Free Essay

# Fluid Bluff Body

In: Science

Submitted By syang
Words 1677
Pages 7
1. Develop a calibration curve with the voltages that were taken, in order to determine the velocity at any voltage. You must determine the velocity at each frequency of the stepper motor. If you think of the frequency as being equivalent to some number of cycles per second, then 1 cycle is equal to 1 step. The travel is equivalent to 0.00086’’ per step. Then, use the polyfit and polyval functions in MATLAB to obtain a 5th order polynomial that will fit your data. Polyfit and polyval use the least squares approach to fit the data. Remember, you calibrated the sensor for two directions of flow, so one direction must be considered to be negative velocities and the other direction should be considered positive velocities. Refer to the direction where you only calibrated from 0 to 0.8 kHz as being negative velocity. Display your left, right, and average voltage markers for each known velocity, along with the calibration curve with velocity in meters/second on the x-axis and voltage in volts on the y-axis.
Table 1 – Data for calibration Direction | Frequency (kHz) | Velocity (m/s) | Voltage, left (V) | Voltage, right (V) | Average Voltage (V) | Positive | 0.8 | -0.0175 | 0.1203 | 0.1209 | 0.1206 | | 0.6 | -0.0131 | 0.1323 | 0.1299 | 0.1311 | | 0.4 | -0.00874 | 0.1328 | 0.1365 | 0.1346 | | 0.2 | -0.00437 | 0.1407 | 0.1411 | 0.1409 | | 0 | 0 | 0.1441 | 0.1413 | 0.1427 | Negative | 0 | 0 | 0.1400 | 0.1423 | 0.1411 | | 0.2 | 0.00437 | 0.1413 | 0.1436 | 0.1424 | | 0.4 | 0.00874 | 0.1509 | 0.1510 | 0.1510 | | 0.6 | 0.0131 | 0.1530 | 0.1561 | 0.1546 | | 0.8 | 0.0175 | 0.1576 | 0.1569 | 0.1572 | | 1 | 0.0218 | 0.1659 | 0.1635 | 0.1647 | | 1.2 | 0.0262 | 0.1735 | 0.1744 | 0.1740 | | 1.4 | 0.0306 | 0.1812 | 0.1840 | 0.1826 | | 1.6 | 0.0350 | 0.1960 | 0.1990 | 0.1975 | | 1.8 | 0.0393 | 0.2030 | 0.2044 | 0.2037 | | 2 | 0.0437 | 0.2190 | 0.2222 | 0.2206 | | 2.2 | 0.0481 | 0.2333 | 0.2337 | 0.2335 | | 2.4 | 0.0524 | 0.2469 | 0.2491 | 0.2480 | | 2.6 | 0.0568 | 0.2635 | 0.2643 | 0.2639 |

Data used for calibration is tabulated on Table 1. The velocity is calculated by using Equation 1 below. v=xT=fx (1)
Figure 1 shows calibration curve of left, right and average voltage vs. velocity. The result shows that cubic polynomial fits the average value best.

Figure 1 – Calibration curve 2. What is the difference between the average voltage on the left and right side of the tank for each velocity? What is the percent difference? Create a table showing your results.
Table 2 – Difference between raw data and averaged data Velocity (m/s) | Difference between left and average voltage (V) | % Diff | Difference between right and average voltage (V) | % Diff | -0.0175 | 0.00029 | 0.24 | 0.00029 | 0.24 | -0.0131 | 0.00119 | 0.91 | 0.00119 | 0.91 | -0.00874 | 0.00186 | 1.38 | 0.00186 | 1.38 | -0.00437 | 0.00022 | 0.16 | 0.00022 | 0.16 | 0 | 0.00144 | 1.01 | 0.00144 | 1.01 | 0 | 0.00117 | 0.83 | 0.00117 | 0.83 | -0.00437 | 0.00117 | 0.82 | 0.00117 | 0.82 | -0.00874 | 0.00005 | 0.03 | 0.00005 | 0.03 | -0.0131 | 0.00152 | 0.98 | 0.00152 | 0.98 | -0.0175 | 0.00035 | 0.22 | 0.00035 | 0.22 | -0.0218 | 0.00117 | 0.71 | 0.00117 | 0.71 | -0.0262 | 0.00045 | 0.26 | 0.00045 | 0.26 | -0.0306 | 0.00144 | 0.79 | 0.00144 | 0.79 | -0.0350 | 0.00149 | 0.76 | 0.00149 | 0.76 | -0.0393 | 0.00068 | 0.33 | 0.00068 | 0.33 | -0.0437 | 0.00161 | 0.73 | 0.00161 | 0.73 | -0.0481 | 0.00017 | 0.07 | 0.00017 | 0.07 | -0.0524 | 0.00107 | 0.43 | 0.00107 | 0.43 | -0.0568 | 0.00041 | 0.16 | 0.00041 | 0.16 | 3. Plot the velocity profiles for the data that was acquired both upstream and downstream of the cylinder on the same plot. To do this, take the average value from each data set.
Table 3 – Upstream and downstream voltage and velocity | Upstream | Downstream | Position | Voltage (V) | Velocity (m/s) | Voltage (V) | Velocity (m/s) | 1 | 0.1613 | 1.6825 | 0.1744 | 2.0472 | 2 | 0.1583 | 1.6062 | 0.1733 | 2.0158 | 3 | 0.1556 | 1.5387 | 0.1715 | 1.9628 | 4 | 0.1556 | 1.5389 | 0.1508 | 1.4272 | 5 | 0.1539 | 1.4974 | 0.1223 | 0.8809 | 6 | 0.1506 | 1.4208 | 0.1211 | 0.8622 | 7 | 0.1447 | 1.2912 | 0.1171 | 0.8031 | 8 | 0.1476 | 1.3552 | 0.1180 | 0.8155 | 9 | 0.1520 | 1.4546 | 0.1187 | 0.8265 | 10 | 0.1509 | 1.4295 | 0.1532 | 1.4811 | 11 | 0.1516 | 1.4448 | 0.1671 | 1.8375 | 12 | 0.1545 | 1.5129 | 0.1686 | 1.8809 | 13 | 0.1553 | 1.5322 | 0.1677 | 1.8544 |

Figure 2 – Velocity profile for data acquired

4. Sketch a picture of the set-up you are analyzing. Draw a control volume and clearly indicate the control surface. On your diagram, mark clearly the direction of flow, inlet and outlet velocities and show the direction of the drag force, F you will calculate.

Figure 3 – Sketch of lab set up

5. Using your measured velocity data, calculate a representative Reynolds number based on an average upstream velocity. Compare this number to traditional pipe flow i.e. comment whether the flow for your calculated value of Re would be in laminar, transition, or turbulent regimes for pipe flow.

V_average = 1.485 m/s
D = 25mm = 0.025m ν = 10-6 m2/s
Re=VDv=1.485×0.02510-6=37125<105
Therefore, it is laminar flow.

6. Using Figure 1 and your measured free stream velocity, estimate CD, then calculate the drag from using Equation 3 corresponding to your experimental measurements. Compare this value with the value obtained above in week 2 pre-lab exercise question 2.

FD=12ρV2ACD (2)
According to Figure 1 on lab write up, value of CD approximate to 1. ρ = 1000 kg/m3
V = 1.485 m/s
H = 31 mm=0.031m
A=πDH=π×0.025×0.031=0.0024m2
FD=12ρV2ACD=12×1000×1.4852×0.0024×1=5.37 N
Therefore, the drag is 5.37 N 7. Consider the following values of Re: 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000. Use Figure 1 to determine the drag coefficient vs Re, and then calculate the corresponding drag force by using equation (3) for each Reynolds number. (This will require you to calculate the corresponding characteristic velocity for each value of Re. Use your cylinder submerged height for the characteristic length scale. You may assume that ν = 10-3 N-s/m2). Note that Reynolds number compares the inertial force to the viscous force. Discuss how your drag force compares to relative contribution of viscous and inertial forces. Create a table displaying your results, and a logarithmic plot with the Reynolds numbers on the X axis and the drag forces on the Y axis. Include your experimental data point from question 6 above.

CD could be determined by looking at Figure 1 in lab write up. Since Re=VLν , V=Re νL .
According to equation (3) in text, FD=12ρV2ACD., we can find the drag force.
The result of these values correspond to assigned Re is tabulated on Table 4 as below.
Table 4 – Tabulated corresponding values

Re | CD | V (m/s) | Drag Force (N) | 0.1 | 60 | 3.077E-06 | 7.37E-10 | 1 | 10 | 3.077E-05 | 1.22E-08 | 10 | 2.5 | 3.077E-04 | 3.07E-07 | 100 | 1.8 | 3.077E-03 | 2.20e-05 | 1000 | 0.9 | 3.077E-02 | 0.0011 | 10000 | 1 | 0.3077 | 0.1228 |

According to Table 4, as Reynolds number increases, the drag force increases. Since Reynolds number compares the inertial force to the viscous force, the inertial force increases with Reynolds number. Therefore, large drag force comes with large inertial force and small viscosity force.

Figure 4 – Drag force vs. Re

8. Now using your measured span wise velocity profiles calculate the drag and drag coefficient using the control volume approach of Eq. (1). Hint: You may assume that the span-wise velocity profile is independent of the height above/below the height at which data was taken. In other words you may assume that the total drag is the drag force per unit length of the cylinder multiplied by the submerged height of the cylinder.

Since the control volume does not change over time and the flow is steady, equation (1) can be simplified as:
F=CS VρVdA

9. Comment on the sources of uncertainty in your data. How can these be improved?

The uncertainty might come from system error, such as in accurate sensor transducer, etc. For this of uncertainty, the best way to improve it is to use better sensor and transducer.
The uncertainty might also come from the environment factors, such as the vibration from the equipment, and wind blow through the sensor. For improving this, we could move the lab setup to comparable isolated environment.
The uncertainty might also come from finding the average value of the acquired data. There are many bad data points we want to avoid to use in our raw data. For improving this, we have to be careful.

10. Comment on the differences (and the reasons) between the drag determined in Questions 6, 7, and week two pre-lab question 2.

In the pre-lab, we calculated the drag force as 0, however, the drag force is 5.37 N from the post lab question. This difference is results from the different fluid properties we chose. In pre-lab, we assume the flow is inviscid, however, in our lab, the flow is viscid.

### Similar Documents

Free Essay

#### Measuring Fluid Balance

...Nursing Practice Review Fluid balance Keywords: Fluid balance/Input/Output/ Dehydration/Overhydration ●This article has been double-blind peer reviewed Measuring and managing fluid balance In this article... What fluid balance is and how fluid moves around the body Causes and signs and symptoms of dehydration and overhydration How to assess fluid balance, including clinical assessment How to keep an accurate fluid balance chart Author Alison Shepherd is tutor in nursing, department of primary care and child health, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London. Abstract Shepherd A (2011) Measuring and managing fluid balance. Nursing Times; 107: 28, 12-16. Ensuring patients are adequately hydrated is an essential part of nursing care, yet a recent report from the Care Quality Commission found “appalling” levels of care in some NHS hospitals, with health professionals failing to manage dehydration. This article discusses the importance of hydration, and the health implications of dehydration and overhydration. It also provides an overview of fluid balance, including how and why it should be measured, and discusses the importance of accurate fluid balance measurements. Assessing hydration status and measuring fluid balance can ensure optimal hydration balance, including what fluid balance is, and how and why it is measured. It also discusses the importance of measuring fluid balance accurately, and the health implications of......

Words: 4071 - Pages: 17

#### Research on Aerodynamic Drag Reduction by Vortex Generators

...and negative effects. Since this effect depends on the shape and size of vortex generators, those on the vehicle roof are optimized. This paper presents the optimization result, the effect of vortex generators in the flow field and the mechanism by which these effects take place. Key words: Body, Aerodynamics, Aerodynamic Devices, Flow Visualization, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 1. Introduction To save energy and to protect the global environment, fuel consumption reduction is primary concern of automotive development. In vehicle body development, reduction of drag is essential for improving fuel consumption and driving performance, and if an aerodynamically refined body is also aesthetically attractive, it will contribute much to increase the vehicle’s appeal to potential customers. However, as the passenger car must have enough capacity to accommodate passengers and baggage in addition to minimum necessary space for its engine and other components, it is extremely difficult to realize an aerodynamically ideal body shape. The car is, therefore, obliged to have a body shape that is rather aerodynamically bluff, not an ideal streamline shape as seen on fish and birds. Such a body shape is inevitably accompanied by flow separation at the rear end. The passenger car...

Words: 3114 - Pages: 13

#### Pressure Distribution Around a Cylinder

...PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION AROUND A CYLINDER DEN5242 – AEROTHERMODYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOWS NAKIBUL HUSSAIN NUHASH 130760034 Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Experimental Apparatus and Instrumentation ....................................................................................... 2 Experimental procedure ......................................................................................................................... 2 Calculations and Results ......................................................................................................................... 3 Discussion................................................................................................................................................ 7 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 9 References .............................................................................................................................................. 9 Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 10 Introduction The purpose of the experiment is to determine the pressure distribution on the surface of a smooth cylinder placed with its......

Words: 3736 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

#### Physics

...Introductory Physics I Elementary Mechanics by Robert G. Brown Duke University Physics Department Durham, NC 27708-0305 rgb@phy.duke.edu Copyright Notice Copyright Robert G. Brown 1993, 2007, 2013 Notice This physics textbook is designed to support my personal teaching activities at Duke University, in particular teaching its Physics 141/142, 151/152, or 161/162 series (Introductory Physics for life science majors, engineers, or potential physics majors, respectively). It is freely available in its entirety in a downloadable PDF form or to be read online at: http://www.phy.duke.edu/∼rgb/Class/intro physics 1.php It is also available in an inexpensive (really!) print version via Lulu press here: http://www.lulu.com/shop/product-21186588.html where readers/users can voluntarily help support or reward the author by purchasing either this paper copy or one of the even more inexpensive electronic copies. By making the book available in these various media at a cost ranging from free to cheap, I enable the text can be used by students all over the world where each student can pay (or not) according to their means. Nevertheless, I am hoping that students who truly ﬁnd this work useful will purchase a copy through Lulu or a bookseller (when the latter option becomes available), if only to help subsidize me while I continue to write inexpensive textbooks in physics or other subjects. This textbook is organized for ease of presentation and ease of learning. In particular, they......

Words: 224073 - Pages: 897

Free Essay

#### Mormons in the 1830's and 40's

...Justin Dosey Mormons in the 1830’s and 40’s The United States of America is said to be an “International melting pot,” inhabited by a number of culturally diverse people. Each and every distinct group has played their part in the development of nation whether ‘twas good or bad. I believe that the members of “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,” (otherwise known as Mormons) have proved to be crucial to the growth of the U.S.A. in every aspect. After the establishment of religion in 1827, Mormons have been the target of persecution and discrimination by many. The bulk of this persecution occurred in 1836 when a group of rebel militia attacked Mormon headquarters located in Northern Missouri. This ambush against the Mormons sparked an onslaught of hate crimes to come. After being exiled from Missouri and Illinois, Brigham Young led an intrepid party of immigrants into the Great Salt Lake valley in 1847. The population grew rapidly, and by 1849, the Mormons had managed to form a civil government with Young at the helm. This brief summary has set the stage for this report, where I will evaluate Mormons of the 1830’s and 40’s and enlighten you on their beliefs, culture, and impact throughout American History. Establishment of Religion The establishment of the LDS church is a very interesting story that many people do not understand. “In the spring of 1820, a 14-year-old boy named Joseph Smith went into a grove of trees near his home in Palmyra, New York...

Words: 4385 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

#### The Summer Solstice

...THE SUMMER SOLSTICE Nick Joaquin THE MORETAS WERE spending St. John’s Day with the children’s grandfather, whose feast day it was. Doña Lupeng awoke feeling faint with the heat, a sound of screaming in her ears. In the dining room the three boys already attired in their holiday suits, were at breakfast, and came crowding around her, talking all at once. “How long you have slept, Mama!” “We thought you were never getting up!” “Do we leave at once, huh? Are we going now?” “Hush, hush I implore you! Now look: your father has a headache, and so have I. So be quiet this instant—or no one goes to Grandfather.” Though it was only seven by the clock the house was already a furnace, the windows dilating with the harsh light and the air already burning with the immense, intense fever of noon. She found the children’s nurse working in the kitchen. “And why is it you who are preparing breakfast? Where is Amada?” But without waiting for an answer she went to the backdoor and opened it, and the screaming in her ears became wild screaming in the stables across the yard. “Oh my God!” she groaned and, grasping her skirts, hurried across the yard. In the stables Entoy, the driver, apparently deaf to the screams, was hitching the pair of piebald ponies to the coach. “Not the closed coach, Entoy! The open carriage!” shouted Doña Lupeng as she came up. “But the dust, señora—“ “I know, but better to be dirty than to be boiled alive. And what ails your wife, eh?......

Words: 4753 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

#### Api 551

...Process Measurement Instrumentation API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 551 FIRST EDITION, MAY 1993 American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street, Northwest Washington, D.C. 20005 Process Measurement Instrumentation Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 551 FIRST EDITION, MAY 1993 American Petroleum Institute SPECIAL NOTES 1. API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED. 2. API IS NOT UNDERTAKING TO MEET THE DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS, MANUFACTURERS, OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS. 3. INFORMATION CONCERNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RISKS AND PROPER PRECAUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR MATERIALS AND CONDITIONS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FROM THE EMPLOYER, THE MANUFACTURER OR SUPPLIER OF THAT MATERIAL, OR THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET. 4. NOTHING CONTAINED IN ANY API PUBLICATION IS TO BE CONSTRUED AS GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR USE OF ANY METHOD, APPARATUS, OR PRODUCT COVERED BY LETTERS PATENT. NEITHER SHOULD ANYTHING CONTAINED IN THE PUBLICATION BE CONSTRUED AS INSURING ANYONE AGAINST LIABILITY FOR INFRINGEMENT OF LETTERS PATENT. 5. GENERALLY, API STANDARDS ARE REVIEWED AND REVISED, REAFFIRMED, OR...

Words: 27566 - Pages: 111

#### Gate

...ate Aptitude Test in Engineering GATE 2014 Brochure Table of Contents 1. Introduction .............................................................................................................1 2. About GATE 2014 ......................................................................................................1 2.1. Financial Assistance ............................................................................................................................ 1 2.2 Employment ............................................................................................................................................ 2 2.3 Administration ....................................................................................................................................... 2 3.1 Changes Introduced in GATE 2013 that will continue to remain in force for GATE 2014 .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1 Eligibility for GATE 2014 ................................................................................................................... 4 4.2 GATE Papers ............................................................................................................................................ 5 4.3 Zone-Wise List of Cities in which GATE 2014 will be Held ................................................... 6 4.4 Zone-Wise List of Cities for 3rd...

Words: 32784 - Pages: 132

Free Essay

#### Insurance

...Synonyms and Antonyms, by James Champlin Fernald 1 Synonyms and Antonyms, by James Champlin Fernald Project Gutenberg's English Synonyms and Antonyms, by James Champlin Fernald This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: English Synonyms and Antonyms With Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions Author: James Champlin Fernald Release Date: May 21, 2009 [EBook #28900] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENGLISH SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS *** Produced by Jan-Fabian Humann, Stephen Blundell and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net English Synonyms and Antonyms A Practical and Invaluable Guide to Clear and Precise Diction for Writers, Speakers, Students, Business and Synonyms and Antonyms, by James Champlin Fernald Professional Men Connectives of English Speech "The work is likely to prove of great value to all writers."--Washington Evening Star. 2 "The book will receive high appreciation from thoughtful students who seek the most practical help."--Grand Rapids Herald. "It is written in a clear and pleasing style and so arranged that but a moment's time is needed to find any line of the hundreds of important though small words which this book discusses."--Chattanooga Times.......

Words: 206737 - Pages: 827

Free Essay

#### Titles

...the firm, muscular hips driving rhythmically between his splayed legs and stoking the fever coursing through his body, he could afford his tears little attention. “Oh, oh—ah!” His voice rose in fitful, broken bursts, pitched high to a fawning tenor and dripping thick and cloying as honey from his lips. It was hardly the voice of a man past his thirtieth year, and the sound of it overwhelmed him with shame. But having recently learned that any attempt to restrain himself would only intensify the torture, he could not silence that tearful voice. “Could you… loosen up, a little more?” Mashiba breathed words into his ear. “You’re too tight.” His tone was deep and low, and yet glazed with a certain lascivious sweetness. He was five years Hatano’s junior but his cool composure showed nothing of it, and while this inspired an untimely feeling of frustration, Hatano could not deny that Mashiba’s voice mesmerized him. He fought to relax as he had been told but he could not ease the tension in his stiff, trembling legs, and spasms shook him helplessly each time Mashiba’s heat found leeway to slip further inside his body. “Having trouble…?” It was not only Mashiba’s voice but his physique and facial features, as well, that suggested he was Hatano’s senior; but between them, it was Mashiba who looked his age. Hatano’s face retained still some vestiges of boyishness, and his body was slender. The power in Mashiba’s chiseled, wild features seemed all the greater to...

Words: 42231 - Pages: 169

Free Essay

#### Jar Jar Script

...STAR WARS EPISODE II JAR JAR'S GREAT ADVENTURE Written by GEORGE LUCAS and JONATHAN HALES Lucasfilm Ltd. Second Draft, June 24, 2000 P.O. Box 2009 Pink Revisions, June 28, 2000 San Rafael, CA, USA 94912 Blue Revisions, July 3, 2000 * Green Revisions, July 5, 2000 THIS MATERIAL IS THE PROPERTY OF LUCASFILM LTD. AND IS INTENDED AND RESTRICTED SOLELY FOR USE BY LUCASFILM LTD. PERSONELL. DISTRIBUTION OR DISCLOSURE OF THIS MATERIAL TO UNAUTHORIZE PERSONS IS PROHIBITED. THE SALE, COPYING, OR REPRODUCTION OF THIS MATERIAL IN ANY FORM IS STRICTLY PROHBITED. 1 EXT. SPACE 1 A vast sea of stars serves as a backdrop for the Main Title, followed by a rollup, which crawls into infinity. There is unrest in the Galactic Senate. Several hundred solar systems under the leadership of the rebel leader, Count Dooku, have declared their intentions to secede from the Republic. This separatist movement has made it difficult for the limited number of Jedi Knights to maintain peace and order in the galaxy. Senator Amidala, the former Queen of Naboo, is returning to Coruscant to vote on the critical issue of creating an army to assist the overwhelmed Jedi. PAN UP to reveal the amber city planet of Coruscant. A yellow Naboo Fighter flies OVER CAMERA toward the planet, followed by a large Royal Cruiser and two more Fighters. 2 EXT. CORUSCANT - DAWN 2 The ships skim across the surface of the city landscape. The sun glints off the chrome hulls of the sleek Naboo spacecraft as they navigate between......

Words: 29232 - Pages: 117

Free Essay

#### History

...THE INFLUENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ON PRODUCTION: A CASE OF ZIMBABWE PPC COLLEEN BAWN BY EMMANUEL MAGANGA A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE HONOURS DEGREE IN GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES. MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY MAY 2013 SUPERVISION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FORM MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES STUDENT: EMMANUEL MAGANGA (R091941J) The undersigned certify that they have read and recommended to the Midlands State University for acceptance as a dissertation entitled: The Influence of Occupational Health and Safety on Production: A Case of Zimbabwe Pretoria Portland Cement, Colleen Bawn. STUDENT…………………………………………………..DATE ….../……../ 2013 SUPERVISOR……………………………………………....DATE……/……../ 2013 CHAIRPERSON…………………………………………….DATE……/……../ 2013 EXTERNAL EXAMINER………………………………….DATE……/……./ 2013 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of social sciences Honors Degree in Geography and Environmental studies DEDICATIONS To My Parents I dedicate this accomplishment to my parents Mr and Mrs Maganga for to have made me who I am today. May God bless you with long life so that you may be able to see all my successes’ and achievements. I love you ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the Lord our God for all the knowledge, wisdom, support and guidance throughout my research. This project would not have......

Words: 10471 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

#### Land Feature Paper

...Northern California Geolo Geology of Northern California Frank DeCourten Department of Earth Science Sierra College Standing more than 10,000 feet (3,000 m) above the surrounding terrain, Mt. Shasta is the largest volcano in northern California and symbolizes the dynamic geologic processes that have shaped a spectacular landscape. 63829_02_insidecover.qxd 11/25/08 12:53 AM Page ii ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TO ASK Northern California.1 Introduction Ⅲ What are northern California’s physiographic provinces? Ⅲ What is the Farallon subduction zone? al Ⅲ What two types of plate boundaries exist in northern California today? th Ⅲ What are terranes, how do they originate, and why are they important in northern California? Northern California.2 The Sierra Nevada: California’s Geologic alifornia’s Ge Backbone Ⅲ What is the Sierra Nevada batholith? rra batholi Ⅲ What kinds of rocks surround the Sierra Nevada batholith? ra Ⅲ When and how was the modern Sierra Nevada uplifted? e Ⅲ What types of gold deposits occur in the Sierra Nevada? e? Ⅲ What is the Mother Lode? Northern California.3 The Klamath M Mountains t ath an Ne evada Ⅲ In what ways are the Klamath Mountains and the Sierra Nevada similar? ds ro o ath M Ⅲ What kinds of rocks comprise the ophiolites in the Klamath Mountains and what tectonic events do they signify? ineral occu th ntai Ⅲ What mineral resources occur in the Klamath Mountains? Northern......

Words: 29429 - Pages: 118

Free Essay

#### Gre Vocabulary 3000

...Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization. List 1 GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5 2008 10 Princeton, MIT, M. Fin Unit 1 ABANDON A B D I C AT E ABASE ABERRANT ABASH ABET A B AT E A B E YA N C E A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR abandon [ 1 n. ] carefree, freedom from constraint added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity / abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2......

Words: 139628 - Pages: 559

Free Essay

#### Book

...original edition)(Revised and reissued 1992)[Version 2.0 by Bbat – august 4 2003][Easy read, easy print][Completely new scan]The Hunter was born to hunt,as his prey was born to bebrought down at his desire . . .Sara Laramie moved through the iron castings in the foundry yard, keeping low so that she was at all times concealed from view. The Hunter Relemar was in pursuit of her. She did not know that he was a Hunter; it was obvious, however, that he was differ-ent from other naoli.Deep scream, lovely scream, wanting out . . . She reached the thousand gallon storage tank in which she now made her home. She pulled open the entry plate (it squeaked; Relemar listened for squeaks) and went inside. Behind her, there was a scraping noise . . . Rats, she thought, lighting the glow lamp. The tank brightened to a warm yellow.“Hello,” said Relemar the Hunter. He was trying to smile.This time, she did not suppress the scream . . . BEASTCHILD IS FORLISA TUTTLEAND DANNY JENNINGSAND JACK CORDESAND FOR THE USPOWHICH INTRODUCED USscience fiction by Dean R. Koontzavailable in Lancer editionsTHE DARK SYMPHONY, 74-621HELL'S GATE, 74-656 BeastchildDean R. KoontzLANCER BOOKS NEW YORK A LANCER BOOKBEASTCHILDThe characters in this book are entirely imaginary and have no relation to any living person.Copyright © 1970 by Dean R. KoontzA substantially shorter version of this novel appeared in Venture Science Fiction Copyright © 1970 by Mercury Press, Inc.LANCER BOOKS, INC. • 1560......

Words: 52814 - Pages: 212