Differences Between Science, Non-Science and Pseudo-Science

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By cl2012
Words 1320
Pages 6
A majority of people are very familiar with the word “science”. There is no doubt that science plays a crucial role in our life. However, it seems that not everyone can distinguish science correctly from non-science and pseudo-science. The following essay will present the differences between science, pseudo-science and non-science first, and then discuss three possible responses to the question that what we should do when there is a clash between scientific explanation and non-scientific explanation. The brief discussion related to the correct non-scientific explanation will present finally.

There are some differences between science, pseudo-science and non-science. The goal of science is to discover what there is in the world and explain why it is and how it is (Hammerton, 2010, p.1). Science is helpful to answer some of these questions by presenting what the cause and impacts of different actions (Hammerton, 2010, p. 3). One of the significant characters of science is the construction of theories. Scientists usually want to explain the results of observation and experiment in terms of general theory rather than simply recording the results (Okasha, 2002, p. 2). Physics, biology, geology and psychology are within the domain of science (Hammerton, 2010, p. 1). However, some questions would be better explained by philosophy rather than science, such as evaluative questions, non-empirical questions, normative questions and questions related to personal experiences (Hammerton, 2010, p. 2).

Pseudo-science refers to a theory that belongs to the domain of science, however, it is not scientifically testable. The philosopher Karl Popper thinks that the main differences between science and pseudo-science are whether the theory is scientifically testable. According to Popper, Marxism and Freudian psychology are in the domain of pseudo-science (Hammerton, 2010, p. 8).…...

Similar Documents

Differences Between Science, Non-Science and Pseudo-Science

...A majority of people are very familiar with the word “science”. There is no doubt that science plays a crucial role in our life. However, it seems that not everyone can distinguish science correctly from non-science and pseudo-science. The following essay will present the differences between science, pseudo-science and non-science first, and then discuss three possible responses to the question that what we should do when there is a clash between scientific explanation and non-scientific explanation. The brief discussion related to the correct non-scientific explanation will present finally. There are some differences between science, pseudo-science and non-science. The goal of science is to discover what there is in the world and explain why it is and how it is (Hammerton, 2010, p.1). Science is helpful to answer some of these questions by presenting what the cause and impacts of different actions (Hammerton, 2010, p. 3). One of the significant characters of science is the construction of theories. Scientists usually want to explain the results of observation and experiment in terms of general theory rather than simply recording the results (Okasha, 2002, p. 2). Physics, biology, geology and psychology are within the domain of science (Hammerton, 2010, p. 1). However, some questions would be better explained by philosophy rather than science, such as evaluative questions, non-empirical questions, normative questions and questions related to personal experiences...

Words: 1320 - Pages: 6

Science

...The importance of science and the ways of expressing scientific ways of life to the world. The start of scientific rules and the ways to explain the methods it follows .Science is based on methods that explain the way science goes on around the world and what is the importance of it that helps people understand things beyond imagination (Thomas Samuel Kuhn). The scientific ways of expressing the world and how it generates based on its history. The importance of science, the scientific methods, and the scientific expression of how the world generates based on its history are the three major descriptions of science. One of the important facts about science is the start of scientific rules and the way to explain the methods it follows (See Appendix 1). Science is based on the knowledge that humans have to know the mystery behind things that cover the truth behind something. Science has many rules that have been passed on by one of the greatest scientists that discovered the ways of life and things that were not predictable. The scientific method is a procedure of six steps they are stating the problem, collecting information, forming a hypothesis, performing experiments, analyzing the data (Alhazen), and making a conclusion. The first step to the scientific method is to stat the problem in which you wish to Answer. The second step is collecting information on the question answered. Making observations and study the things on the question you have more knowledge on the...

Words: 925 - Pages: 4

Science

...Science is a methodical study of nature that forms testable explanations and predictions. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that found for example in Aristotle, whereby "science" refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see "History and etymology" section below). Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the two words, "science" and "philosophy", were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, "natural philosophy" (which is today called "natural science") had begun to be considered separately from "philosophy" in general. However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science. In modern use, "science" is a term which more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, and not the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with ‘natural and physical science’, and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use." This narrower sense of "science" developed as a part of science became a distinct enterprise of defining "laws of nature", based on early examples such as......

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Science

...* What is Earth and Space science? * The study of the universe and its functions. * Types of Earth and Space sciences * Geology - The study of how the Earth’s materials, structures, processes, and organisms have changed over time. Geologists try to understand the history of our planet, by reading the physical structures and processes. Geologists study various forms of Earth formations such as: marine, sedimentology (rocks), pedology (soil), structural, and geomorphology (landforms). Some great examples of geologic studies are: the Grand Canyon and San Andreas Fault. * Meterology - The science in which scientist study the weather. Meteorologists gather and analysis data on the conditions of the atmosphere. Meteorologists study weather phenomena such as Tornados, Hurricanes, Tsunami, Blizzards, Thunder and Lighting Storms. They use tools such as satellite imagery, weather balloons (twice a day, everyday one is released), radars, hygrometer (measures humidity), barometer (measures atmospheric pressure), and an anemometer (measures wind speed). * Oceanography - Study of the Earth’s oceans and seas. Some types of oceanography include: marine geology (plate tectonics and study of the ocean floor), physical oceanography (physical attributes of the ocean), meteorologic oceanography (the atmosphere and the ocean interact). * Hydrology - the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth. Hydrologists are...

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Science

...Science Seminar Unit 2 Kaplan University The type of measurements that indicate climate change is occurring is the National Climatic Data Center; it contains the instrumental and paleoclimate records that will precisely define the nature climatic fluctuations. Other resources are ships, buoys, weather balloons, weather stations and many climate proxy records like tree rings and ice cores. The National Oceanographic Data Center receives the ocean data that can reveal the way heat is distributed and redistributed over our planet. Climate information goes on for hundreds and thousands of years, the paleoclimatology data helps provide longer term perspectives. Over the years reduced diurmal temperature range (DTR: the difference between daily high or maximum and daily low or minimum temperatures) over 70% of the global land mass since the middle of the 2oth century. The years between 1979-2005, the DTR shows no trend. There are many factors’ that contribute to the change in DTR, on a regional and local basis, which include changes in cloud cover, atmospherics water vapors, land use and urban effects. The challenges they face is trying to figure out if human activities are leading to an enhancement of the greenhouse effect by emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. Concentration levels of carbon dioxide have risen since 2000...

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Science

.... Sephora now also offers UK delivery on its site. 2.0 Descriptions of general marketing mix elements The general marketing mix basically consists of the 4 P’s of marketing which are product, place, price and promotion. The 4 P’s is probably the best known way of defining the marketing mix, and was first expressed in 1960 by E J McCarthy. What is product? The marketing mix concept has its roots in the 1950s U.S. corporate marketing world, and the practice of marketing has obviously evolved tremendously since this term was invented. One of the changes is that there are a lot more services available nowadays, such as those available online. Also, the distinction between product and service has become more blurry. For example, is a Web-based software application a product or a service?. Either way, product here refers to products or services. The product or service you offer needs to be able to meet a specific, existing market demand. Or, you need to be able to create a market niche through building a strong brand. Examples of product include, design, technology and warranties. For intance, Nike shoe company does not manufacture their sure but they provide the design and technology for the shoes and then they are later manufactured in manufacturing plants over the world. Another example is the car manufactured by Proton which is branded the Proton Inspira. It is made by Proton but its technology and design is a copy of the Mistsubishi Lancer. The price you set for your...

Words: 3405 - Pages: 14

Science

... control actions. Mountain lions have also attacked several pets and human beings including a fatal attack on a young boy in 1989 and 2 serious injuries to children in Glacier National Park in 1991 and 1992 (Riley 1998). According to the Cougar Management Guidelines Working Group (2005), mountain lion attacks have increased in recent decades in USA. Beier (1991) recorded 7 fatal and 44 nonfatal attacks on humans in North America between 1890-1990. Fitzhugh (2003) documented seven fatal and 38 non-fatal attacks between 1991-2003. The management of increasing mountain lion populations throughout western North America has been becoming difficult over time for wildlife managers as they attempt to balance both the beneficial and detrimental aspects of this large carnivore. With increasing public desire to restore the roles of large carnivores in western ecosystems, the concern for the effective management of 38 mountain lions has increased (Kellert 1985, Noss et al. 1996). Concurrently, the increased frequency of mountain lion attacks on humans and their pets made lion management a national issue (Stevens 1994). In North America, two American states (Wyoming and Colorado) and one Canadian province (Alberta) pay compensation for livestock claims to mountain lions. Reported incidents of predation are investigated by provincial wildlife agencies and claims reviewed by a regional committee consisting of private producers and government representatives from animal health,......

Words: 18821 - Pages: 76

Science

... and his commandments. As Christians we should always learn to forgive because if we don’t God will not bless us. Adultery is one of the biggest examples of that in today’s society. Where is the love? Now in days it seem like there is no “happily ever after or death do us part.” There are a lot of single parent homes and people think its okay to step out on in a relationship. The way a man looks at a woman and the images or thoughts that goes through his/her mind is lustfully, so that means he has already committed adultery. Just like the Bible says, “you better cut off the arm or take out the eye ball so the rest of your body won’t burn in hell.” That’s a very strong statement from God and I will make sure I’m faithful to my future husband! I remember in the bible when Jesus stopped in his tracks and healed a woman that was suffering for twelve years of bleeding profusely. Jesus told her to spread the word to the people how he healed her. His works was beyond wonderful and the stories in the bible can relate to that because he healed many people. We all need to get better in Christ because as “Matthew 24” mention, Jesus is coming back and the signs point to the end of the age. My current major is Bachelor of Science in Health Care Administration & Advanced Patient Care and I think I can benefit from several of these characteristics dealing with Jesus. I am 22 years old but I have experienced a lot of tough challenges in my life. I have to make sure I......

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Parapsychology: Science or Pseudo-Science?

...In the scientific field, Parapsychology, the investigation of paranormal and psychic phenomena, is determined as pseudo-science. The difference between science and pseudo-science is pseudo-science is considered not genuine. In the article, Parapsychology: Science or Pseudo-Science, the explanation that Parapsychology is considered pseudo-science is researched based. The descriptive research method is the method that is used because it describes the difference between how science and pseudo-science is differentiated. The author doesn’t necessarily give specific experiment examples to answer the questions that are used as headings, though she describes what some psychologists have said about the subject and how they feel about it. Though while being a good research method, there are some flaws in it. Marie-Catherine Mousseau does a very good job of describing both researchers and mainstream scientists and how science and pseudo-science are related and not related. For both types of scientists, the real question was if there was any progress in parapsychology or not. Some said yes, some said no. Though, there were some flaws in this where Mousseau could have used more specific examples to explain and describe the reason behind their thoughts. That would help the reader truly understand the concept of where the scientists are coming from and where they get their information from. It is also a visual help for the reader because if the experiment is described properly, the...

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Science

...DNA Technology Task 3 – Poster DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling, is a technique used in forensic science that identifies individuals based on various characteristics of their DNA. Although the DNA sequences between humans are 99.9% identical, DNA fingerprinting is able to distinguish between individuals due to the presence of specific sequences within the non-coding region of the genome known as satellite DNA. This satellite DNA consists of long stretches of DNA made up of repeating base sequences known as short tandem repeats (STR). These STRs considerably vary in length between individuals, particularly between unrelated individuals, allowing exact individuals to be identified. One major use of DNA fingerprinting is in crime scene investigations in order to identify suspects or also victims based on DNA samples from blood or hair present in the crime scene. Another use is in paternity testing that compares the DNA of the mother and offspring to the potential fathers in order to identify the father. The first step in DNA fingerprinting involves isolating DNA from a tissue sample such as blood or hair. Very often, particularly when tissue samples are obtained from crime scenes, the amount of DNA available for DNA fingerprinting is extremely small. Fortunately, a molecular biology technique known as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows the DNA sample to be amplified considerably. In essence, this technique is an artificial version of DNA replication. The...

Words: 958 - Pages: 4

Science

...Cardiorespiratory Effects of Exercise Exercise 1: Cardiorespiratory effects of exercise. Using the Horizontal Compression buttons and the scroll bar, display the data you wish to present in your report for volunteer. Blood Pressure 1. What is meant by pulse pressure? What happened during light and heavy exercise to the pulse pressure? Was this what you expected to happen? ANSWER - Pulse pressure (pp) is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure readings, where systolic pressure is the peak pressure exerted in the arteries when blood is pumped and diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure exerted when blood is draining. Therefore, representing the force that the heart generates each time it contracts. There is a significant increase from the light exercise 46pp to a 76pp in the heavy exercise. This is expected as increasing the intensity of exercise, increases the stroke volume, hence the increase of pulse pressure. Answer | 2. What happened during light and heavy exercise to the mean arterial blood pressure? Briefly explain your findings. ANSWER - During the light and heavy exercise, there was an increase in mean arterial blood pressure. By definition, mean arterial pressure is the main driving force of blood flow. In regards to the exercise, it makes sense that there would be an increase of mean arterial blood pressure from light to heavy due to the fact that the harder the exercise, the more blood is needed to flow into the...

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Science

...THE ROLE OF THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Remarks by Alyson JK Bailes, Dept of Political Science, University of Iceland The UN Security Council seems to be one of the most admired and envied institutional bodies in the world – except perhaps by those who actually have to work on it. Even the nations like India, Japan and Brazil who are criticizing the Council for lack of representativity are doing so because they want to get on to it: they think the idea as such of having a limited group of nations with such special powers is great. Outside the UN, I have often heard debates in other institutions about why they can’t have something like the Security Council to ensure stronger leadership and faster action. This idea is often raised in the EU context in the shape of an inner core of big states or original founding states. It has also been repeatedly proposed in the OSCE, mainly by Russia. So perhaps if we want to look at the basic role of the UNSC we should ask not just what it was created for but why it could be created in that form, which really has little parallel anywhere else in the world structure. The answer to its original purpose is set out very clearly in the original UN Charter. I quote: ‘In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under...

Words: 1615 - Pages: 7

Science

...Reviewer in Science PLATE TECTONIC * There are two types of lithospheric plates: * Continental Lithosphere * Oceanic Lithosphere * The solid ground where you stand upon is called the continental crust, lighter them is oceanic crust * This type of crust has several deposits that vary in age forming the foundation of earth’s crust * Basement rock- the oldest foundation which is estimated to be four billion years age. It is mixture of granite and volcanic rocks * After the basement rock are PLATFORMS, younger layer of continental crust, made of sendimentary rocks. When platforms are connected with basement rocks, they are called Cratons * Cratons often survive the cycles of merging and rifting of continents * At the edges of cratons are the Continental Margins * When continental margins are moved by tectonic plates, natural landforms such as mountain ranges * Oceanic Crust- made of heavier basalt and gabbro rocks, younger than continental crust, older for this type is around 200 million years * In terms of thickness, oceanic crust measure only around 7km thick while continental crusts range from 10km to 70km thick * Location: Men will experience a more uniform condition due to the lack of significant typography and our landscape would be older VOLCANIC * These plates drift slowly over the mantle below, which is lubricated by a soft layer called ASTHESNOSPHERE * Volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a...

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Science

...science Science[nb 1] is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations andpredictions about the universe.[nb 2] In an older and closely related meaning, "science" also refers to this body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. Ever since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In theWest during the early modern periodthe term "Science" and "Natural Philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably to refer to the study of natural phenomena[2]:p.3 and, until the 19th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a branch of philosophy.[3] In modern usage "science" most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature. Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist began to be applied to those who sought knowledge and understanding of nature.[4] Modern science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Science

.... Print. o. Winona, Beth. "Barzun and Culture." Rev. of The Culture We Deserve, by Jacques Barzun. American Issues Magazine Mar. 1989: 46-50. Print. p. "Neil Simon on the New York Theater." Interview by Pearl Barnes. Long Island News n.d.: C4-C5. Print. q. Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Adapt. Humprey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, Claude Rains, and Paul Henreid. Warner Brothers, 1942. r. "Robert Frost: A Reader Response Perspective." Off the Wall, 8 May 2003. Web. 4 Jan. 2004. <http://www.offthewall.com/articles/backdated_bin_RobertFrost_archive.html.>. s. Gottchalk, May. "Reconsidering Dyslexia." Education Matters 24 May 2002: n. pag. Wilson Select- Ferris State University Library Database Access. Web. 22 Nov. 2003. <http://library.ferris.edu/databaseframes.html>. t. Cordial, Randy. "My Best Science Fiction Movies Ever." N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2004. <http//www.cordial.com/bestscifi.htm.>. u. "Grizzly." CBS Network. WNTR. New York, 3 Feb. 1997. Television. v. Global Warming Fears on Rise. (1997, October 25). Newswatch Magazine, pp. 29-31. w. "Booze Plays a Big Role in Car Crashes." 28 Nov. 1997, State Edition ed., sec. 3: 2. Print....

Words: 419 - Pages: 2