Free Essay

Argumentation and Debate


Submitted By Elizabeth88
Words 2460
Pages 10
Section I: * Good reason: reasons that are psychologically compelling for a given audience that makes further inquiry both unnecessary and redundant. Therefore, justifying a decision to affirm or reject a proposition. (Page 2, 12th Edition)


* Ethos: means to convince by the character of the author and by the amount of respect and credibility the commands from the audience.

Example: As a doctor, I am qualified to tell you that this course of treatment will likely generate the best results.

* NDT*: National debate tournament. (Page 20, 12th Edition).

* CEDA*: Cross Examination Debate Association. (Page 20, 12th Edition)

* Sophists: A person who reasons with clever but fallacious arguments.

Example: A person who uses graphs and scientific observation to convince someone that humans are not mammals.

* Enthymeme: (1) A truncated syllogism, in which one of the premises or the conclusion is not stated. (Page 153, 12th Edition)

Example: “You will come out victorious, just do your best." The missing premise is "All people who do their best are people who come out victorious."

* Deduction: Argument that begins with a broad generalization and moves to a more specific application or conclusion. (Page 170, 12th Edition)

Example: All living organisms eventually die. A flower is a living organism. Therefore, it will eventually die.

* Induction: Argument that begins with a specific case and moves to a broader generalization. (Page 170, 12th Edition).

Example: All throughout history people have repeated the same mistakes, so we can conclude that mistakes will be made in the future.

* Causal reasoning: The process whereby one infers that a certain factor (a cause) is a force that produces something else (an effect). (Page 170, 12th Edition)

Example: if you kill someone, you will be trialed and sentenced.

* Reasoning by sign: Two variables are so closely related that the presence or absence of one may be taken as an indication of the presence or absence of the other. (Page 185, 12th Edition)

Example: When the fire alarm is going off in the kitchen, something is burning.

* Appeal to ignorance: Advocates maintain that something cannot be so because they, or the audience, have never heard of it. (Page 189, 12th Edition).

Example: Since no one can prove the Lochness monster does not exist, it is safe to assume that it exists. * Appeal to tradition: Support for an argument is based on customary and historical support for the argument. (Page 189, 12th Edition) Example: My father and his father before him polished wood this way. Do not tell me how to polish wood. * Arguing in a circle: Occurs when one assumes as a premise for the argument the very conclusion one intends to prove. (Page 189, 12th Edition) Example: The Bible is the Word of God because God tells us it is in the Bible.

* Hasty generalization: Argument from example in which the inference is made on the basis of insufficient evidence. (Page 189, 12th Edition) Example: My grandfather smoked 3 packs of cigarettes a day since age fourteen and he died of a car accident at the age of sixty-nine. Therefore, smoking really cannot be that bad for you. * Loaded language: Use of emotionally charged words in an effort to establish a conclusion without proof. (Page 189, 12th Edition)

Example: The Bible is filled with stories of God's magic.

* Non sequitur: A conclusion that does not follow from the premises or evidence on which it is based. (Page 189, 12th Edition)

Example: People like to walk on the beach. Beaches have seashells. Therefore, having a house made with seashells would be a great idea!

* Popular appeal: An advocate tries to win support for a position by maintaining that he or she is merely an “ordinary person” like everyone else. (Page 189, 12th Edition)

Example: if everyone carried a weapon, there would be no more crime in the world.

* Post hoc fallacy: It assumes a causal relationship where none has been proved. (Page 201, 12th Edition)

Example: I had a bad headache, after talking with my boyfriend, my headache started to go away.

* Repeated assertion: An argument is presented as proof for itself. (Page 190, 12th Edition)

Example: Serena Williams is the best tennis player she deserves to win the title. There are other good players but not like her.

* Straw argument: Setting up an issue merely so it can be knocked down. (Page 190, 12th Edition)

Example: Supporters of sex education want to give kids license to have sex with no consequences.

* Hegemony: influence or authority over others.

Example: The United States have so much power that it can influence how the Iraqi government is setup.

* Virtue ethics: is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach which emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions. Example: John always tells the truth even when the consequences are bad for him. * Consequentialism: the theory that the value and especially the moral value of an act should be judged by the value of its consequences.

Example: Luc believes that the whole point of morality is to spread happiness and to relieve others pain.

* Deontology: the ethical system in which morality is determined by duty or laws.

Example: it is the obligation of every employee to report any misconduct in the company regardless of what the consequences might be. * A Proposition of Policy: makes a persuasive argument about a course of action regarding a controversial topic of social or public concern.

Example: The United States should make birth control more affordable to low income families in order to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies.

* A burden of proof: The obligation to prove what one asserts. (Page 44, 12th Edition)

Example: Luc says that he was abducted by aliens. Since no one can prove that he was not abducted, his claim is then true.

* Status quo: The existing state of things; the present system. (Page 44, 12th Edition)

Example: in order to prevent his health condition to deteriorate, the doctor moved Luc to the intensive care unit.

* Presumption: A predisposition favoring a given side in a dispute. (Page 44, 12th Edition)

Example: Men are stronger than women. Since John is a man he must be stronger than Lucy.

* Proposition: A statement of judgment that identifies the central issue in a controversy.
Example of a proposition of value:”Resolved: “Killing is immoral” * Fiat: The convention in academic policy debate that, for the sake of argument, participants may assume implementation of a reasonable policy. (Page 61, 12th Edition)

Section II:
31. A Syllogism is a systematic arrangement of arguments consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
Categorical syllogism example: 1. All mammals are animals. (major premise)
All humans are mammals. (minor premise)
Therefore, all humans are animals. (Conclusion)

2. All soldiers are patriots. (major premise)
No traitors are patriots. (minor premise)
Therefore, no traitors are soldiers. (Conclusion)
Disjunctive syllogism example: 1. Either I will buy shoes or I will by sandals. (major premise)
I will not buy shoes. (minor premise)
Therefore, I will buy sandals. (Conclusion)

2. It is either hot or cold. (major premise) It is not hot. (minor premise)
Therefore, it is cold. (Conclusion)
Conditional syllogism example: 1. If I do not study, then I cannot graduate. (major premise)
If I cannot graduate, then I will not find a job. (minor premise)
Therefore, if I do not study, then I will not find a job. (Conclusion)

2. If atoms are ultimate particles, they are indivisible. (major premise)
If Atoms are not indivisible. (minor premise)
Therefore, they are not ultimate. (conclusion)

33. 1. Harm issues identifies an imperfection within the status quo, marked by urgency and characterized by important deleterious consequences of inaction.
Example: underage drinking is a serious issue. 2. Inherency issue considers the likelihood that absent of positive action, the HARM will continue. It is based in the embedded nature of the harm within the status quo.

Example: the current drinking policies do not fully solve the issue.

3. Solvency issue is the ability of a plan to work and to reduce the harm identified by the affirmative.
Example: European countries have lowered the legal drinking age to 18 years old.
* Tabula Rasa Judge or clean- slate: works to avoid the imposition of his/her own debate philosophy and allows and expects the debaters to decide the theoretical framework for the decision as the debate evolves. Tabula rasa judges claim to begin the debate with no assumptions on what is proper to vote on (Freeley Steinberg pg. 324) and. Example: if the affirmative is using a stock issue case and argues successfully providing all necessary evidence than the judge will vote affirmatively because he had no predispositions about the topic.

* Policymaker Judge: Policymaker judges tend to take the theoretical viewpoint that they are the "policymaker," and as such, they vote for the side that presents the best policy option. Policy maker judges focus on the affirmative plan as compared to available alternatives and through a cost benefit analysis; they compare the merits of the competing policies. Example: If the affirmative case is the ban of “No child left behind” and the negative argues that it should not be completely banned but rather improved, than the policymaker judge will go by “which policy is better” by doing a cost benefit analysis.

* Hypothesis-Testing Judge: takes the perspective of a scientist seeking to determine the probable truth of a hypothesis. Unlike the policymaker judge, the hypothesis-testing judge does not seek to compare two policies systems but rather seek to test the hypothesis which is the proposition as exemplified by the affirmative case (Freeley Steinberg pg. 324).

* Issue Judge: A stock issues judge believes that the affirmative must fulfill their burden of proof by specifically elaborating the stock Issues (which are Harm, Inherency and solvency). If the negative proves that the affirmative is lacking in any one of the issues, it is grounds for the affirmative case to be rejected. Stock issue judges generally prefer a clear, eloquent presentation of issues during the debate.
35. In parliamentary debate since only one question may be considered at a time, the sequence in which motions are taken up is fixed by parliamentary law. A rank of motions indicating the order in which specific motions should be processed. When a motion is immediately pending, any motion above it on the Precedence of Motions is in order and any motion below it is out of order.
Once the main motion is before the meeting, any of the following motions, when appropriate, may be made. The order of precedence is categorized as followed: 1. Privileged motion: have no direct connection with the main motion before the assembly. However, they relate to urgent matters that need immediate consideration which is why they hold the highest precedence. The privileged motion includes: Fix the time of the next meeting, Adjourn, recess and question of privilege. Example: Recess is a very important matter that is justified to take first precedence over the Incidental, subsidiary and main motion because in a parliament for instance when people are tired it’s better to recess or suspend the meeting temporarily otherwise nothing good comes out of the debate. 2. Incidental motion: only arise incidentally out of the business before the assembly. Also they are second in precedence and include: Appeal decision to the chair (secure reversal ruling by the chair), close nominations, division of the house (require a standing vote), object to consideration, parliamentary inquiry, point of order, suspension of the rule, request for information and withdraw a motion. All these incidental motions play a vital role in the unfolding of a debate. That’s why they hold second precedence. Example: calling for “division of the house” is an important matter because it helps to clearly identify who is voting for or against a law or an issue (Reference our classroom debates). That’s why it has second precedence. 3. Subsidiary motion: are alternative aids for changing, considering, and disposing of the main motion. Therefore, they are subsidiary to the main motion Example: vote immediately (means to close the debate and bring the matter before the meeting to an immediate vote. (Freeley and Steinberg pg. 408) 4. Main motion: Brings substantive proposals before the assembly for consideration and decision. It has zero precedence 36. * Lincoln-Douglas Debate: commonly practiced in high school debate. The idea behind this form of debate is to focus on discussing the merits of competing ethical values in a persuasive manner (the goal is to be able to win arguments by persuading the judges). Lincoln-Douglas debates were inspired by the debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas during a senatorial race in the 1850s. A round of Lincoln-Douglas debate consists of five speeches and two cross-examination periods. So to summarize Lincoln-Douglas debates have traditionally placed strong emphasis on speaking persuasively, logically and in a very clear manner.

* CEDA stands for Cross-Examination Debate Association. This is a newer form of college-level Debate compared to NDT. It was born as a reaction to NDT the same way that Lincoln-Douglas debate was born as a reaction to team policy debate. CEDA is a two-on-two debate, with a structure very similar to the NDT and team policy debate. The difference resides in the style of the resolution. While NDT resolutions are policy-oriented CEDA resolutions are more value oriented. Mainly practiced in College.

* Parliamentary debate is another form of debate that arose as a reaction against the excesses of NDT and team policy debate. The emphasis in this form of debate is on persuasiveness and logic. Unlike in other forms of debate, where the resolution is established well in advance of a tournament, in Parliamentary debate the resolution is usually not established until 10 minutes before the debate round begins. A debate round has two teams with two debaters each and a Speaker. One team represents the Government, while the other represents the Opposition. The Government team is composed of a Prime Minister, who speaks twice, and a Member of Government, who speaks once. The Opposition team is composed of a Leader of the Opposition, who speaks twice, and a Member of the Opposition, who speaks once. The Government proposes a specific case statement, which they must demonstrate to be correct. The Opposition does not have to propose anything, but must demonstrate that the case statement is not correct. The Speaker decides at the end of the round, based on the arguments made which met the burden of proof.

Work cited
Freeley, Austin J., and David L. Steinberg. Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision Making. 13th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning, n.d. Print

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

English Class 2nd Quartr

...Scope and Sequence in English 4 Second Quarter School Year 2014 – 2015 |Number of Meetings|Competencies / Lessons |Assessment / Evaluation | |Week 1 |prepare a project / research proposal |Recitation | | | | | |Day 1 |Research Writing: Introduction to Research Paper Writing |Students identify the parts of a Research paper or a Term paper | |Day 2-3 |show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made in research |Supervised Research | | | | | | |Writing a Bibliography ...

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Can We All Just Get Along

...Running Head: Can We All Just Get Along? Setting the Tone with Dialogue and Discourse: Can we all just get along? Dawn Trickett Azusa Pacific University TESL 537 Professor Michael Chamberlain In 1992, following the acquittal of officers tried for the beating of Rodney King, parts of Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and Atlanta erupted in riots. On the third day of the melee, Rodney King appeared in public before the television cameras to appeal for peace and voiced his now famous line, “Can we all just get along?” Little did he know this would become one of the 25 most memorable quotations (usatoday, 2010). Since that time this quotation has been referenced by the Young Turks calling for an end to the arguments about genocide, Asian communities calling for peace in their neighborhoods, and 1,260,000 other occasions noted on the web. I propose “Can we all just get along?” as the overarching question offered by Wong (2009) when she states, “I posit that a reconstructed identity from a ‘missionary who is teaching to gain access’ to a ‘global Christian professional language teacher’ has the potential to redress the concern raised while enhancing many of the benefits that can occur when teachers align their spiritual and professional identities” (p. 91, emphasis mine). I don’t think Mr. King will mind if we borrow his phrase one more time for application to this discussion of how Christian English language teachers integrate their spiritual...

Words: 3326 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Poverty Is a State of Mind

...”Living in Poverty” – Richard Wright The definition of poverty can be a very individual thing, but if you ask people what they think poverty is, I think that most of them would say that it is lack of money. However, I also think that some of them, just a little group of them, would say: “Some people are so poor, all they got is money”. This is just one of the discussions, which involves poverty. It is also discussed whether poverty always will be in someone’s life if they are raised in it – and whether everybody has equal conditions when it comes to having a life without poverty, as a child or as an adult. In the essay “Living in Poverty” by Richard Wright poverty is the main theme. Richard Wright invites us in to the debate with his personal experiences and his story about living in Britain’s poor environment. Through the story Richard Wright get us to think – is poverty something in our mind? And is poverty really the only option for someone? The essay “Living in Poverty” is a creative non-fiction essay. More specifically; a personal essay, so I assume that Richard Wright is the “I” in the story. The essay is focusing on the topic ‘poverty’ through Richard Wright’s own stories and are therefore based on true and personal experiences. The whole story is about Richard Wright growing up – his childhood, teenage years and years as an adult. Richard Wright grew up in poverty, but he expresses that he never felt poor or saw he his family as a poor family. He grew up with a loving...

Words: 1208 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Argumentation Visualization: Development Through the Ages

...Structuring” “Argumentation Visualization” The work is done by: Third-year student International Management specialization Utochkin Denis Saint – Petersburg 2013 Abstract This essay reviews development and current state of the argumentation visualization concept and tools. Argumentation visualization is a set of methods used to represent complex systems of preconditions, reasons and conclusions via visual tools, such as graphs, diagrams, matrices, charts etc. The overview uses the inductive immersion approach: argumentation visualization phenomenon understanding is gained by following the history of method’s development and absorbing most influential thoughts that contributed to the approach in question throughout the centuries. The milestones of visual reasoning are highlighted, several examples of argumentation visualization tools are provided. Description of the today’s state of argumentation visualization method, known as CSAV, follows the historical reference. A short market overview is given further. An overlook of the main trends that define further development of CSAV and main points of criticism of the method conclude the work. Table of content History of argumentation visualization 4 Early precursors of argumentation visualization 5 Direct ancestors of argumentation visualization 6 Wigmore’s evidence chart 6 Toulmin’s graphical argument 8 Current state 9 Market overview 10 Challenges and trends 10 References 12 History of argumentation visualization ...

Words: 2084 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Com Channels

...Hello MRNICEGUY I am back and ready to get this started. My 1st class is MGT/521. There is really no word limit so I really didn’t know what to ask to be charged. Please let me know if you need anything from me. I am thinking this is all due Sunday he did not say so I will let you know if it is before then. Communication Channel Scenarios Resources: Communication Channel Scenarios located on the student website. Read the scenarios located on the student website. Answer the questions after each scenario. Be sure to select the communication channel appropriate for each scenario. Defend your responses. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Scenarios are below: Scenario 1 You are the Marketing Manager for a new beverage that has done remarkably well in the United States after it’s introduction especially in sports arenas such as football and basketball. The Vice President of Operations charged you and your team to develop a strategy for entering this new beverage into the global market. You need to take this task back to your team, provide them with the product details, and get them started as quickly as possible because they only have one week to develop a strategy. Questions: 1. What communication channel will you use? 2. Why is this channel the best choice in this situation? 3. What communication channel will you use to convey your strategy to the VP of Operations? 4. Why is this channel the best choice n this situation? Scenario 2 You...

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Chapt. 9

...view of the audience and try to reel in the audience. 2. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Rogerian argument? The advantages of Rogerian that it is a good way to grasp the attention of the audience to semi show them the opposition but the disadvantage is that you will have to pretty much take the opposition side to even get a grip of your own beliefs. 3. In what type of argumentation situation do you think you might find Rogerian argument more productive than traditional argument? Describe an issue, along with the rhetorical situation, which might prompt you to resort to Rogerian argument. Even though the topic may be very controversial Rogerian would be better in the argument of same sex marriage whereas using rhetorical situation could make it an audience feel very uncomfortable. 4. In what type of argumentation situation do you think you might find traditional argument more productive than Rogerian argument? Describe an issue, along with the rhetorical situation, which might prompt you to use traditional argument instead of Rogerian argument. A debate for the removal of uniform. Using Rogerian is like fighting for the opposition whereas rhetorical situation will give you an opportunity to state your claim. 5. What difficulties, if any, do you personally contemplate in using Rogerian argument? How do you feel...

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

English Schedule

...6Week/Date | Topic/Activity | Homework | Week 69/10 | - Introduction to Argumentation- Writing a letter of complaint | - Complete your letter of complaint- Familiarize yourself with APA style by reading pgs. 200-216 and 220-222 in Essay Essentials- Read “Making the Argument” from the Essay Essentials website: click here. | Week 716/10 | - Open book quiz: APA Style- Good Arguments VS Bad Arguments- Organizing an argument; making a reverse outline- Selecting debate groups and begin debate prep | - Complete your assigned role for the debate (researching or speech writing) | INTERSESSION WEEK: NO CLASS 23/10 | Week 830/10 | - Debate Day - time allocated for final debate prep - hold debate | - Complete your Persuasive Essay | END OF UNIT TWO: PERSUASIVE ESSAY DUE 6/11 | Week 96/11 | - Defining the research essay- Evaluating research sources- Summarizing, paraphrasing and quoting | - Watch the GBC Plagiarism tutorial: click here. | Week 1013/11 | - How to Research: Field trip to GBC Library | - Complete the “Refine Your Thesis” annotated bibliography template and an essay outline- Submit your grammar questions | Week 1120/11 | - Plagiarism Quiz- GrammarOnDemand! - Instructor-student meetings: bring annotated bibliography template and your essay outline | | Week 1227/11 | - Instructor-student meetings: bring your annotated bibliography template and your essay outline | - Complete your Research Essay | COMM 1007 FALL 2012: SCHEDULE 2.0 FOR UNITS...

Words: 297 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Bibliografie: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Andrei Marga, Argumentarea , EFES, Cluj, 2006; Andrei Marga, Rationalitate, comunicare, argumentare, Editura Dacia, Cluj, 1991; Andrei Marga, Metodologie si argumentare filosofica , Editura Dacia, Cluj, 1992; Stephen Toulmin, The Uses of Argument, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, NY, 2003; Morris Cohen, Ernest Nagel, An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method, Simon Publications, Harcourt, Brace & World, [1934], 2002 Alec Fisher, The Logic of Real Arguments, second edition, Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge, UK, 200 4; Douglas Walton, Begging the Question. Circular Reasoning as a Tactic î Argumentation, Greenwood Press, New York/Westport/London, 1992; Austin J. Freely, David L. Steinberg Argumentation and Debate. Critical Thinking for Reasoned Decision, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA, 2000; John L. Austin, How to do Things with Words,...

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...The most interesting concept I learned about NPDA debate is the structures of the debate. When I thought of argumentation and deliberation originally, I pictured a panel style setting with four or five people on each side arguing their points by taking turns. Learning the proper style and terms such as rebuttal, which “sum up the debate and crystallize the important issues for the judges” (Cantrell & Swift, 2012, p. 104). The rebuttal justifies which team has won the debate and this round allows each side to prove their points. During the rebuttal the lead opposition will be allowed to speak for four minutes to demonstrate their opposing views on the topic. They will present all of the topics that have been brought up by the government and they will present their evidence to discourage the government’s arguments. The Prime Minister will have five minutes to speak during the rebuttal and they will justify their position in their argument by supporting their topics and counter arguing the opposition’s topics. In other words, the rebuttal sets the final tone of the entire debate and it has the power to change the opinion of the judge. Not only is it persuasive but it is also the final counter argument. During this round it is highly pertinent that both speakers focus on the most important topics that were presented throughout the debate. They are discouraged from presenting new arguments during the rebuttal stage and teams have the opportunity to interrupt the argument...

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

A Lstalo Sl a

...Intro ● Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to this debate. ● Welcome from this side of the house to the opposition members ● the motion for debate today is principles based accounting provide/not provide greater opportunity for manager to manage earnings defining the motion: ● Now we as today's proposition strongly believe that this is true that principle based accounting provide greater opportunity for manager to manage earnings, but before we come to our actual argumentation, let us first define some important terms in this debate. ● We believe that what is meant by principle based accouting is that Almost all companies are required to prepare their financial statements as set out by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), whose standards are generally principles-based that principle will tell you what is the right thing to do and then you must judge what to do in specific circumstances, principles just like compass which shows the direction. Furthermore, they also mentioned that rules are like maps which show you exactly how to get there, a rule will tell you what to do in specific circumstances. (Roger Hussey & Audra Ong 2005) The fundamental advantage of principles-based accounting is that its broad guidelines can be practical for a variety of circumstances. Precise requirements can sometimes compel managers to manipulate the statements to fit what is compulsory. The problem with principles-based guidelines is that lack of guidelines...

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Catalunya e a Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform`tics Campus Nord, M´dul C5-C6, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona (08034), Spain o {steve, jmpujol, ia} Abstract. Peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures exhibit attractive properties for a wide range of real world systems. As a result they are increasingly being applied in the design of applications ranging from highcapacity file sharing and global scale distributed computing to business team-ware. The objective of this paper is to outline a number of areas in which Agent techniques for the management of social problems such as decision making or fair trading amongst autonomous agents could be used to help structure P2P actions. In particular we focus on approaches from mechanism design, argumentation theory and norms / rules and electronic institutions. 1 Introduction Peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures exhibit attractive properties for a wide range of real world systems. As a result they are increasingly being applied in the design of applications ranging from high-capacity file sharing and global scale distributed computing to business team-ware. In addition their benefits however, P2P systems also fundamentally change the networking paradigm used in an application often causing tensions with other application goals such as security, predictability, performance guarantees, billing and so forth. Some of these issues in particular arise due to the nature of control, authority and ownership typical found in peer-to-peer systems:...

Words: 3969 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Weerqwerwerwerwer Erwerwerr Werwerwerwe Werwerwerwerw Erwer Werwerwerwrwerwerwrw Erwrwerwere Rererere Erere Ere Erererer Erere

...rerer e ererer rereThe Expository Essay Summary: This resource begins with a general description of essay writing and moves to a discussion of common essay genres students may encounter across the curriculum. Note: The Modes of Discourse: Description, Narration, Exposition, Argumentation (EDNA) The four genres of essays (description, narration, exposition, and argumentation) are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres, also known as the modes of discourse, have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these genres and students’ need to understand and produce these types of essays. We hope these resources will help. Contributors:Jack Baker, Allen Brizee Last Edited: 2010-04-17 05:33:24 What is an Expository Essay? The expository essay is a genre of essay that requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner. This can be accomplished through comparison and contrast, definition, example, the analysis of cause and effect, etc. Please note: This genre is commonly assigned as a tool for classroom evaluation and is often found in various exam formats. The structure of the expository essay is held together by the following: A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. It is essential that...

Words: 732 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Debate Phrase

...(8) Proposition Reply (1st or 2nd speaker) biased summary (2) 1st Opposition accepting definition / redefinition, teamline,  rebuttal of 1st Proposition, own arguments (4) 2nd Opposition rebuttal of 2nd Prop., rebuild own case, own  arguments (6) 3rd Opposition general rebuttal, rebuild own case (7) Opposition Reply (1st or 2nd speaker) biased summary opening the debate: ● [some nice opening, e.g. quote] on the fact that ... ● Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to  ● And our third speaker, ..., will do the  this debate. rebuttal. ● Welcome from this side of the  rebutting arguments, rebuilding your case: house... ● But before I come to my own  ● The motion for debate today is: ... arguments, let us first have a look at  defining the motion: what ... has said. ● Now we as today's  ● I will continue our case in a minute,  proposition/opposition strongly  but before that there are some things  believe that this is true/not true, but  about the ... speech that need to be  before we come to our actual  addressed. argumentation, let us first define  ● The first prop/opposition speaker has  some important terms in this debate. told us ...; on the contrary ... ● We believe that what is meant by ... is  ● He/She also said that ...; but in fact..  ... / that ... are ...  ● He/She was claiming that ...; but as  ● When we say ... should ... we mean  my first speaker already told you, ... that ... introducing arguments: presenting the teamline: ● Let me come to my  ● We as todays proposition/opposition ...

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Discussion Reflection English grammar is the body of rule that describes the structure of expressions in the english language – a system- rule – governed. Hence, universal grammer the scientific study and the order of sentences ,is a theory of linguists that manifests itelf without being taught. The English language development offers a wide range of courses for me to succeed on my degree. It is open to anyone and particularly useful for me as a student . An English for academic purposes – I have learned about generative formal characteristics , the rules that are governed to it such as SBO pattern , comples and compound sentences these are the functional context in grammar. Morphology has been introduced ,the study of tha smallest meanungful unit of language that refers to the study of the internal structure of words and of the systematic form- meaning correspondencesbetween words. In addition there are some role reference grammar that analyzes the language.Firstly, Pragmatics – the study of practical aspects of human action and thought by linguistic signs ,(words and sentences) in actual situations. Secondly, Syntaxis the study of the principles and processes by which sentences constructed in particular languages .Thirdly, Sematics denotes a range of ideas – and focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and symbols. It is also the study of meaningthat is used for human expression through language. Fourthly, Phonology, it is concerned with the...

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Same-Sex Marriage

...CHANGING VIEWS OR JUST GOING “STRAIGHT” AGAINST IT? SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN THE U.S. UNFOLDED IN THE SUMMER OF 2012. THE POLITICAL SUPPORT WAS VERY IMPORTANT. BUT DID SO MANY CHANGE THEIR VIEW OR DID THEY JUST OVERCOME THEIR FEAR? During the 1990’s in the United States there was a group of people who struggled to fit into the society and to be accepted. Homosexual men and women do not have many of the same rights as heterosexuals. One example from the past is that they were not allowed to marry their partners, only because they had the same gender. In this time it was a kind of suicide to talk positive about the right of same-sex marriage. During the last year, there has been a big discussion about the legalization of same-sex marriage. Today many things have changed. With a new president and a new generation, some American’s attitude towards marriage of homosexuals has changed in 2012. Like Joe Biden, the vice president of the United States, said to the American television: “People fear what is different. Now they have started to understand.” David Blankenhorn is one of the many people, who “have started to understand”. He has changed his view on gay marriage. David Blankenhorn is the founder and president of the institute for American Values and a noted figure in the campaign against gay marriage in the U.S. In his opinion article “How my view on same-sex marriage changed” he writes about his view on homosexual marriages and his attitude-twist. David Blankenhorn’s...

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5