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Heart Disease and Nutrition


Submitted By letty33
Words 1486
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Class Final:
The genetics of cancer * Cancer is when mitosis goes wrong! * Cancer cells lack regulated ability to divide only when needed so they divide uncontrollably. * Hyperplasia- Beginning of cancer development; heightened cell division that can create tumor (neoplasm) * Dysplasia- The change in cells/tissue * Cancer cells go from being complex to primitive—which means cancer cells lose their shape, size and ability to function like normal cells * Cancer originates due to mutations within the DNA, in sequence of nucleotides of genes * Malignant tumors and neoplasms are referred to as cancer; benign neoplasms are NOT cancer * In situ tumors- Precurser to cancer/ precancerous * Very dangerous tumor cells (what’s detected in screenings)
Causes of cancer: 1. If there’s mutation in the Proto-oncogenes (tumor suppressor genes), which code for proteins and regulates mitosis… then there will definitely be problem with normal cell division. 2. Carcinogens are substances or physical agents that lead to development of cancer when body is exposed to them. 3. General mutations due to internal/external factors can cause cancer. a. Internal factors- errors in DNA replication; Free radicals; errors in protein synthesis b. External factors- Infectious agents (bacteria/viruses); pollution and chemicals in environment; Radiation (sun); medical treatment (chemo); Lifestyle factors (diet, tobacco)
Benign vs. Malignant * Benign * Tumors that stay in one place (Don’t spread to other parts of body) * Can be removed usually, with surgery * Usually encapsulated * Maintains normal cell structure/function (size and shape) * Don’t come back in most cases * Cells don’t invade other tissue * Malignant * Tumors that DON’T stay in one place * More aggressive in their growth * Replicate rapidly * Can invade and damage nearby tissue and organs * Mestasizes- When cancer cells break away from malignant tumor and enter bloodstream/lymphatic system forming secondary tumors n body) * Lose ability to maintain cell function
Malignant and metastasis * Malignant is the tumors that don’t stay in place and form masses in other tissues/organs in body * Mestasize is the way that malignant tumors spreads to other tissues by breaking off and traveling through blood and lymph system
Cancer treatments

Phenotypes/Genotypes * Phenotype- An observable characteristic or trait of an organism (i.e. shape, development, body, and behavior) * Genotype- The complete set of alleles and combination, determining the physical characteristics * The inherited instructions it carries within its genetic code.
* Humans have 22 pairs of homologous/identical chromosomes AND a pair of sex chromosomes= totaling 46 chromosomes * Each of the 22 is 1 pair from mom and other from dad * 23rd pair determines sex of human * Females XX * Males XY
* Dominant alleles are EXPRESSED & MASK the recessive allele (classify genes) * Whenever a dominant allele is present (WW or Ww), it phenotype is expressed. * Recessive alleles that gets masked and can ONLY be expressed phenotypically if there’s 2 of its alleles in the genotype (classify genes) * Only time recessive allele phenotypic characteristic is expressed is when dominant allele is ABSENT, in the case of Double Recessive. * BB- Homozygous Dominant trait * bb- Homozygous Recessive trait * Bb- Heterozygous trait
* Sometimes those with Ww are carrier of recessive allele so they don’t express it but can pass it to offspring.
* Heterozygous- when an individual has a different ALLELE for a gene pair * Homozygous- when an individual has the same ALLELE for a gene pair
Punnett Squares * Punnett Squares are used to predict probability that a specific genotype will be inherited * Punnett Squares illustrate how alleles can be passed from parents to offsprings
X‐linked traits * X-linked traits * The traits that only passes through X chromosome * X-Linked genes are never passed from father to son
Genetic Engineering (AKA molecular modification) * Genetic Engineering is when scientist takes genes out of an organism and inserts it into another organism. * Manipulation of an organism’s DNA/genes * Producing new genes that result in new and more desired traits * 1 of fastest growing areas of research * Allows physicians to use genetic testing to locate mutations that would lead to sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, breast cancer and Huntington’s disease * Helps physicians find cures for diseases as well
Transgenic bacteria * Transgenic bacteria are bacteria that have been genetically engineered. * Since bacteria have smaller genome than humans, scientist are able to infuse another species gene into bacteria genome in order to produce insulin and produce vaccines.
GM foods * GM foods contain an added gene sequence or deleted gene sequence. * Also includes animals that are fed GM feed. * Any edible foods produced by GM organisms.
Obstacles to gene therapy * Delivering the functional gene to correct cell type * Delivering the functional gene to millions of appropriate cells * ***It’s important for genes to go to appropriate cells to be added into human genome and start producing functional protein.
* Evolution is the theory of all organisms adapting and changing over time, creating a change in gene pool * Evolution is CONSTANTLY occurring and we can see evidence in short/long periods * Alleles separate randomly during meiosis so mutations to genes that cause evolution are random and unpredictable. * Macroevolution vs. microevolution * Microevolution is changes in gene frequency over time that can be seen over short periods of time (i.e. bacteria resistance) * Macroevolution is changes in gene frequency over time that takes long periods of time (i.e. dinosaurs evolving into today’s reptiles) 1. Encompasses origination of mammals and entire groups of organisms
Natural Selection * Natural selection is the theory that useful traits of a species in a specific environment become enhanced while those traits that cause disadvantage are removed in a nonrandom way in that population’s gene pool. * Survival of the fittest- Charles Darwin * Examples- beetles with camouflage color to a tree bark will survive longer than those without. * Is a component of Evolution * The idea is that those with genetic advantages within their environment will have higher chance of reproducing, and their traits get passed on to majority of future generations.
Genetic Drift * Genetic Drift is when modifications in allele frequency due to random events in small populations. * The RANDOM change in gene frequency in a population. * Examples- Food shortage and disease outbreak because they cause elimination of certain alleles indefinitely in that pop.
The effect of migration on the gene pool * Migration is the movement of individuals of one population into another population. * This affects gene pool because there will be reproductive variations as a result of the change in gene frequency (after movement) * Migration can either be immigration or emigration
What affects the aging process? * Organ systems will age at different rates and lose efficiency and decline in function * Factors that can increase/decrease the aging rate include: emotional stress, chemical use, chronic disease, exercise, smoking and nutrition
Fertilization Implantation * Fertilization is process where female gamete(egg) cell joins with male gamete(sperm). * Stages of Fertilization: 2. Sperm connect with an egg 3. Sperm enters inside the egg 4. Egg and sperm nuclei fuse together 5. Offspring development begins * Sperm lifespan is about 2-5 days; and sperm has 24 hours after ovulation to fertilize an egg, if not the sperm dies
* Fraternal Twins- Occurs when 2 eggs are ovulated and fertilized by 2 sperm * Identical Twins- Occurs from the splitting of the zygote or fertilized egg * Can happen during Pre-embryonic stage
* Teratogens are agents/conditions (i.e. virus, chemicals) that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or death.
Effect of greenhouse gasses * Greenhouse gasses include Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide * Effects include: Rise in sea level; Increase in global temperature; Increase in ocean temperatures; melting large ice sheets; retreating glaciers; more extreme weather events; ocean acidification * Carbon Dioxide levels from burning fossil fuels have risen in past 100 years; which are causing problems with the Earth’s climate

Fossil Fuels * Fossil Fuels include coal, oil, natural gas which are all found UNDER Earth’s surface. * Takes millions of years to form * We use them so much their RUNNING OUT * Main and only advantage of fossil fuels is they produce LARGE amounts of energy per unit weight
Renewable energy/Nonrenewable energy * Renewable Energy- Alternative energy sources like solar power, hydroelectric, geothermal, wind power, and biofuels---Energy that don’t take millions of years to form are readily available for use. * Non-renewable Energy- Fossil fuels and other sources of energy that takes MILLIONS OF YEARS TO FORM
Nuclear energy * Nuclear energy can provide LARGE amounts of energy * Can result in nuclear accident if complication arises, leading to release of radioactive particles in environment * Also results in radioactive waste that needs to be stored for millions years.
Carbon footprint Sustainability- To live in a way that natural resources are conserved for future generations and other living things. * Goes by principle- Everything that we need for survival and well-being depends either directly or indirectly on our natural environment. * Sustainability creates and maintains conditions where humans and nature can exist in productive harmony and permits fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present/future generations.

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