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Cell Division In The Cell

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Cell division is the basic of reproduction for all living things. It is important and indeed in all living organisms. It enables the multicellular organisms to grow until the adult size, when the cell division plays role in reproducing cell into more new cells. Besides, cell division also replaces the worn-out or damaged cells in order to maintain the total cells numbers in a mature individual relatively constant. For instance is, there are millions of cells in human’s body will divide themselves every second, keeping the total number of them in about 100 trillion (Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon & Dickey, 2012). Process of cell division is a main component of the cell cycle. A cell cycle is known as an ordered sequence of events that extends …show more content…
Yeat (2014) stated that interphase is a stage where the cell grows larger and ready for cell division. This stage is further divided into three phases which are G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase. In the cell, there are a large number of organelles and also chromosomes, which are important for working of the cell. According to Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts & Walter (2002), chromosomes can be defined as a very long thread-like strands of DNA and associated proteins in nucleus of cell, that carry part (or all) of the genetic materials and function in transmission hereditary information. In G1 phase, the chromosomes are extremely fine and called as chromatin. At this phase, the cell will decide whether or not divides and then completes the cycle to form new cell. Next, at S phase, the genetic material (DNA) undergoes replication. The duplication of two chromosomes consist of two identical sister chromatids, which contain copies of chromosomes that are identical. After that, at G2 phase, the cell continues growing and accumulates energy to complete its final preparations for …show more content…
According to Campbell et al. (2012), anaphase is defined as the starting process when sister chromatids separate from each other and finish when a complete set of daughter chromosomes arrives at each of two poles of the cell. More details, this stage begins when two centromeres that always attach in the between of sister chromatids will come apart and separating the sister chromatids. The centromere is defined as a unique region on the chromosomes which is important for attachment to the mitotic spindle and chromosome segregation (Verdaasdonk & Bloom, 2011). Once they separated, each sister chromatid is considered as a full-fledged (daughter) chromosome. Motor proteins of the kinetochores, powered by ATP, will move the centromere-first of the daughter chromosomes along the microtubules leading to the opposite poles of the cell. Once this happens, the spindle microtubules that attached to the kinetochores will be shortening. However, the spindle microtubules that not attached to chromosomes lengthen. The poles are moved farther apart and the cell will elongate. Anaphase is done when the equivalent and complete collections of chromosomes have finally reached the two poles of the

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