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Fin 370 Week 1 Definitions

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Definitions

Define the following terms using your text or other resources. Cite all resources consistent with APA guidelines.

|Term |Definition |Resource you used |
|Time value of money |“A dollar received today is worth more than a|Titman, S. Keown, A. J. & . Martin ,J. D. (n.d.). |
| |dollar received in the future. Conversely, |Financial Management. Principles and Applications: |
| |a dollar received in the future is worth less|Chapter 1: Getting Started: Principles of Finance: 1.4. |
| |than a dollar received today. Perhaps the |The Five Basic Principles of Finance. 12th,. ed. |
| |most fundamental principle of finance is that|Copyrighted by Pearson Education. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |money has a time value. A dollar received |https://newclassroom3.phoenix.edu/Classroom/#/contextid/|
| |today is more valuable than a dollar received|OSIRIS:48546409/context/co/view/activityDetails/activity|
| |one year from now. That is, we can invest the|/3195cb75-8a75-4bd9-a1c3-0092ba334301/expanded/False |
| |dollar we have today to earn interest so that| |
| |at the end of one year we will have more than| |
| |one dollar.” (Titman et al.) | |
|Efficient market | “An investment theory that states it is |Investopedia. (n.d.). Efficient Market Hypothesis – EMH.|
| |impossible to "beat the market" because stock|Copyrighted by Investopedia, LLC. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |market efficiency causes existing share |http://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/efficientmarkethypot|
| |prices to always incorporate and reflect all |hesis.asp |
| |relevant information. According to the EMH, | |
| |stocks always trade at their fair value on | |
| |stock exchanges, making it impossible for | |
| |investors to either purchase undervalued | |
| |stocks or sell stocks for inflated prices. As| |
| |such, it should be impossible to outperform | |
| |the overall market through expert stock | |
| |selection or market timing, and that the only| |
| |way an investor can possibly obtain higher | |
| |returns is by purchasing riskier | |
| |investments.” (Investopedia) | |
|Primary versus secondary market | “A primary market is a market in which new, | Titman, S. Keown, A. J. & . Martin ,J. D. (n.d.). |
| |as opposed to previously issued, securities |Financial Management. Principles and Applications: |
| |are bought and sold for the first time. In |Chapter 2: Firms and the Financial Market: 2.3. The |
| |this market, firms issue new securities to |Financial Marketplace: Securities Markets. 12th., ed. |
| |raise money that they can then use to help |Copyrighted by Pearson Education. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |finance their businesses. The key feature of |https://newclassroom3.phoenix.edu/Classroom/#/contextid/|
| |the primary market is that the firms selling |OSIRIS:48546409/context/co/view/activityDetails/activity|
| |securities actually receive the money raised.|/adfd688a-a88b-428b-ade6-3fddc4106cce/expanded/False |
| |The secondary market is where all subsequent | |
| |trading of previously issued securities takes| |
| |place. In this market the issuing firm does | |
| |not receive any new financing, as the | |
| |securities it has sold are simply being | |
| |transferred from one investor to another. The| |
| |principal benefit of the secondary market for| |
| |the shareholders of firms that sell their | |
| |securities to the public is liquidity.” | |
| |(Titman et al.) | |
|Risk-return tradeoff | “We won’t take on additional risk unless we |Titman, S. Keown, A. J. & . Martin ,J. D. (n.d.). |
| |expect to be compensated with additional |Financial Management. Principles and Applications: |
| |return. Principle 2 is based on the idea that|Chapter 1: Getting Started: Principles of Finance: 1.4. |
| |individuals are risk-averse, which means that|The Five Basic Principles of Finance. 12th,. ed. |
| |they prefer to get a certain return on their |Copyrighted by Pearson Education. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |investment rather than an uncertain return.” |https://newclassroom3.phoenix.edu/Classroom/#/contextid/|
| |(Titman et al.) |OSIRIS:48546409/context/co/view/activityDetails/activity|
| | |/3195cb75-8a75-4bd9-a1c3-0092ba334301/expanded/False |
| | | |
|Agency (principal and agent problems) |“Conflicts of interest and moral hazard |Investopedia. (n.d.). Efficient Market Hypothesis – EMH.|
| |issues that arise when a principal hires an |Copyrighted by Investopedia, LLC. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |agent to perform specific duties that are in |http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/principal-agent-prob|
| |the best interest of the principal but may be|lem.asp |
| |costly, or not in the best interests of the | |
| |agent. The principal-agent problem develops |Titman, S. Keown, A. J. & . Martin ,J. D. (n.d.). |
| |when a principal creates an environment in |Financial Management. Principles and Applications: |
| |which an agent has incentives to align its |Chapter 1: Getting Started: Principles of Finance: 1.4. |
| |interests with those of the principal, |The Five Basic Principles of Finance. 12th,. ed. |
| |typically through incentives. Principals |Copyrighted by Pearson Education. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |create incentives for the agent to act as the|https://newclassroom3.phoenix.edu/Classroom/#/contextid/|
| |principal wants because the principal faces |OSIRIS:48546409/context/co/view/activityDetails/activity|
| |information asymmetry and risk with regards |/3195cb75-8a75-4bd9-a1c3-0092ba334301/expanded/False |
| |to whether the agent has effectively | |
| |completed a contract.” (Investopedia) | |
| |“The conflict of interest between the firm’s | |
| |managers and its stockholders is called a | |
| |principal-agent problem, or agency problem, | |
| |in which the firm’s common stockholders, the | |
| |owners of the firm, are the principals in the| |
| |relationship, and the managers act as | |
| |“agents” to these owners. The lost | |
| |shareholder value that results from | |
| |managerial actions that are inconsistent with| |
| |the goal of maximizing shareholder value is | |
| |called an agency cost.” (Titman et a;.) | |
|Market information and security prices|“Market information is what influences |Octotutor. (2014). Market Information and Security |
|and information asymmetry |investors to either buy or sell stock. If |Prices and Information Asymmetry. Copyrighted by |
| |investors receive positive information, there|Octotutor.com. (2014). Retrieved form |
| |will be more buying demand for the stock, |http://octotutor.com/market-information-and-security-pri|
| |thus raising the price. If negative |ces-and-information-asymmetry/ |
| |information is received, investors will sell | |
| |shares and drive prices down. Common sources | |
| |of information come in the form of public | |
| |financial reports and news related to a | |
| |company’s industry or business. Public | |
| |companies must release quarterly and annual | |
| |reports, which investors use to predict | |
| |future financial reports. These reports will | |
| |have a direct impact on securities prices in | |
| |the market. In some cases, news reports can | |
| |impact expected business performance. Because| |
| |our markets are not perfectly efficient, it | |
| |takes time for information to flow through | |
| |the system. The average individual investor | |
| |will receive information about a stock long | |
| |after it has already influenced the share | |
| |process. Algorithms that track news trends | |
| |and make trading decisions based on this | |
| |information contribute to the so called | |
| |information asymmetry we experience in the | |
| |financial markets.” (Octotutor, 2014) | |
|Agile and lean principles |“The lean principles of operational | Sabri, E. CFPIM. LSSMBB. & Shaikh, S. CPIM. CSCP. |
| |excellence, efficiency, and eliminating waste|(2013). Lean and Agile. Copyrighted by APICS. (2013). |
| |are essential to successful S&OP—as is |Retrieved from |
| |agility, which puts emphasis on planning and |http://www.apics.org/ebusiness/industry-content-research|
| |controlling variability. Lean and agile S&OP |/publications/apics-magazine-home/apics-magazine---landi|
| |is a company’s single-most-important |ng-page---everyone/2013/09/20/lean-and-agile |
| |competitive weapon for ensuring that | |
| |customers are being profitably served through| |
| |the right channels and with the right product| |
| |mix. Only when S&OP is truly lean and agile | |
| |can the process help companies recalibrate | |
| |business strategy through continuous | |
| |replanning. Lean and agile S&OP involves | |
| |stakeholders from sales, marketing, | |
| |development, operations, sourcing, and | |
| |finance coming together in a formal, | |
| |structured cadence to produce an integrated | |
| |company game plan. This approach reconciles | |
| |the views of all functional areas | |
| |simultaneously, making sure the strategy | |
| |aligns with strategic business objectives. | |
| |Principles The following principles are | |
| |fundamental to lean and agile S&OP: Focus on | |
| |customer success. Make sure all participants | |
| |share the same goals and are linked to the | |
| |end customer. Create a mutually advantageous | |
| |and trusted environment for all stakeholders.| |
| |S&OP is a cross-functional process, so | |
| |organizations must look beyond local | |
| |departmental efficiencies and performance | |
| |metrics and instead focus on a performance | |
| |measurement system that creates benefits for | |
| |all stakeholders and aligns to the business | |
| |plan. Eliminate waste and reduce non-value | |
| |added activities. This principle encourages | |
| |firms to free resources to enable greater | |
| |focus process rather than a reporting | |
| |exercise. | |
| |Institutionalize continuous improvement. A | |
| |formalized, structured S&OP process that | |
| |rewards continuous improvement should be | |
| |institutionalized so that it becomes a part | |
| |of the company culture. Close the loop | |
| |between planning and execution. This | |
| |principle emphasizes a “one number" plan to | |
| |which the whole organization is aligned. This| |
| |is made possible through vertical integration| |
| |among strategic, tactical, and operational | |
| |planning. In addition, using agility to | |
| |mitigate risk via scenario analysis enables | |
| |businesses to become more flexible and | |
| |responsive.” (Sabri et al, 2013) | |
|Return on investment |“A profitability measure that evaluates the |Entrepreneur. (n.d). Return On Investment ROI. |
| |performance of a business by dividing net |Copyrighted by Entrepreneur Media, Inc. (2014). |
| |profit by net worth. Return on investment |Retrieved from |
| |isn't necessarily the same as profit. ROI |http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/return-on-inves|
| |deals with the money you invest in the |tment-roi |
| |company and the return you realize on that | |
| |money based on the net profit of the | |
| |business. Profit, on the other hand, measures| |
| |the performance of the business. You can use | |
| |ROI in several different ways to gauge the | |
| |profitability of your business. For instance,| |
| |you can measure the performance of your | |
| |pricing policies, inventory investment, | |
| |capital equipment investment, and so forth. | |
| |Some other ways to use ROI within your | |
| |company are by: | |
| |Dividing net income, interest, and taxes by | |
| |total liabilities to measure rate of earnings| |
| |of total capital employed. | |
| |Dividing net income and income taxes by | |
| |proprietary equity and fixed liabilities to | |
| |produce a rate of earnings on invested | |
| |capital. | |
| |Dividing net income by total capital plus | |
| |reserves to calculate the rate of earnings on| |
| |proprietary equity and stock equity.” | |
| |(Entrepreneur) | |
|Cash flow and a source of value | “Profit is an accounting concept designed to|Titman, S. Keown, A. J. & . Martin ,J. D. (n.d.). |
| |measure a business’s performance over an |Financial Management. Principles and Applications: |
| |interval of time. Cash flow is the amount of |Chapter 1: Getting Started: Principles of Finance: 1.4. |
| |cash that can actually be taken out of the |The Five Basic Principles of Finance. 12th,. ed. |
| |business over this same interval. Cash flows |Copyrighted by Pearson Education. (2014). Retrieved from|
| |represent actual money that can be spent and,|https://newclassroom3.phoenix.edu/Classroom/#/contextid/|
| |cash flows are what determine an investment’s|OSIRIS:48546409/context/co/view/activityDetails/activity|
| |value.” (Titman et al.) |/3195cb75-8a75-4bd9-a1c3-0092ba334301/expanded/False |
|Project management |“The planning and organization of an |Investopedia. (n.d.). Project Management. Copyrighted by|
| |organization's resources in order to move a |Investopedia, LLC. (2015). Retrieved from |
| |specific task, event or duty toward |http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/project-management.a|
| |completion. Project management typically |sp |
| |involves a one-time project rather than an | |
| |ongoing activity, and resources managed | |
| |include both human and financial capital. A | |
| |project manager will help define the goals | |
| |and objectives of the project, determine when| |
| |the various project components are to be | |
| |completed and by whom, and create quality | |
| |control checks to ensure that completed | |
| |components meet a certain standard.” | |
| |(Investopedia) | |
|Outsourcing and offshoring |“Outsourcing refers to an organization |Diffin. (n.d.). Offshoring vs. Outshourcing. Retrieved |
| |contracting work out to a 3rd party, while |from |
| |offshoring refers to getting work done in a |http://www.diffen.com/difference/Offshoring_vs_Outsourci|
| |different country, usually to leverage cost |ng |
| |advantages. It's possible to outsource work | |
| |but not offshore it; for example, hiring an | |
| |outside law firm to review contracts instead | |
| |of maintaining an in-house staff of lawyers. | |
| |It is also possible to offshore work but not | |
| |outsource it; for example, a Dell customer | |
| |service center in India to serve American | |
| |clients. Offshore outsourcing is the practice| |
| |of hiring a vendor to do the work offshore, | |
| |usually to lower costs and take advantage of | |
| |the vendor's expertise, economies of scale, | |
| |and large and scalable labor pool.” (Diffin) | |
|Inventory turnover |“Inventory turnover may be defined as annual | Mayo, H. B. (n.d.). Basic Finance. An Introduction to |
| |sales divided by average inventory.” (Mayo) |Financial Institutions, Investments, and Management: |
| | |Chapter 9: Analysis of Financial Statements: Activity |
| |“A ratio showing how many times a company's |Ratios. Copyrighted by Cengage Learning. (2010). |
| |inventory is sold and replaced over a period.|Retrieved from |
| |The days in the period can then be divided by|https://newclassroom3.phoenix.edu/Classroom/#/contextid/|
| |the inventory turnover formula to calculate |OSIRIS:48546409/context/co/view/activityDetails/activity|
| |the days it takes to sell the inventory on |/4612e916-7bfa-4e82-aa0d-88545fe0e8bd/expanded/False |
| |hand or "inventory turnover days." | |
| |(Investopedia) |Investopedia. (n.d.). Inventory Turnover. Copyrighted by|
| | |Investopedia, LLC. (2015). Retrieved from |
| | |http://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/inventoryturnover.as|
| | |p |
|Just-in-time inventory (JIT) |“Just in time (JIT) inventory is a management|Kokemuller, N & Demand Media. (n.d.). Just in Time |
| |system in which materials or products are |Inventory Definition. Copyrighted by Hearst Newspapers, |
| |produced or acquired only as demand requires.|LLC. (2015). Retrieved from |
| |Just in time inventory is intended to avoid |http://smallbusiness.chron.com/just-time-inventory-defin|
| |situations in which inventory exceeds demand |ition-23475.html |
| |and places increased burden on your business | |
| |to manage the extra inventory. Manufacturers | |
| |using JIT processes want to use materials for| |
| |production at levels that meet distributor or| |
| |retailer demand but not in excess. Retailers | |
| |only want to acquire and carry inventory that| |
| |meets immediate customer demand. Excess | |
| |inventory requires storage and management | |
| |costs.” (Kokemuller, Demand Media) | |
|Vender managed inventory (VMI) |“Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) is an |Rouse, M. (n.d.) vender-managed inventory (VMI). |
| |inventory management technique in which a |Copyrighted by Tech Target. (2008-2015). Retrieved from |
| |supplier of goods, usually the manufacturer, |http://searchmanufacturingerp.techtarget.com/definition/|
| |is responsible for optimizing the inventory |Vendor-managed-inventory-VMI |
| |held by a distributor. VMI requires a | |
| |communication link—typically electronic data | |
| |interchange (EDI) or the Internet—that | |
| |provides the supplier with the distributor | |
| |sales and inventory data it needs to plan | |
| |inventory and place orders. In contrast, | |
| |under the traditional arrangement the | |
| |distributor handles those tasks. The | |
| |inventory can be owned by the distributor, or| |
| |by the supplier, often under consignment.” | |
| |(Rouse) | |
|Forecasting and demand management |“Demand management and forecasting is |APICS. (n.d.). APICS Operations Management Body of |
| |recognizing all demand for goods and services|Knowledge Framework, Third Edition. Copyrighted by |
| |to support the marketplace. Demand is |APICS. (2015). Retrieved from |
| |prioritized when supply is lacking. Proper |http://www.apics.org/industry-content-research/publicati|
| |demand management facilitates the planning |ons/ombok/apics-ombok-framework-table-of-contents/apics-|
| |and use of resources for positive and |ombok-framework-5.4 |
| |profitable results and may involve marketing | |
| |programs designed to increase or reduce | |
| |demand in a relatively short time. | |
| |Forecasting is attempting to predict or | |
| |project future statistics—typically, demand | |
| |or sales. It requires that all factors | |
| |surrounding the decision-making process are | |
| |recorded.” (APICS) | |

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... CA 94501, 510-7489001. This status is a preliminary affiliation with the Commission awarded for a maximum period of four years. Candidacy is an indication that the institution is progressing toward Accreditation. Candidacy is not Accreditation and does not ensure eventual Accreditation. California State Approval Allied American University is a private institution which is approved to operate by the Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education (BPPE), institution no. 24255659. Any questions a student may have regarding this catalog that have not been satisfactorily answered by AAU may be directed to: P.O. Box 980818, West Sacramento, CA 95798-0818 2535 Capitol Oaks Drive, Suite 400, Sacramento, CA 95833 Phone: (916) 431-6959 ∼ (888) 370-7589 Fax: (916) 263-1897 Website: www.bppe.ca.gov email: bppe@dca.ca.gov The Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education 8 5/8/13 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS MISSION, VISION, INSTITUTIONAL OUTCOMES, AND CORE VALUES AAU Mission Statement Allied American University is committed to providing online distance education degree programs for a diverse population of adult learners in a student-centered academic environment. The curriculum offered by AAU is continuously evaluated to ensure a practical nature and a focus on both established and emerging occupations. AAU’s strategic plan is to create a true academic culture by emphasizing faculty-driven educational programs that lead to the acquisition of knowledge and skills. These......

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