearing age (15-49 years). In 1989 as there were 16.1 million women of childbearing age and 25.1 million children 0-14 years, the ratio was 1.56. This means that every woman of childbearing age has to take care of almost 2 children.

The fertility rate in Viet Nam has declined from 5.2 children per woman in 1980, to 4 children per woman in 1989, with the highest rates recorded in the mountainous areas, among the ethnic minorities exist and the coastal provinces of the country. Fertility is considerably higher in the rural than the urban areas. These differences are thought to be due to such factors as the lack of modern methods of contraception in rural areas; lower levels of education among mothers; and the persistence of socio-cultural taboos against child spacing.
The implications of high fertility levels for women, children and the population as a whole are that the longer the space of a woman's childbearing years, the greater her risk of mortality; while for children, high fertility means greater exposure to the risk of dying. It has also been observed that the risks of infant mortality are high for the firstborn, decline for the second to fourth-born and then increase for the fifth born and above. These risks are naturally related to the risk of maternal mortality.
The 1980 crude birth rate of 35 per 1,000 population gradually went down to 32 per 1,000 population in 1988. This is partly attributable to wider acceptance of family planning and realization of the need for child spacing.
Despite a strong family planning programme, the annual population growth rate is still high at
2.13 per cent. Such population growth should be matched by an annual GDP growth in the range of 6.4-8.5 per cent. Yet between 1984 and 1988, the GDP average growth rate was only 3.4 per cent. Mortality
Life expectancy, estimated at 57 years at birth in 1980, increased to 62 years in 1988. Progress was greater for males than for females: the male rate rose from 55 years to 59.4 whereas the female rate increased by less than four years, from 60 to 63.8 years. As discussed in the chapter on Women, the maternal mortality rate gives cause for concern.
The infant and child mortality rates appear to have declined in recent years and are now estimated to be around 49 and 88 per 1,000 live births respectively.

The crude death rate has fluctuated, rising from 7/1,000 in 1980 to 9.4/1,000 in 1988 and then dropping back to 6.7/1,000 in 1989. The leading causes of mortality are mainly related to poor environmental sanitation, low hygiene standards and inadequate nutrition. They thus include pulmonary tuberculosis, malaria, diarrhoeal diseases, dengue, tetanus, pneumonia, and nutrition disorders. The implication is that in terms of sheer numbers, the prospects for alleviating the poverty-related problems appear to have remained the same if not worsened, due to the limited economic resources of the country and the individual households. Furthermore, the most affected population is the age group which is UNICEF's mandate. NOTES:
- to be determined : kiªn ®Þnh, kiªn quyÕt
- demographic data : sè liÖu vÒ d©n sè
- census : cuéc ®iÒu tra d©n sè
- monsoon wind : giã mïa
- annual growth rate : tû lÖ gia t¨ng h»ng n¨m
- It

is projected that...... : ng-êi ta dù ®o¸n r»ng

- tribe : bé téc
- life

expectancy : tuæi thä

- age group distribution : sù ph©n bè theo nhãm tuæi
- dependency ratio : tû lÖ ng-êi phô thuéc
- fertility rate : tû lÖ sinh ®Î
- method of contraception : ph-¬ng ph¸p tr¸nh thai
- socio-cultural taboo : ®iÒu cÊm mang tÝnh v¨n ho¸ x· héi
- risk of

infant mortality : nguy c¬ tö vong cña trÎ s¬ sinh

- maternal mortality rate : tû lÖ tö vong cña c¸c bµ mÑ
- fluctuate : dao ®éng
- environmental sanitation : vÖ sinh m«i tr-êng
- hygiene standard : tiªu chuÈn vÖ sinh
- pulmonary tuberculosis : lao phæi
- tetanus : bÖnh uèn v¸n
- poverty-related problem : vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn nghÌo ®ãi

As noted, the 1989 urban-rural population distribution was 20 per cent urban 80 per cent rural. The urban population declined considerably in the southern provinces after 1975, following the return to the countryside of the people who had moved to the towns during

75 the War. However, between 1984 and 1989 there was considerable movement of the population back into Ho Chi Minh City from the surrounding provinces of Song Be, Tay Ninh, Dong Nai,
Long An and Tien Giang, from the mid-eastern seaboard province of Nghia Binh and from the province of Hanoi. The period was also marked by internal migration throughout the country, generally in a north: south direction. The provinces where out-migration was higher, are in the north-east : Cao Bang, Lang Son, Ha Nam Ninh and on the eastern seaboard: Nghia Binh. Hanoi is characterized by net outward movements, with the largest flows to the neighbouring provinces of Ha Son Binh, Hai Hung, and Thai Binh, to the Lao border region of Nghe Tinh and to the southern provinces of Lam Dong and Ho Chi Minh city.
This internal migration has created additional demand for basic services (health, education, housing, welfare) in the areas affected. Financial inputs from the community, Government and donors need to be correspondingly increased in order to be able to respond effectively to the needs of the target groups.

Population density
The distribution of population among the 44 provinces in 1989 showed the most populated provinces/cities were: Ho Chi Minh, Nghe Tinh, Ha Nam Ninh, Hanoi, Hau Giang and Hai Hung.
More than 30 per cent of the country's population was concentrated in those areas. Between 1985 and 1989 the average population density of the country rose from 180 to 195 persons per square kilometre. The major cities, Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi and the province of Thai Binh had the highest density, averaging more than 1,000 persons per square kilometre. Next were the provinces of Hai Phong, Hai Hung, Ha Nam Ninh, An Giang, Tien Giang and Ben Tre, with an average of from 500-1,000 persons per square kilometre.
Concentration of the population in certain areas, clearly has serious implications for employment, food and nutrition, housing, health, education and social welfare and needs to be taken into account when drawing up social development policies and programmes for women and children.

Given the above data on urban-rural population distribution, migration pattern, areas population densities, strains on the erstwhile stable urban centres such as Hanoi, Haiphong is becoming visible. He Chi Minh City already has a history of population growth and slums However, the magnitude of the problem is still manageable at present Current initiatives should therefore be focused on monitoring the existing situation as the country moves slowly to the market economy and greater industrialization. Baseline surveys are necessary to obtain accurate information required for effective monitoring, as well as it designing small scale pilot activities related to urban basic services,
As a measure to this problem, UNICEF has laid emphasis on working closely with both international and local NGOs and local government units to maximize resources and reenforce/complement services for greater impact.

Society and the Family
The social organization, is primarily based on the traditional values of membership of a family, a village, or an ethnic group. The years of war and reconstruction which followed the establishment of a totally new political and administrative structure necessarily produced profound changes throughout society. The traditional extended family with three or four

76 generations living together is disappearing particularly in urban areas, due to demographic changes, migration housing congestion, economic pressures and a generally changing life style.
Vietnamese traditional society was with a social and political order directly stemming from the
Confucian pattern. Within the family the male had absolute authority. Women had little access to education or political role. The official position of women is now quite different. According to the Constitution women now have the same rights as men. However their current major role in the national labour force means that they have to bear a heavy burden as they are still responsible for household chores and raising their children with very little technology to assist them.

Child rearing beliefs, attitudes and practices
In Viet Nam young children are brought up in very close physical contact with their mothers or other caregivers and given encouragement rather than punishment to reinforce the teaching of habits. When they reach the age of four or five children are expected to start taking responsibility. However, this practice vary from area to area. Mothers nurse them whenever they perceive babies are in need. It is rare to find babies lying in their cots between breast-feedings and at night they usually sleep with their mothers.
Mothers and other family members interact instinctively and very frequently with the young child. However, as soon as children are entrusted to a formal caretaker, they are likely expected to receive much stimulation.
There are a number of traditional beliefs about children, some of them based on superstition. For instance many parents, particularly in the countryside believe that after delivery, the mother and child should stay at home, covered up, and must avoid taking a bath. The mother and child do not leave the home for at least a month after the birth, and wait even longer before being fully exposed to the open air.
- urban-rural population distribution : ph©n bè d©n sè theo n«ng th«n vµ thµnh thÞ
- to decline : gi¶m xuèng
- mid-eastern seaboard province : tØnh duyªn h¶i miÒn Trung
- donor : ng-êi tµi trî
- population

density : mËt ®é d©n sè

- concentration of population : tËp trung d©n sè
- migration pattern : h×nh thøc di d©n
- visible : h÷u h×nh, cã thÓ thÊy ®-îc
- slum : nhµ æ chuét
- existing situation : t×nh huèng thùc tÕ
- pilot activity : ho¹t ®éng thÝ ®iÓm
- NGO : Non-governmetal organization : tæ chøc phi chÝnh phñ
- local government : chÝnh quyÒn ®Þa ph-¬ng

- social organization : tæ chøc x· héi
- administrative structure : c¬ cÊu qu¶n lý
- profound : s©u s¾c
- extended family : gia ®×nh nhiÒu thÕ hÖ
- economic pressure : ¸p lùc kinh tÕ
- life style : lèi sèng
- to stem from : xuÊt ph¸t tõ
- Confucian pattern : theo Khæng gi¸o
- absolute authority : quyÒn hµnh tuyÖt ®èi
- household chore : viÖc nhµ
- labour force : lùc l-îng lao ®éng
- Constitution : HiÕn ph¸p
- burden : g¸nh nÆng
- to raise children : nu«i con
- to be brought up : nu«i nÊng
- caregiver : vó nu«i
- breast-feeding : nu«i con b»ng s÷a mÑ
- superstition : dÞ ®oan

Food is produced in Viet Nam by three different, but complementary farming systems: the state, the collective and the family. The state farms are mainly involved in cash crop production and the development of new technologies. The collective farms are responsible for national foodstuff production, particularly paddy. Families farm plots of land (from 300 to 1,000 square metres, depending on the region) around the house, growing a variety of grains, fruits and vegetables and raising livestock and fish. In 1983, the Government began encouraging distribution of land to individual farm families for production under a contract system and the December 1986 Party
Congress confirmed the importance of family farming for food self-sufficiency. Family farming is now recognized as the main basis for development. Families are free to sell more of their produce at negotiated or market prices and they have become the main source of livestock, fish, fruit and vegetables. The co-operatives have started to allocate larger plots of land to families.
However, the co-operatives remain the focal points for distribution of inputs and services, and the collection of taxes and fees. It is generally admitted that these new initiatives have been an incentive to food production and the appearance of more food in the markets.

Land use

About a fifth of Viet Nam's total land area of some 33 million hectares is arable: of this only 20 percent is now cultivated. About four fifths of the land cultivated is devoted to rice paddy, particularly in the delta areas. However, yields are low: two thirds of the Mekong delta produce only one crop a year.
Half of the cultivated land lies in the long and narrow coastal strip and the highland. This region, which covers 89 per cent of the country's total land area and contains 58 per cent of the population, has great potential for further agricultural expansion but investment costs would be high as the infrastructure is currently weak.

Production and Yields
Rice represents 86-88 per cent of the total food crop production. From 1976 to 1989, the per hectare paddy yield increased from 2.2 tons to 3.2 tons, which is similar to the average yield of other Asian developing countries.
The other food crops (maize, cassava, Irish and sweet potatoes, soybeans, groundnuts and other staple foods) have yielded an average of two tons per hectare since 1984.
The main constraints to improvements in crop yield are the lack of fertilizers (currently the lowest in Asia), insufficient pesticides due to a shortage of foreign exchange; problems with the seed multiplication system; inequities in the geographical distribution of agricultural supplies (the North is highly privileged and the central areas deprived); lack of spare parts and poor maintenance of farm equipment; inappropriate machinery for family farm use.

From 1976 to 1989, total food production increased to 7.9 million tons. The food production increase from 1976 to 1981 was due to an extension of the cultivated paddy area, but from 1981 to
1989 it was due to an improvement in the rice yield. At the same time, the area of cultivation of other food crops has not increased significantly. It appears that the food policy in Viet Nam has emphasized paddy, while rather neglecting support for other food crops so their production growth has been irregular. This irregularity is an element of food insecurity and an indicator of structural difficulties in managing production factors.
Vietnamese agriculture is thus becoming virtually a rice monoculture creating a monotonous and high starch diet for the population and aggravating the potential risks of natural disasters and pest hazards. Half of the cultivated land lies in the long and narrow coastal strip and the highland. This region, which covers 89 per cent of the country's total land area and contains 58 percent of the population, has great potential for further agricultural expansion but investment costs would be high as the infrastructure is currently weak.

Geographical variations in food production
Food production varies from one province to the next. The Mekong delta is a grain surplus area, while the Red River delta and central regions are traditionally grain deficient. The production of roots and tubers tends to be concentrated in the northern, central and coastal provinces (cassava and sweet potatoes) and in some provinces of the Red River delta (Irish potatoes).


Food availability
The per capita food availability figure is a theoretical measurement of food supply, calculated by dividing the total food produced by the number of inhabitants. In Viet Nam the figure is given in terms of rice paddy and all secondary food crops such as maize, cassava, potatoes, sesame, soybeans and groundnuts are given an equivalent value. Pulses and oilseeds are not included, but nor is any allowance made for post-harvest losses, seeds or milling so the figure may be slightly overestimated. A theoretical food availability of 300 kilogrammes of paddy per year can be roughly estimated at
1,600 calories per person per day. However, according to food consumption surveys, basic foodstuffs represent 85 percent of the total calorie intake, so the food availability of 300 kilogrammes gives a potential 1,840 calories per person per day. But this is still 260 calories below the accepted requirement, so the country can hardly be termed self-sufficient until the food availability figure reaches 340 kilogrammes of paddy per person per year. Moreover, the national average value does not take regional variations into account. These are particularly significant in
Viet Nam where the distribution and transportation infrastructure is weak.
From 1983 to 1986, the food availability was around 300 kilogrammes paddy. In 1987, food production decreased due to typhoons, floods and rice pests and there were estimated to be only
280 kilogrammes paddy-equivalent/per year per inhabitant, covering only 82 per cent of the energy requirement. The central provinces experienced severe shortages that year. In 1988, the harvest was much better, so production reached 307 kilogrammes paddy per inhabitant. In 1989, growth was maintained, surpassing the population growth rate for the first time. The food availability figure was given as 310 kilogrammes. It would have been 332 kilogrammes if the 1.4 millions of rice had not been exported. The spectacular progress in 1988 and 1989 was due to increases in the paddy yield. Indeed with great dependency on rice, the Vietnamese diet has become more and more monotonous and unbalanced. Thus the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the food production is a basic factor of malnutrition in Vietnam.

Inter household distribution of energy intake
A survey undertaken by the National Institute of Nutrition of 1,251 households, showed that 9 percent were experiencing starvation (below 1,500 calories per person per day), 15 per cent suffered from food shortages (1,500-1,800 calories per person per day), and 23 per cent were in a more or less satisfactory situation (1,800-2,100 kcal) and 54 per cent had over 2,100 kcal/day, considered satisfactory.
The energy availability distribution varies widely from one region to another. The central region experiences serious food shortages with 34 per cent of the households in the northern central provinces and 20 percent in the south central province consuming less than 1,800 calories per person per day. This is where the food situation requires urgent intervention.
There are also seasonal variations in food consumption. Just before the rice harvest calories intake decreases by up to 15 per cent. Given the very low normal intakes, even a slight decrease can lead to starvation as happened during the bad harvest year of 1987. An additional factor causing temporary food shortages is the weather : the central provinces, particularly, often suffer from floods and typhoons which destroy harvests and food stores.

National and regional food consumption patterns

Rice is the main staple food in all regions of Viet Nam. Other staples are little consumed.
The quantity of pulses and oilseeds (sesame) in a meal is very low. The consumption of milk, eggs, sugar and fruit is also low nationwide. An average of only 18 grammes of meat per day is consumed. Vietnamese, especially those living in the southern central and Mekong delta provinces, derive more protein from fish and sea products. Vegetable consumption is sufficient overall, but with important regional variations; twice as many are consumed in the northern mountains as in the Mekong Delta. The Vietnamese diet contains very little fat; the lipid intake is believed said to be one of the lowest in the world.

- output : n¨ng suÊt, ®Çu ra
- industrial crop : c©y c«ng nghiÖp
- cash crop : n«ng s¶n hµng ho¸
- contract system : chÕ ®é kho¸n
- plot of land : thöa ®Êt
- It is admitted that : ng-êi ta thõa nhËn r»ng
- to be cultivated : ®-îc canh t¸c
- one crop a year : ( s¶n xuÊt 1 n¨m 1 vô
- coastal strip : vïng ®Êt duyªn h¶i
- expansion : sù më réng/sù ph¸t triÓn
- paddy yield : n¨ng suÊt lóa
- cassava : c©y s¾n ( m×)
- seed multiplication system : hÖ thèng/c¬ së nh©n gièng
- spare part : phô tïng
- maintenance : b¶o d-ìng/b¶o tr×
- extension : sù më réng
- to emphasize : chó träng
- food crop : c©y l-¬ng thùc
- rice monoculture : ®éc canh c©y lóa

Lesson 35:
The enormous asteroid heading for Earth proved to be a cosmic false alarm, but that's no reason not to start planning for the next one.
The threat of asteroid strikes still looms over the planet, which has been hit many times in the past by large objects raining down from space. Evidence of these ancient impacts is everywhere: more than 150 caters pock Earths' surface, some clearly visible, some that can be seen only from aircraft or satellites, others long buried or on the ocean bottom...

By far the most notorious of these craters is the circular feature 195km in diameter discovered below the northern tip of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. This monster crater is believed to be the impact site of a 10-to-13km-wide comet or asteroid that struck 65 million years ago and wiped out the dinosaurs and some 70% of Earth's other species.
While these catastrophic events seem remote and unreal, there are plenty of more recent reminders that Earth's neighborhood in space is still teeming with mountain-size rocks and the

82 occasional wayward comet. Arizona's spectacular Meteor Crater, for one, was gouged out only
50,000 years ago by an iron asteroid. The impact and explosion blasted a hole about 1km across and 210m deep. Today it could destroy a city.
Much more recently, in 1908, an asteroid or a chunk of a comet less than 60m across roared into the atmosphere and exploded about 8km above the unpopulated Tunguska region of Siberia. The blast, estimated at tens of megatons, devastated an area of hundreds of square km, knocking down trees, starting fires and killing reindeer. Had it occurred over a large city, hundreds of thousands would have died.
And two years ago, an asteroid about 450m across was discovered just four days before it sped by a 93,000km/h, missing Earth by only 450,000km. If it had hit, the resulting explosion would have been in the 3,00-to-12, 000-megaton range - equivalent, as the late astronomer Gene Shoemaker put it, to "taking all of the U.S. and Soviet nuclear weapons, putting them in a pile a blowing them up."
XF11 was discovered last Dec. 6 by astronomer Jim Scotti, a member of the University of
Arizona's Spacewatch group, which scans the skies for undiscovered comets and asteroids.
For a brief but exciting 24 hours, the big asteroid commanded everyone's attention. Astronomer
Hills calculated that an asteroid the size of XF11 colliding with Earth at more than 60,00kg/h would explode with the energy of 300,000 megatons - nearly 20 million times the force of the bomb that leveled Hiroshima. If it hit in the ocean, he predicted, it would cause a tsunami
(commonly called a tidal wave) hundreds of meters high, flooding the coastlines of surrounding continents. "Where cities stood," he said, "there would be only mudflats." A land hit, he calculated, would blast out a crater at least 50km across and throw up a blanket of dust and vapor that would blot out the sun "for weeks, it not months."
Almost as worrisome are the estimated 300,000 asteroids larger than 90m wide that also come perilously near or intersect Earth's orbit; each could inflict Tunguska-like damage over a large region. The number of Earth-crossing asteroids larger than 20m across, says University of
Arizona astronomer Tom Gehrels, could be as high as 100 million. A hit by any one of them could destroy a large city.
What if one or more of these asteroids are found to be a serious threat? Scientists generally agree on the best strategy for avoiding disaster: launch a rocket to intercept the intruder and, at the very least, change its orbit. If the asteroid is small and detected many years and orbits before its predicted impact, the solution would be straightforward. "You apply some modest impulse to the asteroid at as closest approach to the sun," says Los Alamos' Canavan. "The slight deflection that results will amplify during each orbit, ensuring that the asteroid misses Earth by a wide margin."
That little push, he notes, could be provided by conventional high explosives.
For objects 90m or larger and detected late in the game, however, nuclear weapons may well be the only answer. If XF11 had been discovered just 145 million km away and on a beeline toward
Earth, for example, the equivalent of a 1-megaton explosion would have been necessary to shove it into a safe orbit. Had it first been spotted at just a tenth of that distance, a 100-megaton blast would have been needed to turn it away.


Suggested Translation :

Viãûc mäüt thiãn thaûch khäøng läö di chuyãøn vãö hæåïng Traïi
Âáút âaî cho chuïng ta tháúy âoï laì mäüt baïo âäüng giaí cuía vuî truû, nhæng âoï khäng phaíi laì lyï do khiãún chuïng ta khäng bàõt âáöu coï kãú hoaûch âäúi phoï våïi viãûc mäüt thiãn thaûch kãú tiãúp seî di chuyãøn vãö hæåïng Traïi Âáút)
Mäúi âe doüa cuía viãûc caïc thiãn thaûch âuûng vaìo Traïi Âáút váùn coìn baìn baûc trãn khàõp haình tinh naìy, vç nhiãöu láön trong quaï khæï haình tinh naìy âaî bë nhæîng váût thãø låïn tæì khäng gian råi xuäúng nhæ mæa âuûng vaìo noï. Bàòng chæïng cuía nhæîng láön træåïc âáy caïc thiãn thaûch va vaìo Traïi Âáút hiãûn giåì chuïng ta tháúy åí khàõp nåi: hån 150 häú läù chäù trãn bãö màût Traïi Âáút, mäüt säú caïi ta coï thãø nhçn tháúy mäüt caïch roî raìng, mäüt säú caïi khaïc âaî bë chän vuìi tæì láu âåìi räöi hoàûc nàòm åí dæåïi âaïy âaûi dæång.
Hàón nhiãn caïi häú kheït tiãúng nháút trong säú âoï laì caïi häú hçnh troìn coï âæåìng kênh laì 195 kilämeït âæåüc phaït hiãûn åí dæåïi muîi phêa bàõc cuía baïn âaío Yucatan åí Mãhicä. Ngæåìi ta cho ràòng caïi häú khäøng läö naìylaì nåi mäüt sao chäøi coï bãö ngang räüng tæì 10 âãún 13 kilämeït hoàûc mäüt thiãn thaûch âaî âuûng vaìo traïi âáút caïch âáy 65 triãûu nàm træåïc vaì tiãu diãût hãút loaìi khuíng long vaì khoaíng 70% nhæîng loaìi khaïc säúng trãn traïi âáút.
Trong khi nhæîng biãún âäú khuíng khiãúp naìy coï veí nhæ xa xäi vaì khäng coï tháût, coï nhiãöu váût nhàõc nhåí chuïng ta gáön âáy hån ràòng trong khäng gian lán cáûn cuía Traïi Âaït váùn coìn âáöy dáùy nhæîng hoìn âaï to bàòng cåí traïi nuïi vaì caïc sao chäøi âäi khi di chuyãøn chãûch hæåïng. Häú Sao Bàng ráút ngoaûn muûc åí Arizona chàõc chàõn laì do mäüt thiãn thaûch gäöm toaìn sàõt âaìo xuäúng caïch âáy måïi 50.000 nàm. Thiãn thaûch chaûm màût âáút vaì gáy ra vuû näø sau âoï, âaî taûo ra mäüt caïi häú ngang räüng khoaíng mäüt kilämeït vaì sáu 210 meït. Nãúu ngaìy nay xaíy ra vuû naìy, noï coï thãø phaï huyí caí mäüt thaình phäú. Caïch âáy mäüt khoaíng thåìi gian gáön hån, vaìo nàm 1908, mäüt thiãn thaûch hay mäüt maính våî cuía mäüt sao chäøi coï bãö ngang chæa tåïi 60 meït bay vaìo khê quyãøn vaì näø caïch màût âáút khoaíng 8 kilämeït trãn vuìng Tunguska khäng ngæåìi åí cuía
Siberia. Sæïc näø cuía noï khoaíng 10 megaton, phaï huíy mäüt vuìng räüng haìng tràm kilämeït vuäng, âäún ngaî raûp cáy cäúi, gáy hoía hoaûn vaì giãút chãút caïc con tuáön läüc. Giaí sæí noï

84 xaíy ra åí mäüt thaình phäú låïn, thç coï âãún tràm ngaìn ngæåìi chãút. Vaì caïch âáy 2 nàm, mäüt thiãn thaûch coï bãö nag khoaíng 450 meït âæåüc phaït hiãûn ra chè coï 4 ngaìy træåïc khi noï bay vuût ngang qua traïi âáút våïi mäüt váûn täúc laì 93.000 km/giåì, caïch Traïi Âáút chè coï 450.000km. Nãúu noï âuûng Traïi Âáút, gáy ra mäüt sæïc näø coï thãø bàòng trong voìng tæì 3.000 âãún
12.000 megaton - tæång âæång våïi, nhæ nhaì thiãn vàn quaï cäú
Gene Shoemaker noïi, "viãûc láúy táút caí vuî khê haût nhán cuía
Hoa Kyì vaì Liãn Xä, cháút chuïng thaình mäüt âäúng vaì cho chuïng näø tung".
Nhaì thiãn vàn hoüc Jim Scotti, mäüt thaình viãn cuía Nhoïm theo doîi Khäng gian cuía Âaûi hoüc Arizona quan saït báöu tråìi âãø tçm ra caïc sao chäøi vaì thiãn thaûch chæa phaït hiãûn âæåüc, âaî phaït hiãûn ra thiãn thaûch XF11 vaìo ngaìy 6 thaïng 12 væìa qua. Thiãn thaûch låïn naìy khiãún cho moüi ngæåìi phaíi chuï yï âãún chè trong mäüt khoaíng thåìi gian 24 giåì ngàõn nguíi nhæng háúp dáùn. Nhaì thiãn vàn Hills tênh toaïn ràòng mäüt thiãn thaûch bàòng cåî thiãn thaûch XF11 âuûng phaíi Traïi Âáút våïi täúc âäü hån 60.000 km/giåì seî phaït näø våïi nàng læåüng cuía 300.000 megaton - gáön bàòng 20 triãûu láön sæïc cäng phaï cuía traïi bom âaî san bàòng Hiroshima. Äng tiãn âoaïn, nãúu noï âám xuäúng biãøn, noï seî gáy ra mäüt tsunami (thæåìng goüi laì soïng tháön) cao haìng máúy tràm meït, laìm ngáûp luût caïc båì biãøn cuía caïc âaûi luûc åí xung quanh. Äng noïi: "Nåi naìo coï caïc thaình phäú thç noï seî chè coìn laì baîi buìn". Theo tênh toaïn cuía äng, nãúu thiãn thaûch naìy âám xuäúng âáút, noï seî âaìo thaình mäüt caïi häú bãö ngang räüng êt nháút khoaíng 50 kilämeït vaì laìm tung lãn mäüt låïp buûi vaì håi áøm che phuí màût tråìi
"haìng tuáön nãúu khong muäún noïi laì haìng thaïng".
Âiãöu gáön nhæ cuîng gáy cho chuïng ta lo làõng laì coï æåïc khoaíng 300.000 thiãn thaûch våïi bãö ngang räüng hån 90 meït cuîng âang âeïn gáön quyî âaûo traïi âáút mäüt caïch nguy hiãøm hoàûc càõt ngang quyî âaûo Traïi âáút; mäùi thiãn thaûch nayì coï thãø gáy ra sæïc taìn phaï nhæ åí Tunguska trãn mäüt vuìng räüng låïn. Theo nhaì thiãn vàn Tom Gehrels cuía træåìng Âaûi hoüc
Arizona, con säú nhæîng thiãn thaûch coï bãö ngang räüng hån 20 meït coï thãø lãn tåïi khoaíng 100 triãûu thiãn thaûch. Báút cæï mäüt thiãn thaûch naìo trong säú âoï âuûng vaìo traïi âáút cuîng coï thãø phaï huíy mäüt thaình phäú låïn.

Chuïng ta seî laìm gç nãúu chuïng ta nháûn tháúy mäüt hay nhiãöu hån mäüt trong säú nhæîng thiãn thaûch naìy tråí thaình mäüt mäúi âe doüa nghiãm troüng? Caïc nhaì khoa hoüc noïi chung nháút trê vãö chiãún læåüc täút nháút âãø traïnh tai hoüa naìy laì: phoïng mäüt hoía tiãùn âãø ngàn caín váût xám nháûp vaì, täúi thiãøu laì laìm thay âäøi quyî âaûo cuía noï. Nãúu thiãn thaûch nhoí vaì âæåüc phaït hiãûn tæì nhiãöu nàm vaì noï bay theo quyî âaûo træåïc khi coï va chaûm nhæ tiãn liãûu, biãûn phaïp chuïng ta giaíi quyãút coï thãø dãù hiãøu. Äng Canavan åí phoìng thê nghiãûm quäúc gia Los Amlamos noïi: "Chuïng ta aïp duûng mäüt læûc âáøy khiãm täún naìo âoï lãn thiãn thaûch khi noï âãún gáön màût tråìi nháút. Læûc âáøy laìm cho thiãn thaûch håi chãûch hæåïng, hiãûn tæåüng naìy seî tàng lãn mäùi láön thiãn thaûch quay quanh quyî âaûo, baío âaím ràòng thiãn thaûch seî xa Traïi âáút mäüt khoaíng caïch räüng". Äng ghi nháûn, viãûc âáøy mäüt chuït nhæ thãú coï thãø thæûc hiãûn âæåüc bàòng caïch sæí duûng caïc cháút näø maûnh thäng thæåìng. Tuy nhiãn, âäúi våïi nhæîng váût coï bãö ngang khoaíng 90 meït hay låïn hån vaì âaî âæåüc khaïm phaï trãù hån trong hoaût âäüng âäúi phoï våïi thiãn thaûch, caïc vuî khê haût nhán coï thãø laì giaíi âaïp duy nháút.
Vê duû, nãúu thiãn thaûch XF11 âæåüc khaïm phaï khi noï chè coìn caïch Traïi Âáút 145 triãûu kilämeït vaì âang bay thàóng hæåïng
Traïi Âáút, thç ta phaíi cáön âãún mäüt læåüng cháút chäù tæång âæång våïi mäüt megaton âãø âáøy noï vaìo mäüt quyî âaûo an toaìn cho Traïi Âáút. Nãúu ta âaî phaït hiãûn láön âáöu tháúy noï trong khoaíng caïch noïi trãn, thç ta cáön âãún mäüt sæïc näø cuía 100 megaton âãø chuyãøn hæåïng noï âi.


Bronte, E. 1995. Withering Heights. Oxford University Press, London UK.
Butler, O. 1993. A Good Scent From A Strange Mountain.Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK.
Clark, A. 1976. The Secret Of The Andes. Penguin Group, Maryland, USA.
Grisham, J. 1999. A Time To Kill. Penguin Readers Ltd Original Publishing House, Maryland,
Hailey, A. 1999. Airport. Penguin Books, Maryland, USA.
Hawthorn, N. 2000. The Scarlet Letter. Penguin Group, Maryland, USA.
Lawrence, D. 1999. British And American Short Stories. Penguin Ltd, Maryland, USA.
London, J. 1994. The Call Of The Wild. Penguin Group, Maryland, USA.
Lowry, L. 1989. Number The Stars. Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Maryland, USA.
Shelley, Mary. 1988. Frankenstein. Oxford University Press, London, UK
Spack, R. 1999. International Story. Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House, HCM City, Vietnam.
Thomson, A. 1989. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press, London, UK



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Thông tin về tác giả của giáo trình:
- Họ và tên: Nguyễn Văn Tuấn
- Sinh năm: 1963
- Cơ quan công tác: Tổ Biên-phiên dịch, Khoa Tiếng Anh, Trường Đại học Ngoại
Ngữ Huế
- Địa chỉ email:
Phạm vi và đối tượng sử dụng giáo trình:
- Giáo trình Translation 5 chủ yếu sử dụng để dạy cho sinh viên ngành Tiếng Anh, chuyên ngành Sư phạm và Biên phiên dịch. Giáo trình này còn có thể dùng để dạy hoặc dùng như nguồn tham khảo cho sinh viên ngành Quốc tế học, Việt Nam học.
- Giáo trình có thể dùng cho các trường Đại học ngoại ngữ, Đại học sư phạm ngoại ngữ. - Yêu cầu kiến thức trước lúc học môn này:
Để học tốt môn này, người học cần có trình độ tiếng Anh từ Intermediate trở lên và có lối diễn đạt tiếng Việt rõ ràng, chính xác. Ngoài ra người học còn phải có kỹ năng đọc hiểu, tra cứu, phân tích và viết văn bản tốt. Người học cần phải chuẩn bị lượng từ vựng nhất định liên quan đến chủ điểm khoa học-kỹ thuật để tiếp cận, hiểu và dịch văn bản về chủ đề này tốt hơn.
- Các từ khóa để tra cứu:
Environmental issues, construction material technology, radioactive waste, extinction, translating computer, global positioning system (GPS), immune system, cloning, solar storm, biotech.
- Giáo trình chưa được xuất bản, nhưng được sử dụng làm giáo trình giảng dạy trong chương trình đào tạo cử nhân sư phạm tiếng Anh của Đại học Ngoại ngữ
Huế và chương trình elearning của Đại học Huế.

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