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Design and Social Innovation

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公民社会 | CIVIL SOCIETY

Design anD social innovation

设计与社会创新
文 Article > 殷雯婷 Yin Wenting

当我们还在纠结于用设计增加商业产品 附加值时, 许多国家已经将设计应用到社 会创新层面来引领社会趋势, 解决社会 问题。

>由 “重要设计” 推出的 “Neonurture” 婴儿保温箱(图片来源: Design that Matters官方网站)

何谓社会创新? 社会创新(Social Innovation)这一说法, 在 1960年代开始出现, 之后被改革者、 社会学家 等开始讨论。 在21世纪后, 这股风潮已从学术 界吹到了社会, 并开始盛行。 这点我们从政策 决策者的一系列行动中可以看到: 欧盟建立着 重于社会创新的发展策略研究, 美国政府在白 宫建立社会创新办公室。 关 于 社 会 创 新 的 定 义 ,在 欧 洲 委 员 会 (European Commission)的官方网站上将 其定义为 “为更有效地解决社会需求和建立 新的社会关 系或合作的新想法, 这些想法涉

及 产品、服务和模 型, 其创新的结果 和手段 都是社会化的” 斯坦福大学出版的《斯坦福 。 社会创新评论》 (Stanford Social Innovation Review)2008秋季刊上发表的《重新发现社 会创新》 (Rediscovering Social Innovation) 一文, 则将其定义为 “以解决一个社会问题为 目的的创新解决方案, 这些方案可以比现有 方案更有效、 可持续化, 并且可以让其创造的 价值为整个社会, 而非个人增长” 。 设计与社会创新的天然联系 随着当代创新对于交叉学科、 领域合作的要

求, 政治家、 经济学家、 社会学家等也需要各 领域人才一起合作来找到社会创新的出路。 通 过一个政策方案, 为解决某个社会问题提 供 资 金、人 力后, 只有通 过 提 供 公 共服务系 统、 产品等一系列的措施, 才能改善或解决社 会问题进而带来社会创新。 因此, 在这个具体 的实施过程中, 如何提供直指目标的公共服务 系统和产品是关键所在。 而设计, 最重要的存在价值之一就是改善或解 决生活中的问题。 化解普通 打火机易受气 压 和低温影响问题的ZIPPO打火机、继 承努美 阿土著的风俗人文而又大胆创新的吉巴欧文
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三边联谈 | TRIPARTITE

> “H项目设计” 工作室为伯蒂乡村学校(Bertie Country School)做的整体设计(图片来源: Project H Design官方网站)

化中心、 根据人们认知特点谨慎应用色彩和商 标的无印良品标识系统等, 都是产品设计、 建 筑设计、 平面设计领域中探索问题的起因、 现 象、 本质, 然后有针对性地进行改良和设计的 成功案例。 它们的经久不衰, 是其存在价值的 最好体现。 事实上, 根植于现实, 希望为人们解决现实问 题的设计与致力于解决社会问题的社会创新, 在动机上是有一定重合的, 尤其当设计指向的 现实问题与社会问题相一致或紧密联系时。 通常设计师们的视角往往更加注重于解决方 案, 因此, 他们是提供联系大众和政策的公共 服务系统和产品的最佳候选人之一。
188 | ART AND DESIGN | Vol.164

面对社会创新这个大课题, 设计的角色定位到 底在哪里? 换一句话说, 设计师可以怎样建立 创新的解决方案, 来解决社会问题? 一些设计 师有着不一般的勇气, 就这个答案为后来的设 计师们开拓了广阔的思考和探索空间。 社会创新的设计案例 由 “重要设计” (Design that Matters)带来的 “Neonurture” ——一个低价的婴儿保温箱, 致力于解决发展中国家无法负担、 修复婴儿保 温箱而导致每年近2000万新生儿死亡率的问 题。 它不仅整体价格较一般婴儿保温箱低, 还 采用在发展中国家常有的汽车零件进行组装,

这让它在第三世界的修复、 保养成为现实, 推 动了婴儿保温箱的普及。 事实上, 世界卫生组 织的《宏观经济与健康》调查报告指出, 降低 婴儿死亡率可以降低出生率, 提高经济增长。 这一设计, 无疑带来了社会创新。 “H项目设计” 工作室(Project H Design) 目 前成为欧美的热门关注,他们为美国最贫穷地 区——北卡罗纳州伯蒂(Bertie) 小镇——的一 所公立中学进行了一个与众不同的设计项目。 与通常的学校建设项目不同, 他们结合建筑景 观设计、 学校公共教育系统设计, 来促进社区 发展。 通过设计学校电脑室、 操场等, 让学生 有更好的环境进行高效的学习; 通过加入设计

公民社会 | CIVIL SOCIETY

教育课程, 让学生实际参与社区建设, 提高社 区归属感。 这样, 不仅为社区提供了有效、 持 续的设施建设, 也为社区留住未来的当地人才 做了铺垫。 他们的设计, 激发了社区自身的潜 力, 成为当地社区持续转化和发展的催化剂。 美国平面设计协会(AIGA)的《为民主设计: 选票和选举设计》 (Design for Democracy: Ballot and Election Design)是一本探索选举 过程中信息设计原则的参考书, 其作者为玛西 娅·劳森(Marcia Laucen) 从选举的选票注 。 册到去投票地点的引导指示, 它重新设计了选 举过程中的服务, 让美国公民可以更有效地选 出一个聪明的总统。 这一设计准则的运用, 完 善了美国选举过程, 对选举官员、立法者、 设 备提供者等有着非常强的参考意义。 还有一些设计师则是完全用自己领域的技术 知识, 低调地 通 过一个个看似实际而平凡的 项目, 逐渐 影响着当地的发 展和经济 变化。 伊瓦·弗朗西斯(Yves Fran ois)是从2006 年起致力于海地建筑的设计师, 在2010年海 地发生地震后, 他提倡 “建立更好的基础” 来 提 供 创新、廉 价的 抗震系统设 计,积极参 与 海地 重建的各种项目, 解决当地 居民的居住 问题。 他的持续努力, 帮助了当地基础设施重 建, 也为人们提供了就业, 对改善和帮助恢复 海地经济带来很大的影响力。 以上这些只是带来社会创新的设计案例中极小 的一部分。 事实上, 在当代提倡设计带来社会 创新的主体, 包括从团体到个人, 从设计事务所 到设计社会企业, 再到非营利设计机构, 多种多 样。 他们提出了设计师应投入解决社会问题的 各种口号: “为所有人设计” 强调设计要为各个 收入阶层的人群服务, 应该重视民主化的设计; “为社会变革设计” “为善行设计” 和 强调设计 应该用来产生积极的社会影响力, 促进人们行为 的改变; “为其它9 而 0%的人设计” 提倡为世界 上9 0%生活在极度贫困地区的人们做设计。

秉持 这些口号的设计师活跃于各个 领域, 比 如 关 注 社 区 发 展 和 规 划 的 有“ 社 区设 计 联 盟” (Association of Community Design) 、 “墨西哥湾区社区设计工作室” (Gulf Coast Community Design Studio); 致力于交叉 学 科服务设 计的有“美国代 码” (Code for America) “设计影响” 、 (Design Impact) ; 注重公共建筑建设的有提倡为社区设计贡献 1%时间的 “百分之一” (The 1%) “人道建筑 、 设计” (Architecture For Humanity) 推广设 ; 计带来社会影响的有Winterhouse Institute、 “设计观察者” (Design Observer)等。 社会创新中设计的角色定位 不同于商业设计, 社会创新中的设计有其独特 的角色定位。 首先, 它们并非以市场为衡量标 准, 其根本目的是解决社会问题, 而非获取个 人或公司利益。对于 这样一些着重于产生社 会影响力的设计, 市场导向并不会成为最主要 的考虑因素, 这类设计也不一定能产生直接的 经济利益。 譬如, “人道设计” 以满足人们诸如 水、庇护所等基本生存需要为设计目标; “慈 善设计” 由专业设计师事务所提 供一定的免 费设计额度; “复苏设计”强调为抵抗灾害、 恢复经济等需求进行基础设施的设计。这些 设计都需要政府、 基金会、 教育院校或关注社 会影响力的投资公司的资金支持。 此外, 一个优秀的、 带来社会创新的设计背后, 往往由一个跨学科、 多领域、 甚至跨国界的专 业团队来支持, 他们把每个过程都完成地尽善 尽美。 譬如Neonurture婴儿保温箱, 它的第一 手观察资料来自于尼泊尔、 印度、 越南、 柬埔寨 等国的新生儿观察和访问; 其设计团队由麻省 理工、 罗德岛设计学院、 斯坦福大学、 亚利桑 那大学的教师和学生, 以及来自于IDEO等设计 事务所的志愿者组成; 技术团队由新西兰的环 球医药(Medicine Mondiale)和美国医药与科

技创新中心(CIMIT)的大批志愿者及专家组 成; 而医疗和设计咨询建议则来自于四家顶级 医院的相关专家。 正因为有多个第三世界国家 翔实的第一手资料, 加上世界最先进的设计和 技术, 才成就了这款极具社会影响力的设计。 最后, 也是非常重要的一个趋势, 设计在一些 国家的政府决策、 公共 事务的某些方面开始 占有领导地位, 这也意味着设计在社会创新中 将扮演越来越重要的角色。 在丹麦政府, 由设 计师、 人种学家及公共政策专家组成MindLab 专门负责政府的创新板块; 新加坡、 英国等多 个国家开始将用户研究、 创意思维过程和服务 建模等设计方法和思维应用到政府创新方面 的工作中; 美国奥巴马政府的 “总统创新研究 员” 名单中也不乏设计师的身影。在《斯坦福 社会创新评论》2013春季刊上发表的《政府中 的设计领导性创新》 (Design-Led Innovation in Government)一文中写到, 在美国, 政府与 设计机构IDEO、 非营利机构 “美国代码” 等紧 密合作, 致力于公民参与、 民主建设、 服务传 达、 机构转变等多方面的工作。 我们可以明显地发现, 当我们还在纠结于用设 计增加商业产品附加值时, 许多国家已经将设 计应用到了社会创新层面来引领社会趋势, 解 决社会问题。 或许在目前的中国, 社会创新设 计的土壤还不是非常成熟, 但是我们也看到了 一些积极的变化。 目前国家的政策导向开始大 力支持社会团体的注册和成立, 这对尝试用设 计解决社会问题的有志青年无疑是个福音。 另 一个福音是群众募资(Crowd Funding)网络 平台的开放以及一些著名投资公司开始关注 社会创新项目, 这可以让那些有很好创意但缺 乏资金的设计项目落地开花。 时代在前进, 当代的中国设计师们可以通过社 会创新设计将中国引领到何方? 这是一个激动 人心的问题, 也将成为当代社会和设计师共同 面临的重要课题。 (编辑:孙源) ■
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