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Case Study Alphabet Games

In: Business and Management

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Unlike the previous Scottish Parliament which was abolished by the Act of Union in 1707, the new Scottish Parliament is not a completely independent body. The Scottish Parliament is quite clearly an inferior body in comparison to the Westminster Parliament. It is the
Westminster Parliament from which the Scottish Parliament derives its authority to pass laws for Scotland. Any legislation of the Scottish Parliament is considered to be secondary legislation not primary legislation. It should also be recalled that a simple Act of the Westminster
Parliament is all that it would take to abolish Scotland’s Parliament. Westminster has already abolished a local assembly or parliament ie the Stormont Parliament or Assembly which made laws for Northern Ireland until its abolition in the 1970s.

scots law has two main areas of law: Civic Law and Criminal Law. These laws are made to protect people and make them feel safe.
Scottish criminal law deals with offences against people and offences against property, for example, murder, rape, parking offences, non-payment of TV licence, and theft. Criminal law also covers public order offences, which include mobbing, and so on
Scottish civic law is focused on non–criminal disputes, such as those related to business, personal relationships, divorce, contracts, debts, etc. [
القانون الاسكتلندي لديه مجالين رئيسيين القانون: القانون المدني والقانون الجنائي. وتتكون هذه القوانين لحماية الناس وجعلهم يشعرون بالأمان.
ويتناول القانون الجنائي الاسكتلندي مع الجرائم ضد الأشخاص والجرائم ضد الممتلكات، على سبيل المثال، والقتل، والاغتصاب، وجرائم قوف السيارات، وعدم دفع رخصة التلفزيون، والسرقة. ويشمل القانون الجنائي أيضا جرائم النظام العام، والتي تشمل المهاجمة، وهلم جرا
ويركز القانون المدني الاسكتلندي في النزاعات غير جنائية، مثل تلك المتعلقة بالأعمال، والعلاقات الشخصية، والطلاق، والعقود، والديون، وما إلى ذلك [ European legislation proposed by institutions of the European Union.
United Kingdom has been membership in the UE science Jan.1.1973. [3] Put in to various Treaties and different legalisation which passed to EU and will concern to Grate Britain and it is general public. EU legalisation is made by laws planned by the European Commission. Commissioner is one from member state. One of commissioner role is to suggest changes or propose new laws. They will describe by the heard new role and terms of law. However, before suggested new laws become actual laws, should be passed through Council of European Union and European Parliament then accepted. EU legalisation is the form of commands or rules .
Example Act
"European Union Act 2011" [4] is about conditions related to the European Union
United Kingdom legislation proposed by the United Kingdom Parliament
( Westminster)
United Kingdom Parliament consists of two "houses" Commons House and Houses of Lords. House of commons is elected by population and House of Lords is appointed as Lords by governments and limited number of hereditary, also be able to create laws on any topic. UK Legislation before become a law both houses are discussed subject they can make changes, refuse or accept. It has to be passed in both houses and be given to Royal Assent.
Examples Act
"Statute Law( Repeals) Act 2013 [5] - An act is recommendation of the Law Commission and the Scottish Law Commission an act is support the change of the statute law by the repeal
The Health & Safety at Work Act 1974
The Sale of Goods Act 1979
Scottish legislation proposed by the Scottish Parliament ( Holyrood)
In 1990’s by the referendum and elections Scotland has built Parliament in Edinburgh. Act 1998 Scottish Parliament has right to make Lawson any subject, but just practical to Scotland and the just on Matters delegated to it by UK Parliament, or example education, planning, health and so on. They cannot legislate on foreign policy, defence, economic policy, employment or laws which conflict with EU Legalisation. Scottish Parliament Legislation made laws by gives details of the suggested law after consider by the part of the Scottish Parliament then accept amend or reject. When passed then confer to Royal Assent and becomes an Act
Examples Act
"Licensing ( Scotland ) Act 2005 [6] – role for sales alcohol
"Tourist Boards (Scotland) Act 2006 [7] - increase members of tourist boards
Explain judicial precedent [8] and it is used in Scots law quoting at least one example
"Judicial precedent is based on case law." [9] Judicial precedent base on a different court while decided case base on identical face of common law.
Judicial Precedent is the method where judicial precedent go after previously resolute law fact, which is very similar.
Begin decision, keep decided, where lower court is demand to apply lawful ideology place by superior course in before cases.
For example, the High Court be required to go after verdict of the Court of Appeal, which necessity follow decision of the House of Lords.
The binding element of a before choice in the ratio decided, it has to be followed by judges in shortly case. No matter what said obiter dictum on the original case id does matter because it was not harshly belong to the matter in problem.
In case where there are laws with different precedent levels the one with higher precedence becomes the most important although the might be laws with greater precedents. For example Airedale NHS Trust v Bland (1993).
Explain Institutional writing and it is role in Scots law
Industrial writers are Stair, Craig, Erskine, Hume, Bell and Bankton is a closed group of legal experts, they wrote during 17th to early 19th century. They were published works on their area, they published became authoritative statements of the law in those part of laws, because of them experience and skill in this area. However, Industrial Writing is formal recording of court decision and their opinions. Institutional writing is using in Scot law for this day and it is main source of Scot law although nobody has enough experience and skills to change and publish again this part of laws.
Explain custom and it is role in Scots law.
Custom at the present hardly ever a basis of fresh law
Custom is way which has been extended and again and again documented and so has acquire the power of law. Along with judicial precedent, institutional writings and equity these make up what is recognized as a group as common law. An example would be the legal rights of widows and children when a husband dies without leaving a will.
التشريعات الأوروبية التي اقترحتها مؤسسات الاتحاد الأوروبي.

لقد المملكة المتحدة عضوا في Jan.1.1973 العلوم UE. [3] وضعت في لمختلف المعاهدات وتقنين مختلفة التي مرت إلى الاتحاد الأوروبي وسوف تشغل لصر بريطانيا ومن عامة الناس. يتم تقنين الاتحاد الأوروبي بموجب القوانين المقررة من قبل اللجنة الأوروبية. مفوض هي واحدة من الدول الأعضاء. واحدة من دور المفوض هو اقتراح تغييرات أو اقتراح قوانين جديدة. وسيصفون من دور وشروط القانون الجديد سمعت. ومع ذلك، قبل اقترحت قوانين جديدة تصبح القوانين الفعلية، ينبغي أن تنتقل من خلال مجلس الاتحاد الأوروبي والبرلمان الأوروبي قبلت ذلك الحين. تقنين الاتحاد الأوروبي هو شكل أوامر أو قواعد.

قانون المثال

"قانون الاتحاد الأوروبي عام 2011" [4] هو حول الشروط المتعلقة الاتحاد الأوروبي

تشريعات المملكة المتحدة التي اقترحها برلمان المملكة المتحدة


يتكون برلمان المملكة المتحدة اثنين من "منازل" العموم النواب ومجلسي اللوردات. يتم انتخاب مجلس العموم من حيث عدد السكان ويعين مجلس اللوردات كما ورد من قبل الحكومات وعدد محدود من وراثي، أيضا أن تكون قادرة على خلق القوانين على أي موضوع. التشريع المملكة المتحدة قبل أن تصبح قانونا وتناقش مجلسي موضوع يمكنهم إجراء تغييرات، رفض أو قبول. لديها لتمريرها في مجلسي وأن تعطى الموافقة الملكية.

قانون أمثلة

"القانون الأساسي (الإبطالات) قانون 2013 [5] - فعل هو توصية لجنة القانون ولجنة القانون الاسكتلندي فعل هو دعم التغيير من القانون الأساسي التي كتبها إلغاء

الصحة والسلامة في العمل 1974

بيع البضائع قانون 1979

التشريع الاسكتلندي الذي اقترحه البرلمان الاسكتلندي (هوليرود)

في عام 1990 عن طريق الاستفتاء والانتخابات وقد بنيت اسكتلندا البرلمان في ادنبره. قانون 1998 البرلمان الاسكتلندي لديه الحق في جعل لوسون أي موضوع، ولكن فقط عملي لاسكتلندا وفقط على المسائل الموكولة إليها من قبل برلمان المملكة المتحدة، أو التعليم مثلا، والتخطيط، والصحة، وهلم جرا. أنهم لا يستطيعون تشريع في مجال السياسة الخارجية والدفاع والسياسة الاقتصادية، والعمل أو القوانين التي تتعارض مع الاتحاد الأوروبي التقنين. جعل التشريع البرلمان الاسكتلندي القوانين التي تعطي تفاصيل القانون المقترح بعد النظر من قبل جزء من البرلمان الاسكتلندي ثم قبول تعديل أو رفض. عندما مرت بعد ذلك يضفي على الموافقة الملكية ويصبح قانون

قانون أمثلة

"الترخيص (اسكتلندا) لعام 2005 [6] - دور لمبيعات الكحول

"المجالس السياحية (اسكتلندا) لعام 2006 [7] - زيادة أعضاء مجالس السياحية

شرح سابقة قضائية [8] ويتم استخدامه في القانون الاسكتلندي نقلا عن مثال واحد على الأقل

"ويستند سابقة قضائية على السوابق القضائية." [9] القضائية قاعدة سابقة على ملعب مختلفة في حين قررت قاعدة الحالة على وجه مطابق للقانون المشترك.

سابقة قضائية هي الطريقة التي سابقة قضائية تذهب بعد الحازم سابقا حقيقة القانون، التي هي مشابهة جدا.

تبدأ القرار، والحفاظ على قررت، حيث المحكمة الابتدائية هي مطلب تطبيق المكان أيديولوجية قانونى من دورة عليا في قبل الحالات.

على سبيل المثال، أن يطلب من المحكمة العليا أن يذهب بعد حكم محكمة الاستئناف، الذي بضرورة متابعة قرار مجلس اللوردات.

العنصر الملزم للاختيار من قبل في نسبة قرر، لا بد من اتباعها من قبل القضاة في القضية قريبا. بغض النظر عن ما قاله obiter القول المأثور على القضية الهوية الأصلية لا يهم لأنه لا ينتمي بقسوة إلى هذه المسألة في المشكلة.

في الحالة التي يكون فيها هناك قوانين ذات مستويات مختلفة سابقة واحدة مع ارتفاع الأسبقية يصبح أهم الرغم من أن قد تكون القوانين مع سوابق أكبر. على سبيل المثال كلب الصيد NHS الثقة ضد بلاند (1993).

شرح كتابة المؤسسية، ومن دور في القانون الاسكتلندي

الكتاب الصناعية هي ستاير، كريغ، أرسكين، هيوم، بل وBankton هو مجموعة مغلقة من الخبراء القانونيين، وكتب خلال 17 إلى أوائل القرن ال19. تم نشرها يعمل على منطقتهم، التي نشرت أصبح البيانات الموثوقة القانون في تلك جزءا من القوانين، لأن منهم الخبرة والمهارة في هذا المجال. ومع ذلك، الكتابة الصناعية هي تسجيل رسمي لقرار المحكمة وآرائهم. كتابة المؤسسية يستخدم في القانون الاسكتلندي لهذا اليوم وهذا هو المصدر الرئيسي للقانون الاسكتلندي على الرغم من أن لا أحد لديه الخبرة والمهارات الكافية لتغيير ونشر مرة أخرى هذا الجزء من القوانين.

شرح العرف وأنها دورا في القانون الاسكتلندي.

العرف في الوقت الحاضر نادرا أساس قانون جديد

العرف هو الطريق الذي تم تمديده وثقت مرارا وتكرارا، ولها حتى يكتسب قوة القانون. جنبا إلى جنب مع سابقة قضائية، كتابات المؤسسية والإنصاف هذه يشكلون ما يتم التعرف على مجموعة كقانون المشترك. على سبيل المثال سيكون الحقوق القانونية للأرامل والأطفال عندما يموت زوجها دون أن يترك وصية.
Bills may start their passage in either the House of Commons or House of Lords, although bills which are mainly or entirely financial will start in the Commons. Each bill passes through the following stages:
Pre-legislative Scrutiny: Joint committee of both houses review bill and vote on amendments that government can accept or reject. Reports are influential in later stages as rejected committee recommendations are revived to be voted on.
First Reading: No vote occurs. Bill is presented, printed, and in private members' bills, a Second Reading date is set.
Second Reading: A debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote.
Committee Stage: A committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments.
Report Stage: An opportunity to amend the bill. The House consider clauses to which amendments have been tabled.
Third Reading: A debate on final text as amended.
فواتير قد تبدأ مرورهم سواء في مجلس العموم أو مجلس اللوردات، على الرغم من أن الفواتير التي هي أساسا أو كليا المالية ستبدأ في مجلس العموم. كل مشروع قانون يمر عبر المراحل التالية:

الفحص ما قبل التشريعي: لجنة مشتركة من مجلسي النواب مشروع قانون مراجعة والتصويت على التعديلات التي يمكن للحكومة أن قبول أو رفض. تقارير مؤثرة في مراحل لاحقة حيث يتم إحياء توصيات اللجنة رفضت أن يتم التصويت عليه.

عدد 1 (الأخضر الداكن) .pngFirst القراءة: يحدث لا يوجد تصويت. ويقدم مشروع القانون، وطبع، وفواتير أعضاء من القطاع الخاص، وتحديد موعد القراءة الثانية.

عدد 2 (الأخضر الداكن) .pngSecond القراءة: ويلي ذلك مناقشة حول المبادئ العامة للقانون عن طريق التصويت.

لجنة المرحلة: تعتبر لجنة كل بند من بنود مشروع القانون، ويمكن أن تجعل التعديلات.

تقرير المرحلة: فرصة لتعديل مشروع القانون. البيت النظر في بنود التي تم طرح التعديلات.

عدد 3 (الأخضر الداكن) .pngThird القراءة: A النقاش حول النص النهائي بصيغته المعدلة.

Public Bills are introduced in either House and go through a number of set stages that generally involve Members of both Houses examining the Bill.
Bills that are largely financial, or involve the public's money - like new taxes or public spending - are always introduced in the Commons.

Hybrid Bills mix the characteristics of Public and Private Bills. The changes to the law proposed by a Hybrid Bill would affect the general public but would also have a significant impact for specific individuals or groups. The Bill passed concerning the construction of the Channel Tunnel was an example of a Hybrid Bill.

A private bill is a proposal for a law that would apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity. This is unlike public bills which apply to everyone within their jurisdiction. Private law can afford relief from another law, grant a unique benefit or powers not available under the general law, or relieve someone from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act.

يتم تقديم مشاريع القوانين العامة سواء في البيت وتذهب من خلال عدد من مجموعة المراحل التي تنطوي عادة أعضاء المجلسين دراسة مشروع القانون.
وقدم دائما في مجلس العموم - مشاريع القوانين التي هي إلى حد كبير المالية، أو تنطوي على الأموال العامة - مثل فرض ضرائب جديدة أو الإنفاق العام.

فواتير الهجين مزيج خصائص فواتير الخاصة والعامة. ان تغييرات على قانون اقترحه أحد بيل الهجين تؤثر على عامة الناس ولكن أيضا أن يكون لها تأثير كبير على الأفراد أو مجموعات. المصادقة على مشروع القانون المتعلق بناء نفق بحر المانش كان مثالا لبيل الهجين.

وهناك مشروع قانون خاص هو اقتراح القانون الذي ينطبق على فرد معين أو مجموعة من الأفراد، أو شخصا اعتباريا. وهذا بخلاف مشاريع القوانين العامة التي تنطبق على شخص خاضع لولايتها. يمكن أن القانون الخاص تحمل الإغاثة من قانون آخر، منح فائدة فريدة أو القوى غير متوفرة بموجب القانون العام، أو تعفي أي شخص من المسؤولية القانونية عن بعض الفعل زعم غير مشروع.

1)The House of Lords is made up of people who have inherited family titles and those who have been given titles because of their outstanding work in one field or another. There are 675 members of the Lords. the main job of the House of Lords is to 'double check' new laws to make sure they are fair and will work.

2)The House of Commons
The House of Commons The House of Commons has 659 members who have been elected by local residents to represent an area of the country in Parliament. The members are called MPs (Members of Parliament). Each MP represents one of 659 constituencies (areas) in the UK and is a member of a political party, such as New Labour or the Conservative party.
The Commons is the most important place for discussing policies and making laws.

ويتكون مجلس اللوردات حتى من الناس الذين ورثوا عناوين الأسرة وأولئك الذين منحوا الألقاب بسبب عملهم المتميز في حقل واحد أو آخر. هناك 675 أعضاء في مجلس اللوردات.
المهمة الرئيسية للمجلس اللوردات هو "الاختيار المزدوج" القوانين الجديدة للتأكد من أنها عادلة وسوف يعمل.

مجلس العموم
مجلس العموم ومجلس العموم لديها 659 الأعضاء الذين تم انتخابهم من قبل السكان المحليين لتمثيل منطقة من البلاد في البرلمان. ودعا أعضاء البرلمان (أعضاء البرلمان). كل MP يمثل واحدا من 659 دائرة انتخابية (مناطق) في المملكة المتحدة وعضو في حزب سياسي، مثل حزب العمال الجديد أو حزب المحافظين.
على العموم هو المكان الأكثر أهمية لمناقشة السياسات وصنع القوانين.

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