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History Notes

In: Historical Events

Submitted By mirandameissner
Words 4829
Pages 20
8/31/15

SI: Monday 2-2:50 WH118
Tuesday 11-11:50 WH 218
Thursday 11-11:50 WH 111 hallecarrasco@my.unt.edu * Overview of reconstruction * Lincoln’s plan (1863-1865) * Presidential reconstruction (1865-1867) * Congressional reconstruction (1867-1872) * “redemption” (1870-1877) * * know general phases * congressional reconstruction (or radical reconstruction) * radical republicans in congress * thaddeus stevens – from Pennsylvania - Charles sumner * Had similar reasons * Stevens in sympathetic to those that are oppressed ; steps up and opposes lincoln’s plan; doesn’t think the oppressed have been helped enough through concrete measures. Big supporter of freedman’s. * Sumner was beaten by canes in the senate chamber – personal animosity toward slavery and democracy in the south * almost like restarting over; a do-over * idealism and political motive * wanted to create a republican party in the south * Wanted to * Punish southerners * Protect freedmen * Strengthen republican party * 14th amendment * granting citizenship to African americans; can vote and hold office * outlawed black codes * righting wrongs that had popped up * some African americans were actually elected to senate; although this doesn’t last * 15th amendment * can’t deny someone the right to vote based on race * designed to reinforce democratic party taking over the south; new political role in the south * “Redemption “ * Around 1870, things look like they’re making progress * Grant elected president in 68, steps out of the way and let’s congress do what it wants * General amnesty act (1872) * Granted amnesty to former confederate officials that had been barred during reconstruction * A lot of money was being spent on reconstruction, believe it was time to move on * Seen as the south being redeemed; racist white southerners taking over the south * *don’t read book over redemption * people complained there was corruption everywhere * “redeemer democrats” back into power, kicking out republicans * intimidation of black voters with kkk (1st version); all to intimidate black voters to not vote and to intimidate white voters into voting republican * Grant comes up with the KKK Acts – cripples the KKK – worked and disappeared, at least until the 2nd version of KKK came around in 1920

9/2/15

The Gilded Age (1870-1900) * What was it? * Time when nation was going through profound industrialization process * See a gigantic increase in urbanization and cities popping up * Change in not just economics, but lifestyle altogether * See a concentration of wealth in the hands of the few; capitalism, which can be a good system in theory. The problem with the gilded age was that people got sick with everyday life government interference – no one protecting those lower on the totem pole. * The term “gilded” : something on the outside is shimmering and shining, but underneath it’s crap. Mark Twain came up with the term “gilded age”, was very much aware of what was going on * It is the shift of the pendulum from the reconstruction era * Politics in the gilded age * Laissez-faire * “hands off” business. In order for it to prosper fully, need to keep the reigns off * tradition of liberty * corruption and the spoils system * corruption would be the single best word to describe the gilded age * spoils system – particularly bad now. Originated in the Jackson era. People who shouldn’t be getting political positions, are. Grant is legendary for this. * Series of weak presidents * Almost unknown guys, don’t really do anything * Very laissez-fair * Grant administration (1868-1876) * Had no control over those he put into power * He’s a war hero, not a politician * Corruption and scandal is associated with him * The whiskey ring: federal gov has had a tax on the production of whiskey. Basically lied under oath, claimed he didn’t know what was going on with the whiskey rings * Credit mobilier scandal * Union pacific railroad fraud * Cost the US almost $20 million * Compromise of 1876 * Hayes (republican) given the election * agreed to withdraw federal troops from south * Democrats thought they’d been robbed of the election * Democrats then regain control of the south since no troops * End of reconstruction * Garfield (1880) * Impressive background, looks like he might be different than Hayes * Very progressively minded guy; somebody that wanted to help defend those that needed help * Before the war, an abolitionist, so very much against slavery. Wanted equal rights * Charles Guiteau * Mentally insane; delusional and compulsive liar * Cult member (like a bohemian commune cult; believed spirituality through free love) and con man. He was kicked out of the cult bc he was too creepy * “helped” garfield’s campaign * believed he should be the ambassador of france. Thought he deserved a high political position * of course didn’t get the position he expected he should get, so he gets it in his mind that it was very unfair and he should do something. * Got a gun and stalked Garfield, and one day he kills him. Bc he felt he was slighted for not getting the position * The assassination * Led to changes in the medical field bc of garfield’s death due to the infection of the wound * Pendelton civil service reform act * End of the spoils system! * Those who want a position, must take an exam to make sure the person is competent

9/4/15

Industry during the gilded age (1870-1900) * Presidents weren’t the ones to call the shots since they were so “laissez-faire” * The robber barons were running things * Criticized or not contributing anything back into the system * Rockefeller is an example * Larger than life figures * Captains of industry * Types of monopoly * (These robber barons made their wealth through the capitalist system) * horizontal integration * cutting out the competition * the product is vital to a bunch of other industries, so the others are at your mercy * vertical integration * controlling every aspect of production * don’t have to pay a middleman * very powerful situation, dangerous to the consumer * geographical monopoly * controlling the area through the product * ex: cable companies in rural areas and railroads * JP Morgan * The monopoly man * Another robber baron * John D Rockefeller and standard oil * Bought out the competition of oil * Created standard oil trust * Bought up different companies, so he had to think of a way to work together * Operating under one company, but not officially * Oil becoming more important with the increase in machines and also for railroads * He would buy out the competition and offer tem so much money to buy their business * The problem that came about was when others don’t want to sell it * He would sell his oil super cheap and run the other out of business, then jack up prices again once the other was out of business * Why are monopolies bad? * Bad for competition * Impossible for others to join the market and crack into the industry * Company is in charge of the prices, rather than supply and demand * Bad for workers and consumers * Consumers – having to pay more * Workers – aren’t paid a lot bc they can’t go somewhere else and find other jobs * Also with the better technology, a lot less workers are needed * Immigrants from Europe looking for work as well – so a lot of worker competition, and incredibly low wages * Increasing the gap between the rich and the poor * Effects on industrial workers * Poor wages and long hours * Average work week was 60 and 72 hours * No such thing as minimum wage * Hazardous work conditions * No workers comp. * Dependency * Factory owners basically decided your life * No child labor laws * Small so they could get into little areas * Help with income for a family * Could pay them even less * Avondale mine disaster (1869) * Coal breaker is basically a huge furnace. Placed as close to the mine as possible * Everyone in the mine is trapped and burned in the mine bc the coal breaker caught on fire

9/9/15

* Avondale Mine disaster * A labor union was the only thing to fall back on * Attempts to organize labor * First time to develop wide scale organization * Knights of Labor 1878 * Included all workers * Didn’t have a lot of success bc it included both skilled and unskilled workers, so it was very unstable * American federation of labor 1886 * more successful * Samuel gompers * Immigrant and skilled cigar roller * He has a conservative approach to organization. Says “AFL” is only open to skilled workers * Makes unions more palatable to the American people * He completely embraces the capitalist system****! * Union were trying to get the gov involved on their side, rather than being laissez-faire * The gospel of wealth * Carnegie * Archetypal success story. From Scotland and come to the US with nothing, and rose to become a billionaire * “wealth comes from hardwork” and “poverty is a character flaw” * people believed he was America, so they really believed in this book * “the self made man” * by horatio alger * “rags to riches” novels * self-help role model * social darwinism * another strain of thought that people are getting into * herbet spencer * very influential, british sociologist * survival of the fittest in human society * only keeping the best of the best, and the weakest die out * pointless to intervene * people actually saw it as immoral to intervene * or thought the gov would come into things and help them and do stuff for them, and that’s not what the country was founded on * owners have the power * so difficult for workers to organize labor unions bc of this * owners control the press * they back lassiez-faire politicians * violent labor strikes * haymarket riot. Starts out super peaceful to just get rid of some grievances. But then bombs end up being thrown and ends in chaos * Homestead Steel strike (1892) * Another showdown between hired police/mercenaries * 1000 workers strike * 300 pinkertons * state militia is called on the side of the owners in order to end the strike – they restored peace

9/11/15

The old west (1865-1890) * who’s in the west already? * Hundreds of different tribes of native americans * Planes Indians was a specific group * A lot of people out in the west trying to find gold * People of Spanish and Mexican descent * Mormons out in Utah * What enabled westward expansion? * Influx of new technology * Railroads * Probably the biggest factor * The time when production of railroads ramped up * Transcontinental – important for trading, getting to the other coast, shipping crops to other locations * Massive population * Huge influx of immigrants in the east coast, getting treated unfairly or can’t get jobs there, so they moved out west * Homestead Act of 1862 * Lincoln came up with it * 160 acres of land given if you go out to the west and agree to stay there for 5 years, farming it and irrigating it, turning it to usable land * this appealed to those desperate for work or better treatment * made their houses out of sod, not a glamorous life. Basically took a huge risk by doing this * Other new technology * John deere and the plow * Made out of steel rather than iron; better bc the soil was much harder and also made of clay * Guns * Winchester repeater * Colt revolver * Gave settlers an advantage bc conflict with indian settlers already there * Can opener * The idea of canning food hadn’t been done before * Now you can preserve food, and take it to eat on the go * Refrigerated cars * Can ship food out to markets in the east * Destruction of the buffalo * Partly on purpose bc they realize the Indians are dependent on buffalo, so they knew if they killed them they couldn’t survive – sabotage of the native americans * Railroad effect * Men with guns would shoot the buffalo from the trains if they came across any * Demand for hides * For people in the cities – was the trend to wear buffalo hides * Made an incredible profit from this * Food * Also served as food for people on the planes * Before westward expansion * 70 million 300 * treaty of fort Laramie (1868) * a huge reservation for different tribes in a few states * US okay with where the reservation was bc it wasn’t good land for farming * But suddenly found gold in the land, so they wanted the land back in exchange for $6mil * Battle of little bighorn (1876) * Turns American public opinion sour as far as indian policy * Before this, there was a lot of push for peace w/ Indians * But once this happened, how it was portrayed in the east made it seem like custer was up in slaughter * Last major indian resistance * Dawes Act 1887 * Individual ownership of tribal land * This didn’t make sense to a lot of people * Boarding schools * To “Americanize” the native americans. Basically trying to make them become white. * The motto was “kill the indian, save the man”. By killing the indian out of the people, you were saving the human * Cattle drives * Only lasts for 20 years, very short time period in which this is happening * All due to railroads

9/14/15

The populist movement and the 1890s * Problems in agriculture * The better people get at farming, the more theyre able to produce overproduction prices go down and average farmer makes less money * Foreclosures * Farmers have to pay for new equipment, as well as taxes on the land. And their product prices are going down * Tenant farming * Share cropping – working the land and at the end of the harvest season, promise a certain percentage of crop to the land owner * Less tenant farming in west, but it still does take place * Farmers in economic trouble * Railroad monopolies * Farmers often lived right off the railroad so they could get crops to the market * Once railroad companies noticed the farmers’ dependence, they realized they could charge whatever they wanted of the farmers to use the railroads * Crippling debt * The grange * Tried to influence state gov to pass laws to help alleviate problems that farmers faced * Interstate commerce act * the fed gov is in charge of regulation * there’s laws in the books, but no one is doing anything about it. * Forming the populist party * Weren’t being helped by other party * Tired of corruption and the gov being against them * Needs not being met, so they form this party * Omaha platform * Subtreasury system * Never actually materialized * Weird idea that you would have gov run storage facilities around the country, where you could bring nonperishable crops (like wheat or cotton). Could take them to one of the subtreasury stores and you get a loan based on what you bring in * Could control how much product goes into the market; way to deal with the overproduction problem, as well as getting money to farmers through the loans * Exact opposite of laissez faire!!! * Free silver * Much more silver in the world than gold * Thought that by backing money with silver, you could print more money and pay people back with their debts * Populists wanted money to be backed by silver * Trying to alleviate farmer debt * Progressive income tax * The more money you make, the higher percentage of tax you pay * What problem does this attack? The rich shoulder a larger portion of the tax burden, and decrease gap between rich and poor * Populist political demands * Direct election of US senators * With politicians picking other politicians, there would be too much corruption * This is supposed to be a democratic nation, so this direct election is more democratic and liked better * Federal ownership of railroads and telegraphs * Wanted federal gov to OWNN ALL RAILROADS AND TELEGRAPHS – incredibly radical. Opposite of laissez faire * Anti-capitalist . socialist * Women and the populist movement * Mary e lease * Temperance movement * Wanting to get rid of alcohol * Husbands would spend all money at saloons and then come home and beat the wives * Get rid of monopoly * Election of 1892 * Populist/democratic parties fuse * Democratic party blamed for depression * Democratic party adopts some populist ideas * Almost do a 180 * adopts the free silver idea and progressive income tax * wizard of oz and the populist movement * William Jennings bryan’s platform * Populist ideas * Made 600 fiery speeches * Really gives people chance to have a choice * Opposite of mckinley * Mckinley’s platform * The front porch campaign * Pro-business * Influence on press * Sat back and let people and businesspeople to come to him * would talk “Scare” tactics about what the populists would do * sent out millions and millions of letters, which is tangible and effective. Better than a speech that can be forgotten right after. * Much money behind him, and he wins * *WHY IS THIS 1896 election so important? * Democratic party becomes party of reform * America as urban and industrial * Set stage for progressive era

9/16/15

* Domestic issues * Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Samoa all become a part of the US in this time * Colonial expansion * It is an exploitative relationship; one country just taking it from someone that has it * Sometimes mutual give and take * Stronger countries bullying weaker ones – bigger ones trying to become industrial powers * Also important if they have an interest in having a larger and better military * Seward’s Folly - Alaska * Alaska had been a Russian territory, filled with Inuit people * Not a good relationship between the Russians and inuits * Russian monarchy in crisis, and need to make money * So they sell it to America * People thought this was stupid and called it “seward’s folly”, bc there was absolutely nothing but snow * 1897 Klondike Gold Rush * huge amount of gold discovered * that 7 million price tag proved not to be a bad deal at all and not so stupid * Hawaii * Christian missionaries were the first onto the island * People there for sugar plantations * Including Dole * It is negative in that the Hawaiian population had to do the laborious work * Hawaii at the time is monarchical, with each island having one king. Then consolidated into one king over all. * The kings are super friendly to the sugar plantation owners because theyre making money from it * Why specifically grow sugar? * There are no places under American control where sugar was grown * Sugar extremely valuable commodity * End of Hawaiian rule * Queen lili’uokalani (1891) * Has different ideas about Hawaii should deal with the plantation owners * “Hawaii for Hawaiians” * Lili has the white settlers outnumbered 4 to 1 * found guns * There was a ship full of marines near by, coincidentally * What Lili saw was the US bringing guns into this place and now sending marines to take over * In order to avoid bloodshed, she steps down from power * Plantation owners set up a government (1893) * Dole is the first president * Their first goal is to get the US to annex Hawaii * Reasons why the us should annex Hawaii * Raw resources – pineapple, sugar, lots of money to be made * Perfect place for a naval base * America starts to dip toe into asia * Starting to industrialize, needs a lot of resources. So perfect base between US and asia * A.T. Mahan * Every world leader at the time read this guys’ book – “the influence of sea power upon history * “With every single world power throughout history, the reason they were able to be so dominant and powerful is because they had a great navy.” * Everyone becomes obsessed with building up a navy * So US thinks Hawaii will be great for their navy * If US didn’t annex it, someone else would * Annexation of guano islands * Good for nothing else but bird poop, which people used for fertilizer * Cuba and Spanish-American War (1898) * Last remaining vestige of Spanish colonialism * Cuba revolts against spain (1895) * Destruction of sugar plantations * Basically the idea was to wreck cuba so spain wouldn’t want to deal with it anymore * Spain’s response: 600,000 cubans in concentration camps * American interest bc just 90 miles away from florida * A lot of americans also have business interests in cuba * “yellow journalism” * joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph hearst * they basically start the war between the US and Cuba * very negative, hyperbolized, almost lying sometimes. Just trying to get wealthier by selling papers * send people down to cuba to see what’s going on there and then go overboard in stories about it * America gets involved * Mckinley wanted to avoid war * Delome letter intercepted * He was the Spanish ambassador to the US. Intercepted by Hearst * Badmouthed mckinley. * They take the letter and put it in the newspaper for everyone to read * Makes mckinley look bad and people even more mad at the Spanish * The USS Maine * Battleship sent down to Havana harbor to protect American interests and to make sure nothing happens to americans * Explosion * Americans say it was on purpose by the Spanish, but the Spanish say that it wasn’t them * Found out in the 1970s that it wasn’t the Spanish * US Declarations * Said cuba was free from spain – no right to do this though, really has no real power * Mckinley asks for permission of US military to intervene, but not exactly go to spain. * This is to appease americans – bc no one really wants to go to war * Teller Amendment * Said the US would not annex cuba, ever * We send a boat to the Philippines and take over the phil. (it was a Spanish territory)

9/18/15

US Declarations * Teller Amendment * Said the US would not annex cuba * Doesn’t say anything about any other Spanish possessions/lands * Sugar can be grown in the phillipines, so now is the perfect time to take it * We take over the entire country, hundreds of miles away, all for sugar cane. * Also a great port if trying to expand into asia and china * This is all a new step in American foreign policy
Why was the Spanish-american war so important? * Territorial expansion * Phillippines * Puerto rico * Guantanamo bay * Teddy Roosevelt rises to fame * He is a high ranking diplomat, so jazzed up by the idea of war that he starts up his own regimen
McKinley Assassination * TR takes over * Completely different ballgame now * No more laissez-faire * Progressive era begins

9/21/15

The progressive era: the Theodore Roosevelt years * Had the prideful mindset that they could conquer the homefront after acquiring the new leands * Not a whole lot of effort during the guilded age to fix problems, so change finally begins in the progressive era

* Progressive era * Fix problems of modern society * Became obsessed with their abilities to do something * So optimistic and prideful – hubris – basically became their downfall bc way too confident and took it too far * Overestimated what they were capable of * A time of unrivaled freedom and prosperity * Because of their takeover and large economic book why people were so optimistic * Shift away from gilded age * Laissez faire reform * Laissez faire dramatically changes to presidents actually doing something – taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson * Strong national government helping the vulnerable * Previous reform efforts? * During the gilded age, it was the beginning of what the progressive era would be all about, and what would flourish * Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) * Very active guy and an outdoorsman. Had asthma but made it a point to overcome it * Larger than life figure, nothing anyone has been as a president yet * So over the top, it was exactly what was need to usher in the progressive era * TR’s square deal * His overall political agenda / approach to politics – the four “C”s * Control corporations * TR the Trust Buster * “responsible capitalist” * wanted to avoid more radical alternatives * not anti-business, just scared of capitalism * not just feeling sorry for workers, but more about pragmatic impulse driving this. Wants responsible capitalist * thinks there are good trust and bad trust * bas trusts are those that hurt competition and hurt competition. Wants to bust this. * Bureau of corporation, 1903 * To bust bad trusts * An investigation board – goes and investigates corporations and finds out what theyre doing wrong then later sues them and forces them to broke down to smaller corporation/companies * Ends up busting 44 different trusts * Used Sherman anti-trust act * Concern for workers * Anthracite coal mine strike (1902) * The coal people used to heat their homes. When it ran out, people died during winters * Acts like a middleman between workers and owners * Basically threatens owners to talk to their workers, or else the mine would be taken by the government * Better work hours and better pay. Not everything they wanted, but they did get some. Compromise. * Very different from what we say in the gilded age – gov finally stepping in more on the workers’ side * Muckrakers * Exposed monopolies to prove the poor conditions of monopolies and the corruption * More of uncovering the truth and getting people energized to fix the problems * Consumer protection * Railroads were very unfair to the people * Hepburn act, 1906 * Basically takes something that already existed but added some teeth to it * Impowers interstate commerse commission to lower rates * Gathers info to prove what was going on was unfair * Meat inspection Act, 1906 * Pure food and drug act, 1906 * Conservation * People doesn’t want people to become socialist! * Wants to just be more responsible about capitalism * Sinclair’s “The Jungle” * Exposed the meat packing industry was * Socialist message * Roosevelt hates this

9/25/15
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA: TAFT AND WILSON (1909-1920)
**during the progressive area – old ideas came to be, culmination of previous desired movements/changes** * 1908 – Roosevelt is done with second term * Taft’s reforms * Political slogan “take all from Teddy” = following what Teddy did --- so it was easy for him to get elected when they wanted Teddy for a third term * 16th Amendment * progressive income tax amendment * different mindset from opposing previous views – now have an active government to try to fix guilded age problems * 17th Amendment * direct election of US senators * the populists had previously called for this * Trust Busting * Just like TR * Breaking monopolies into smaller companies * Taft busted 90 different trusts, so double the trust buster of Teddy * His claim of fame – first former president to be in the supreme court * Republican party wanted a conservative and laissez-faire approach * 1912 Election * Split develops * Taft invents the Bull Moose Party * TR, Taft, and Wilson * All three essentially called for the same things though * Taft most conservative, but really not conservative at all * All progressive (exact opposite of guilded age) * Each “considered”: Taft (republican), Roosevelt (Progressive), Wilson (democratic) * Wilson wins * Wilson’s Reforms * Pretended to be more pro-business than he was * Really in the mold of Roosevelt – gov control over economy * Federal Reserve Act (1913) * A new currency system, in charge of setting interests rates. Controlling the amount of currency in the economy at any given time * Federal Trade Commission Act * Response to trust-busting and continuing Sherman anti-trust act * Sets up a regulation board to oversee everything. Middle step between progressive era and guilded age. “not directly break them up, but keep a close watch on them” * Labor Reform * Triangle shirtwaist fire * A clothing factory full of jewish women immigrants * They were basically locked in the building, it caught on fire, and there was no way to escape * 164 people die * wakes people up to the fact that the conditions are so inhumane, so it starts reform (such as exit signs) * Keeting-Owen Child Labor Act * If you’re a company engaged in interstate commerce, employees must be 14 or older. If you have anyone younger than 14, then its illegal for interstate commerce * Women getting the right to vote * Wilson is credited with it, but he was actually very much opposed to this idea * However, some states had women already voting, like out in the west, before the 19th amendment * Populist movement had most support out there * Thought to be because it was a way to get women out west bc it was overly saturated with only men out there * The Dark Side of Progressivism * So much change going on in society, people started getting “drunk” on their own abilities, thinking they could solve any and all problems. And sometimes this isn’t the best thing in the world. Example: * Prohibition (1919) & the 18th Amendment * Big part of the populist platform, and finally got traction in this progressive era * People dying very early only from drinking so much, so they wanted to stop this * A really intrusive step by the government – a very big deal * It doesn’t take alcohol out of people’s hands. Now criminals are illegally selling it * No tax revenue from it * And people still dying * “dumbest idea in US history”. A huge failure * when FDR comes to office, he immediately gets rid of it * Overconfidence in flawed science * Eugenics * An off-shoot of social Darwinism – social Darwinism in genetics form. Pick and choose what kinds of generations are created. Basically a scientific approach to who gets to have kids and who doesn’t * Difference between guilded age and this era * Guilded – some pre-disposed to success, gov should just leave it be. Don’t help those that are needy, bc youre interfering with evolution * Progressive – much more hands on. This is the “Self-direction of evolution”. Going to take an active role in order to control and make sure we get the best of people. * Indiana Eugenics Law * Forced the sterilization of people. Mentally challenged or criminals – they weren’t allowed to have children, they had no choice. * Didn’t do this to be evil, they just thought this was the way to go and fix problems * Someone picks up on these ideas – Hitler * World War I killed the progressive Era * Wilson gets America into WW1 – “a war to end all wars”

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