Free Essay

History Notes


Submitted By mirandameissner
Words 4829
Pages 20

SI: Monday 2-2:50 WH118
Tuesday 11-11:50 WH 218
Thursday 11-11:50 WH 111 * Overview of reconstruction * Lincoln’s plan (1863-1865) * Presidential reconstruction (1865-1867) * Congressional reconstruction (1867-1872) * “redemption” (1870-1877) * * know general phases * congressional reconstruction (or radical reconstruction) * radical republicans in congress * thaddeus stevens – from Pennsylvania - Charles sumner * Had similar reasons * Stevens in sympathetic to those that are oppressed ; steps up and opposes lincoln’s plan; doesn’t think the oppressed have been helped enough through concrete measures. Big supporter of freedman’s. * Sumner was beaten by canes in the senate chamber – personal animosity toward slavery and democracy in the south * almost like restarting over; a do-over * idealism and political motive * wanted to create a republican party in the south * Wanted to * Punish southerners * Protect freedmen * Strengthen republican party * 14th amendment * granting citizenship to African americans; can vote and hold office * outlawed black codes * righting wrongs that had popped up * some African americans were actually elected to senate; although this doesn’t last * 15th amendment * can’t deny someone the right to vote based on race * designed to reinforce democratic party taking over the south; new political role in the south * “Redemption “ * Around 1870, things look like they’re making progress * Grant elected president in 68, steps out of the way and let’s congress do what it wants * General amnesty act (1872) * Granted amnesty to former confederate officials that had been barred during reconstruction * A lot of money was being spent on reconstruction, believe it was time to move on * Seen as the south being redeemed; racist white southerners taking over the south * *don’t read book over redemption * people complained there was corruption everywhere * “redeemer democrats” back into power, kicking out republicans * intimidation of black voters with kkk (1st version); all to intimidate black voters to not vote and to intimidate white voters into voting republican * Grant comes up with the KKK Acts – cripples the KKK – worked and disappeared, at least until the 2nd version of KKK came around in 1920


The Gilded Age (1870-1900) * What was it? * Time when nation was going through profound industrialization process * See a gigantic increase in urbanization and cities popping up * Change in not just economics, but lifestyle altogether * See a concentration of wealth in the hands of the few; capitalism, which can be a good system in theory. The problem with the gilded age was that people got sick with everyday life government interference – no one protecting those lower on the totem pole. * The term “gilded” : something on the outside is shimmering and shining, but underneath it’s crap. Mark Twain came up with the term “gilded age”, was very much aware of what was going on * It is the shift of the pendulum from the reconstruction era * Politics in the gilded age * Laissez-faire * “hands off” business. In order for it to prosper fully, need to keep the reigns off * tradition of liberty * corruption and the spoils system * corruption would be the single best word to describe the gilded age * spoils system – particularly bad now. Originated in the Jackson era. People who shouldn’t be getting political positions, are. Grant is legendary for this. * Series of weak presidents * Almost unknown guys, don’t really do anything * Very laissez-fair * Grant administration (1868-1876) * Had no control over those he put into power * He’s a war hero, not a politician * Corruption and scandal is associated with him * The whiskey ring: federal gov has had a tax on the production of whiskey. Basically lied under oath, claimed he didn’t know what was going on with the whiskey rings * Credit mobilier scandal * Union pacific railroad fraud * Cost the US almost $20 million * Compromise of 1876 * Hayes (republican) given the election * agreed to withdraw federal troops from south * Democrats thought they’d been robbed of the election * Democrats then regain control of the south since no troops * End of reconstruction * Garfield (1880) * Impressive background, looks like he might be different than Hayes * Very progressively minded guy; somebody that wanted to help defend those that needed help * Before the war, an abolitionist, so very much against slavery. Wanted equal rights * Charles Guiteau * Mentally insane; delusional and compulsive liar * Cult member (like a bohemian commune cult; believed spirituality through free love) and con man. He was kicked out of the cult bc he was too creepy * “helped” garfield’s campaign * believed he should be the ambassador of france. Thought he deserved a high political position * of course didn’t get the position he expected he should get, so he gets it in his mind that it was very unfair and he should do something. * Got a gun and stalked Garfield, and one day he kills him. Bc he felt he was slighted for not getting the position * The assassination * Led to changes in the medical field bc of garfield’s death due to the infection of the wound * Pendelton civil service reform act * End of the spoils system! * Those who want a position, must take an exam to make sure the person is competent


Industry during the gilded age (1870-1900) * Presidents weren’t the ones to call the shots since they were so “laissez-faire” * The robber barons were running things * Criticized or not contributing anything back into the system * Rockefeller is an example * Larger than life figures * Captains of industry * Types of monopoly * (These robber barons made their wealth through the capitalist system) * horizontal integration * cutting out the competition * the product is vital to a bunch of other industries, so the others are at your mercy * vertical integration * controlling every aspect of production * don’t have to pay a middleman * very powerful situation, dangerous to the consumer * geographical monopoly * controlling the area through the product * ex: cable companies in rural areas and railroads * JP Morgan * The monopoly man * Another robber baron * John D Rockefeller and standard oil * Bought out the competition of oil * Created standard oil trust * Bought up different companies, so he had to think of a way to work together * Operating under one company, but not officially * Oil becoming more important with the increase in machines and also for railroads * He would buy out the competition and offer tem so much money to buy their business * The problem that came about was when others don’t want to sell it * He would sell his oil super cheap and run the other out of business, then jack up prices again once the other was out of business * Why are monopolies bad? * Bad for competition * Impossible for others to join the market and crack into the industry * Company is in charge of the prices, rather than supply and demand * Bad for workers and consumers * Consumers – having to pay more * Workers – aren’t paid a lot bc they can’t go somewhere else and find other jobs * Also with the better technology, a lot less workers are needed * Immigrants from Europe looking for work as well – so a lot of worker competition, and incredibly low wages * Increasing the gap between the rich and the poor * Effects on industrial workers * Poor wages and long hours * Average work week was 60 and 72 hours * No such thing as minimum wage * Hazardous work conditions * No workers comp. * Dependency * Factory owners basically decided your life * No child labor laws * Small so they could get into little areas * Help with income for a family * Could pay them even less * Avondale mine disaster (1869) * Coal breaker is basically a huge furnace. Placed as close to the mine as possible * Everyone in the mine is trapped and burned in the mine bc the coal breaker caught on fire


* Avondale Mine disaster * A labor union was the only thing to fall back on * Attempts to organize labor * First time to develop wide scale organization * Knights of Labor 1878 * Included all workers * Didn’t have a lot of success bc it included both skilled and unskilled workers, so it was very unstable * American federation of labor 1886 * more successful * Samuel gompers * Immigrant and skilled cigar roller * He has a conservative approach to organization. Says “AFL” is only open to skilled workers * Makes unions more palatable to the American people * He completely embraces the capitalist system****! * Union were trying to get the gov involved on their side, rather than being laissez-faire * The gospel of wealth * Carnegie * Archetypal success story. From Scotland and come to the US with nothing, and rose to become a billionaire * “wealth comes from hardwork” and “poverty is a character flaw” * people believed he was America, so they really believed in this book * “the self made man” * by horatio alger * “rags to riches” novels * self-help role model * social darwinism * another strain of thought that people are getting into * herbet spencer * very influential, british sociologist * survival of the fittest in human society * only keeping the best of the best, and the weakest die out * pointless to intervene * people actually saw it as immoral to intervene * or thought the gov would come into things and help them and do stuff for them, and that’s not what the country was founded on * owners have the power * so difficult for workers to organize labor unions bc of this * owners control the press * they back lassiez-faire politicians * violent labor strikes * haymarket riot. Starts out super peaceful to just get rid of some grievances. But then bombs end up being thrown and ends in chaos * Homestead Steel strike (1892) * Another showdown between hired police/mercenaries * 1000 workers strike * 300 pinkertons * state militia is called on the side of the owners in order to end the strike – they restored peace


The old west (1865-1890) * who’s in the west already? * Hundreds of different tribes of native americans * Planes Indians was a specific group * A lot of people out in the west trying to find gold * People of Spanish and Mexican descent * Mormons out in Utah * What enabled westward expansion? * Influx of new technology * Railroads * Probably the biggest factor * The time when production of railroads ramped up * Transcontinental – important for trading, getting to the other coast, shipping crops to other locations * Massive population * Huge influx of immigrants in the east coast, getting treated unfairly or can’t get jobs there, so they moved out west * Homestead Act of 1862 * Lincoln came up with it * 160 acres of land given if you go out to the west and agree to stay there for 5 years, farming it and irrigating it, turning it to usable land * this appealed to those desperate for work or better treatment * made their houses out of sod, not a glamorous life. Basically took a huge risk by doing this * Other new technology * John deere and the plow * Made out of steel rather than iron; better bc the soil was much harder and also made of clay * Guns * Winchester repeater * Colt revolver * Gave settlers an advantage bc conflict with indian settlers already there * Can opener * The idea of canning food hadn’t been done before * Now you can preserve food, and take it to eat on the go * Refrigerated cars * Can ship food out to markets in the east * Destruction of the buffalo * Partly on purpose bc they realize the Indians are dependent on buffalo, so they knew if they killed them they couldn’t survive – sabotage of the native americans * Railroad effect * Men with guns would shoot the buffalo from the trains if they came across any * Demand for hides * For people in the cities – was the trend to wear buffalo hides * Made an incredible profit from this * Food * Also served as food for people on the planes * Before westward expansion * 70 million 300 * treaty of fort Laramie (1868) * a huge reservation for different tribes in a few states * US okay with where the reservation was bc it wasn’t good land for farming * But suddenly found gold in the land, so they wanted the land back in exchange for $6mil * Battle of little bighorn (1876) * Turns American public opinion sour as far as indian policy * Before this, there was a lot of push for peace w/ Indians * But once this happened, how it was portrayed in the east made it seem like custer was up in slaughter * Last major indian resistance * Dawes Act 1887 * Individual ownership of tribal land * This didn’t make sense to a lot of people * Boarding schools * To “Americanize” the native americans. Basically trying to make them become white. * The motto was “kill the indian, save the man”. By killing the indian out of the people, you were saving the human * Cattle drives * Only lasts for 20 years, very short time period in which this is happening * All due to railroads


The populist movement and the 1890s * Problems in agriculture * The better people get at farming, the more theyre able to produce overproduction prices go down and average farmer makes less money * Foreclosures * Farmers have to pay for new equipment, as well as taxes on the land. And their product prices are going down * Tenant farming * Share cropping – working the land and at the end of the harvest season, promise a certain percentage of crop to the land owner * Less tenant farming in west, but it still does take place * Farmers in economic trouble * Railroad monopolies * Farmers often lived right off the railroad so they could get crops to the market * Once railroad companies noticed the farmers’ dependence, they realized they could charge whatever they wanted of the farmers to use the railroads * Crippling debt * The grange * Tried to influence state gov to pass laws to help alleviate problems that farmers faced * Interstate commerce act * the fed gov is in charge of regulation * there’s laws in the books, but no one is doing anything about it. * Forming the populist party * Weren’t being helped by other party * Tired of corruption and the gov being against them * Needs not being met, so they form this party * Omaha platform * Subtreasury system * Never actually materialized * Weird idea that you would have gov run storage facilities around the country, where you could bring nonperishable crops (like wheat or cotton). Could take them to one of the subtreasury stores and you get a loan based on what you bring in * Could control how much product goes into the market; way to deal with the overproduction problem, as well as getting money to farmers through the loans * Exact opposite of laissez faire!!! * Free silver * Much more silver in the world than gold * Thought that by backing money with silver, you could print more money and pay people back with their debts * Populists wanted money to be backed by silver * Trying to alleviate farmer debt * Progressive income tax * The more money you make, the higher percentage of tax you pay * What problem does this attack? The rich shoulder a larger portion of the tax burden, and decrease gap between rich and poor * Populist political demands * Direct election of US senators * With politicians picking other politicians, there would be too much corruption * This is supposed to be a democratic nation, so this direct election is more democratic and liked better * Federal ownership of railroads and telegraphs * Wanted federal gov to OWNN ALL RAILROADS AND TELEGRAPHS – incredibly radical. Opposite of laissez faire * Anti-capitalist . socialist * Women and the populist movement * Mary e lease * Temperance movement * Wanting to get rid of alcohol * Husbands would spend all money at saloons and then come home and beat the wives * Get rid of monopoly * Election of 1892 * Populist/democratic parties fuse * Democratic party blamed for depression * Democratic party adopts some populist ideas * Almost do a 180 * adopts the free silver idea and progressive income tax * wizard of oz and the populist movement * William Jennings bryan’s platform * Populist ideas * Made 600 fiery speeches * Really gives people chance to have a choice * Opposite of mckinley * Mckinley’s platform * The front porch campaign * Pro-business * Influence on press * Sat back and let people and businesspeople to come to him * would talk “Scare” tactics about what the populists would do * sent out millions and millions of letters, which is tangible and effective. Better than a speech that can be forgotten right after. * Much money behind him, and he wins * *WHY IS THIS 1896 election so important? * Democratic party becomes party of reform * America as urban and industrial * Set stage for progressive era


* Domestic issues * Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Samoa all become a part of the US in this time * Colonial expansion * It is an exploitative relationship; one country just taking it from someone that has it * Sometimes mutual give and take * Stronger countries bullying weaker ones – bigger ones trying to become industrial powers * Also important if they have an interest in having a larger and better military * Seward’s Folly - Alaska * Alaska had been a Russian territory, filled with Inuit people * Not a good relationship between the Russians and inuits * Russian monarchy in crisis, and need to make money * So they sell it to America * People thought this was stupid and called it “seward’s folly”, bc there was absolutely nothing but snow * 1897 Klondike Gold Rush * huge amount of gold discovered * that 7 million price tag proved not to be a bad deal at all and not so stupid * Hawaii * Christian missionaries were the first onto the island * People there for sugar plantations * Including Dole * It is negative in that the Hawaiian population had to do the laborious work * Hawaii at the time is monarchical, with each island having one king. Then consolidated into one king over all. * The kings are super friendly to the sugar plantation owners because theyre making money from it * Why specifically grow sugar? * There are no places under American control where sugar was grown * Sugar extremely valuable commodity * End of Hawaiian rule * Queen lili’uokalani (1891) * Has different ideas about Hawaii should deal with the plantation owners * “Hawaii for Hawaiians” * Lili has the white settlers outnumbered 4 to 1 * found guns * There was a ship full of marines near by, coincidentally * What Lili saw was the US bringing guns into this place and now sending marines to take over * In order to avoid bloodshed, she steps down from power * Plantation owners set up a government (1893) * Dole is the first president * Their first goal is to get the US to annex Hawaii * Reasons why the us should annex Hawaii * Raw resources – pineapple, sugar, lots of money to be made * Perfect place for a naval base * America starts to dip toe into asia * Starting to industrialize, needs a lot of resources. So perfect base between US and asia * A.T. Mahan * Every world leader at the time read this guys’ book – “the influence of sea power upon history * “With every single world power throughout history, the reason they were able to be so dominant and powerful is because they had a great navy.” * Everyone becomes obsessed with building up a navy * So US thinks Hawaii will be great for their navy * If US didn’t annex it, someone else would * Annexation of guano islands * Good for nothing else but bird poop, which people used for fertilizer * Cuba and Spanish-American War (1898) * Last remaining vestige of Spanish colonialism * Cuba revolts against spain (1895) * Destruction of sugar plantations * Basically the idea was to wreck cuba so spain wouldn’t want to deal with it anymore * Spain’s response: 600,000 cubans in concentration camps * American interest bc just 90 miles away from florida * A lot of americans also have business interests in cuba * “yellow journalism” * joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph hearst * they basically start the war between the US and Cuba * very negative, hyperbolized, almost lying sometimes. Just trying to get wealthier by selling papers * send people down to cuba to see what’s going on there and then go overboard in stories about it * America gets involved * Mckinley wanted to avoid war * Delome letter intercepted * He was the Spanish ambassador to the US. Intercepted by Hearst * Badmouthed mckinley. * They take the letter and put it in the newspaper for everyone to read * Makes mckinley look bad and people even more mad at the Spanish * The USS Maine * Battleship sent down to Havana harbor to protect American interests and to make sure nothing happens to americans * Explosion * Americans say it was on purpose by the Spanish, but the Spanish say that it wasn’t them * Found out in the 1970s that it wasn’t the Spanish * US Declarations * Said cuba was free from spain – no right to do this though, really has no real power * Mckinley asks for permission of US military to intervene, but not exactly go to spain. * This is to appease americans – bc no one really wants to go to war * Teller Amendment * Said the US would not annex cuba, ever * We send a boat to the Philippines and take over the phil. (it was a Spanish territory)


US Declarations * Teller Amendment * Said the US would not annex cuba * Doesn’t say anything about any other Spanish possessions/lands * Sugar can be grown in the phillipines, so now is the perfect time to take it * We take over the entire country, hundreds of miles away, all for sugar cane. * Also a great port if trying to expand into asia and china * This is all a new step in American foreign policy
Why was the Spanish-american war so important? * Territorial expansion * Phillippines * Puerto rico * Guantanamo bay * Teddy Roosevelt rises to fame * He is a high ranking diplomat, so jazzed up by the idea of war that he starts up his own regimen
McKinley Assassination * TR takes over * Completely different ballgame now * No more laissez-faire * Progressive era begins


The progressive era: the Theodore Roosevelt years * Had the prideful mindset that they could conquer the homefront after acquiring the new leands * Not a whole lot of effort during the guilded age to fix problems, so change finally begins in the progressive era

* Progressive era * Fix problems of modern society * Became obsessed with their abilities to do something * So optimistic and prideful – hubris – basically became their downfall bc way too confident and took it too far * Overestimated what they were capable of * A time of unrivaled freedom and prosperity * Because of their takeover and large economic book why people were so optimistic * Shift away from gilded age * Laissez faire reform * Laissez faire dramatically changes to presidents actually doing something – taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson * Strong national government helping the vulnerable * Previous reform efforts? * During the gilded age, it was the beginning of what the progressive era would be all about, and what would flourish * Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) * Very active guy and an outdoorsman. Had asthma but made it a point to overcome it * Larger than life figure, nothing anyone has been as a president yet * So over the top, it was exactly what was need to usher in the progressive era * TR’s square deal * His overall political agenda / approach to politics – the four “C”s * Control corporations * TR the Trust Buster * “responsible capitalist” * wanted to avoid more radical alternatives * not anti-business, just scared of capitalism * not just feeling sorry for workers, but more about pragmatic impulse driving this. Wants responsible capitalist * thinks there are good trust and bad trust * bas trusts are those that hurt competition and hurt competition. Wants to bust this. * Bureau of corporation, 1903 * To bust bad trusts * An investigation board – goes and investigates corporations and finds out what theyre doing wrong then later sues them and forces them to broke down to smaller corporation/companies * Ends up busting 44 different trusts * Used Sherman anti-trust act * Concern for workers * Anthracite coal mine strike (1902) * The coal people used to heat their homes. When it ran out, people died during winters * Acts like a middleman between workers and owners * Basically threatens owners to talk to their workers, or else the mine would be taken by the government * Better work hours and better pay. Not everything they wanted, but they did get some. Compromise. * Very different from what we say in the gilded age – gov finally stepping in more on the workers’ side * Muckrakers * Exposed monopolies to prove the poor conditions of monopolies and the corruption * More of uncovering the truth and getting people energized to fix the problems * Consumer protection * Railroads were very unfair to the people * Hepburn act, 1906 * Basically takes something that already existed but added some teeth to it * Impowers interstate commerse commission to lower rates * Gathers info to prove what was going on was unfair * Meat inspection Act, 1906 * Pure food and drug act, 1906 * Conservation * People doesn’t want people to become socialist! * Wants to just be more responsible about capitalism * Sinclair’s “The Jungle” * Exposed the meat packing industry was * Socialist message * Roosevelt hates this

**during the progressive area – old ideas came to be, culmination of previous desired movements/changes** * 1908 – Roosevelt is done with second term * Taft’s reforms * Political slogan “take all from Teddy” = following what Teddy did --- so it was easy for him to get elected when they wanted Teddy for a third term * 16th Amendment * progressive income tax amendment * different mindset from opposing previous views – now have an active government to try to fix guilded age problems * 17th Amendment * direct election of US senators * the populists had previously called for this * Trust Busting * Just like TR * Breaking monopolies into smaller companies * Taft busted 90 different trusts, so double the trust buster of Teddy * His claim of fame – first former president to be in the supreme court * Republican party wanted a conservative and laissez-faire approach * 1912 Election * Split develops * Taft invents the Bull Moose Party * TR, Taft, and Wilson * All three essentially called for the same things though * Taft most conservative, but really not conservative at all * All progressive (exact opposite of guilded age) * Each “considered”: Taft (republican), Roosevelt (Progressive), Wilson (democratic) * Wilson wins * Wilson’s Reforms * Pretended to be more pro-business than he was * Really in the mold of Roosevelt – gov control over economy * Federal Reserve Act (1913) * A new currency system, in charge of setting interests rates. Controlling the amount of currency in the economy at any given time * Federal Trade Commission Act * Response to trust-busting and continuing Sherman anti-trust act * Sets up a regulation board to oversee everything. Middle step between progressive era and guilded age. “not directly break them up, but keep a close watch on them” * Labor Reform * Triangle shirtwaist fire * A clothing factory full of jewish women immigrants * They were basically locked in the building, it caught on fire, and there was no way to escape * 164 people die * wakes people up to the fact that the conditions are so inhumane, so it starts reform (such as exit signs) * Keeting-Owen Child Labor Act * If you’re a company engaged in interstate commerce, employees must be 14 or older. If you have anyone younger than 14, then its illegal for interstate commerce * Women getting the right to vote * Wilson is credited with it, but he was actually very much opposed to this idea * However, some states had women already voting, like out in the west, before the 19th amendment * Populist movement had most support out there * Thought to be because it was a way to get women out west bc it was overly saturated with only men out there * The Dark Side of Progressivism * So much change going on in society, people started getting “drunk” on their own abilities, thinking they could solve any and all problems. And sometimes this isn’t the best thing in the world. Example: * Prohibition (1919) & the 18th Amendment * Big part of the populist platform, and finally got traction in this progressive era * People dying very early only from drinking so much, so they wanted to stop this * A really intrusive step by the government – a very big deal * It doesn’t take alcohol out of people’s hands. Now criminals are illegally selling it * No tax revenue from it * And people still dying * “dumbest idea in US history”. A huge failure * when FDR comes to office, he immediately gets rid of it * Overconfidence in flawed science * Eugenics * An off-shoot of social Darwinism – social Darwinism in genetics form. Pick and choose what kinds of generations are created. Basically a scientific approach to who gets to have kids and who doesn’t * Difference between guilded age and this era * Guilded – some pre-disposed to success, gov should just leave it be. Don’t help those that are needy, bc youre interfering with evolution * Progressive – much more hands on. This is the “Self-direction of evolution”. Going to take an active role in order to control and make sure we get the best of people. * Indiana Eugenics Law * Forced the sterilization of people. Mentally challenged or criminals – they weren’t allowed to have children, they had no choice. * Didn’t do this to be evil, they just thought this was the way to go and fix problems * Someone picks up on these ideas – Hitler * World War I killed the progressive Era * Wilson gets America into WW1 – “a war to end all wars”

Similar Documents

Free Essay

History Notes

...History Notes January 17, 2013 Industrial Revolution in the USA * Growing population by the mid-1800s, the population of Europe and North America was on a rise. * The rapidly growing cities of the industrial world attracted people of different/every social class. Also the growing demand for textiles and other mass produced goods. The effects of the American Industrial Revolution ranged from positive, in the form of growing cities, individual wealth, and philanthropy, negative, in the form of child labour, abusive working conditions, and unsanitary living conditions. Positive and Negative impacts of the American Industrial Revolution on the United States Positive * Improve people’s daily lives by diversifying the number and quality of the kinds of products factories could provide, also ordinary Americans learned better, lived better and had more time on their hands as conveniences and efficiencies defined the Industrial Revolution. * Transportation and technology in terms of the expansion of business including the expansion of our transportation network out of necessity and brought US canals, highways and turnpikes. It better connected us together as a society. There was technological innovation such as interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney) and the textile mill (Samuel Slater) which revolutionized Americans lifestyle. * Jobs as factories in the major cities created hundreds of thousands of jobs, expanded the cities...

Words: 860 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

History Notes

...French and Indian War and the American Revolution Four Connections of the French and Indian War with the American Revolutions 1. No appreciation of colonial effort 2. Mutual dislike 3. Absence of French and Spanish attack 4. British troops remain (peace keeping) Royal Proclamation of 1763- divide French and Indians, colonists are not allowed to cross it Huge war debt after the French and Indian War Resurgence of Imperialism 1. The Sugar Act (1764) stipulated that if Americans purchased non-English sugar (especially Dutch), you would have to pay an extra tax (resemblance to the Navigation Acts) 2. The Stamp Act (1765) an act that required you to place a stamp on any type you purchased paper, or fill out a form, marriage license, etc. you would have to purchase stamps psychological- visible reminder that they were colonists George Grenville- pushed for the Stamp Act Three Types of Responses to the Stamp Act 1. Emotional a. Sons of Liberty 2. Political (Constitutional) a. Stamp Act Congress (first unified Congress among colonists) 9 of 13 colonies meet in New York b. Virtual Representation c. Declaration of Rights and Grievances “virtual representation we do not accept” 3. Economic a. Non-importation movement (stop buying British goods) b. Daughters of Liberty (filling the gap of things that do not come in) Stamp Act Repealed (1766) Declaratory Act (1766) (passed on the same day as the Stamp Act Repeal) (Parliament has the right to “bind...

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

History Notes

...Historie noter Kilde Skriftlige Ikke skriftlige Breve Våben Dagbøger Bygninger Regnskaber Tøj Beretninger Legetøj Protokoller Redskaber Love Kunst Menneske rester, lig Danmarks historiske tid – siger man – starter i vikingetiden, som havde det førsteskriftsprog nemlig runerne. * Er kilden troværdig? * Er kilden subjektiv/objektiv – Er der en tendens? – Afsender/modtager? * Hvad kan kilden fortælle mig? * Hvilke spørgsmål kan jeg stille kilden? Arbejdet med kilden Fortidige virkelighed Kilder Historiker Bøger Nye fremstillinger Historikerne kan dog ikke være helt neutrale i deres holdning Kilderne kommer meget an på fortolkning Fremstillinger er subjektive * Politisk overbevisning * Tilgængeligt materiale * Individuel fortolkning Kildekritik 1. Hvad er det for en kildetype? (lovtekst, rets dokument, brev, tale, historieskrivning) 2. Hvem er kildens afsender? 3. Hvornår er kilden nedskrevet? 4. Er det en første- eller andenhånds kilde? (dvs. har forfatteren selv overværet det, som han beskriver, eller har han det på anden hånd? 5. Hvem har oprindeligt været modtager? 6. Hvad står der i kilden: opdel evt. i hovedpunkter og find det væsentlige 7. Hvad er forfatterens formål med kilden? 8. Hvad er kildens synsvinkel eller tendens? 9. Hvilke historiske begivenheder eller tilstande kan kilden belyse? Vikingetiden 800-1015 Skriftlige Ikke skriftlige ...

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

History Notes

...Review up till now WW1 Economic downturn Fear of radicalism Immigrants might be the problem… Let’s go back to the good ole days… Q: Are the old days really better? The Jazz Age (1920s) The Long Nineteenth Century Historians always ignore what everyone else is doing 1789 to 1918-???? Industrial Revolution French Revolution Victorian Ideas and Imperialism Bigger push for imperialism Ends in 1918- why? WW1 is over, Russian Revolution taking place What replaces it? “The Modern Age” parallels “Return to Normalcy” what does that mean? Science better at understanding the world than religion Individuals have the right to choose their own lifestyles Women control their minds and bodies More rights for minorities? Reactions? The New Traditionalists God trumps science Bible is the ONLY source of morality Women are subservient to men Immigrants are subservient to white Anglo-Saxon men 1920s The New Era The Roaring Twenties Rise of automobile, gangsters, rise of the radio & other gadgets and appliances The Jazz Age Clash of old & new values The Economy after the war… Switch from war to peace initially difficult Gets re-cranked up by 1922-1923 United states’ industry still intact after war, unlike Europe Becomes world’s top producer of consumer products Middle class expands greatly What about the lower classes? Same problems as before Too much prosperity for middle class to care!!! Rise of consumer spending on new fangled items...

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ancient History Notes

...a Tasnima Bhuiyan Ancient History HSC notes Core study; Cities of Vesuvius- Pompeii & Herculaneum 1. Geographical context Physical environment: geographical setting, natural features and resources of Pompeii and Herculaneum Geographical setting Pompeii and Herculaneum were located in Campania, southwest Italy near Bay of Naples. Herculaneum was a waterfront town situated on the coast of Bay of Naples 7km west of Mt Vesuvius, while Pompeii was slightly inland on the Sarno river, 9km southeast of Mt Vesuvius. Both towns were linked to Rome through sea and land routes. Natural features Campania was a fertile plain with two main rivers. Nearby there was a 15km wide series of craters, where pools were filled with boiling mud and vents, from which sulphur and steam could escape. The towns were popular because of their rich volcanic soil, coastal area for fishing and trading area. Resources of Campania The production of olive oil was used for cooking, and as the basic ingredient for perfume. Wine, wool and textile productions took place, along with the fishing industries including the production of fish sauce. There were fruits such as peaches, apricots, lemons & vegetables like cabbages and onions, and volcanic material was used for building and paving roads. Plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum ▪ streets of Pompeii vary greatly in width from 2.4m to roughly 7m ▪ streets & roads divide towns into neat rectangular...

Words: 8796 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Something Borrowed Malcolm Gladwell Analysis

...Those notes can only be sequenced so many times before they are repeated by a new musician and called “original”. Intellectual property has been protected in the courts systems, but has favored personal interest over creativity and borrowing. In the case of Weber vs. Repp for example, Repp was claiming to be the owner of the copied Catholic folk music stolen to create music by Weber. With help from a lawyer, it is proven that Weber wrote a song previous to the music and songs by Repp. It was demonstrated that Weber wrote a song, Repp wrote another song sounding similar, and then Weber wrote the song in question. This showing that Weber borrowed from himself and Repp borrowed from him. The musical notes played in the same sequence were copied by both composers and therefore the courts dismissed the case, musical notes are not owned by any one composer. It does not matter what you copy but how much you choose to take. The idea behind Gladwell’s argument is that borrowing some to be creative is and needs to be acceptable in the eyes of “plagiarism...

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Narrative harmonize, considering it was our first year learning an instrument. There was no reading or writing when it came to playing the instruments, but with music, a story can be made. For example, half the class would play our recorders in sync with one another, and other students in the class would play percussion. With the rhythm of the music combined, the feel and sound of the music gives the audience a feel of a different environment, such as feeling as though you are taking a journey through an Indian village, or celebrating the first fourth of July in America. As I progressed through the year, music classes turned into singing as well. In order to know the words that we were singing, we had paperback music, which had music lines, notes, and words for us to...

Words: 1172 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...through the paper. Halfway through the paper, I saw my friend John suspiciously looking at the class. My instincts told me that something was wrong. As a result, I began to keep an eye on John. Suddenly, I saw John taking notes out from his pencil case! My mouth hung wide open and I gasped in shock. How could John do that! I thought should I report him? The devil in my mind said that I should not care about this thing after all, he is still my best friend while the angel said that I should be honest and report him. After thinking for a while, I decided to report him. I raised my hand and told the teacher “ Mr Tan, John is cheating by using notes from his pencil case.” The teacher nodded his head and walked towards John’s table. Mr Tan said “John! Why are you cheating?” John shook his head to deny that he did not cheat. Mr Tan confiscated his pencil case and dumped the contents out. Out came pencils, erasers and pens. But there was no notes inside! John let out a smirk from his mouth. I was shocked! I thought that there was a note? Just when I thought all hope was lost, Mr Tan found another zip at the pencil case and he opened it. Suddenly, John’s smirk began to vanish. Waves of panic overwhelmed him. The hidden note was found there! Mr Tan looked at John sternly. He brought John to the principal’s office to explain what had happened. On the next day, the fiery-tempered Discipline Master caned John during assembly period. After this incident...

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History of Jazz Notes

...Louis Armstrong * Came into prominence in the 1920s as an innovative cornet and trumpet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence on jazz, shifting the music’s focus from collective improvisations to solo performers * With his distinctive gravelly voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purpose * He was also greatly skilled at scat singing, or vocalizing, using syllables instead of actual lyrics. * Renowned for his charismatic stage presence and deep, instantly recognizable voice almost as much as for his trumpet-playing, Armstrong’s influence extended well beyond jazz, and by the end of his career in the ‘60s, he was widely regard as a profound influence on popular music in general * Listening: Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five West End Bles- see page 95 Sidney Bechet (1897-1959) * Was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinestist, and composer (soprano saxophonist) * Born in New Orleans to a wealthy Creole family * Became best remembered as the first great master of the soprano saxophonist * Played duets with Louis Armstrong * Forceful delivery, well-constructed improvisations, and a distinctive, wide vibrato characterized Bechet’s playing * Listening: Sidney Bechet- Petite Fleur (the Olympia Concert Paris) James P. Johnson (1891-1955) * Was an American pianist and composer * Johnson was one of the originators...

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

American History Notes

...American History {Chapter 1} The First People of the Americas People Migrate to the Americas * Paleo-Indians – first humans to live in the Americas (believed to have come from Siberia) * Ice Age – a time lasting thousands of years during which the Earth was covered with ice and glaciers * The Paleo-Indian hunters had a favored prey of immense mammals such as mammoths, mastodons, and giant bison * The first people to arrive in the Americas arrived in small boats Paleo-Indians Adapt to Climate Change * The warming climate and the spread of the skilled Paleo-Indian hunters killed off the mammoths and other large mammals * Paleo-Indians adapted to the climate change by relying less on hunting large mammals and more in fishing and gathering nuts, berries, and roots * Developed tracking techniques needed for hunting small, mobile animals such as deer, antelope, moose, elk, and caribou * More food sources led to population growth Diverse Culture Emerge * Indians became culturally diverse as they adapted to their varying local climates and environments * Over time, languages, rituals, mythic stories, and kinship systems became more complex and varied * By 1492, American Indians spoke at least 375 distinct languages (Athapaskan, Alogonquian, Caddoan, Siouan, Shoshonean, and Iroquoian) * Each language group divided into many ethnic groups called tribes or nations (subdivided into many smaller groups that identified with a particular village...

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

History Notes 1302

...Under the leadership of the American Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes the representatives of the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan pledge not to exceed the designated sizes of their respective naval fleets. America First Committee – AFC was established September 4, 1940, by Yale Law School student R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., along with other students, including future President Gerald Ford, future Peace Corps director Sargent Shriver, and future U.S. Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart.[The America First Committee (AFC) was the foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II. Peaking at 800,000 paid members in 650 chapters, it was one of the largest anti-war organization in American history.[1][2] Started in 1940, it shut down after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Recent organizations with similar names are not in any way connected to this historic group. The “Black Market” – The Nye Committee – officially known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, was a committee of the United States Senate which studied the causes of United States' involvement in World War I. It was a significant factor in heightening public and political support for neutrality in the early stages of World War II. Nye created headlines by drawing connections between the wartime profits of the banking and munitions industries to America's involvement in World War I. Many Americans felt betrayed and questioned...

Words: 1114 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

28.1 History Notes

...Key Terms: Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas: 1954 Supreme Court case in which racial segregation in public schools was outlawed. Montgomery bus boycott: Protest in 1955-1956 by African American against racial segregation in the bus system on Montgomery, Alabama. Integration: Process of bringing people of different races together. Setting the Scene: * In August 1945, Branch Rickey, the general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, called a young man named Jackie Robinson into his office. * In 1947, Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first African American to play in the Major Leagues * He was named Rookie of the Year in 1947. * In 1949, he was voted the league's most valuable player. The Rise of African American Influence: * Before and during World War II, African Americans were not treated as equals by a large portion of American society. * After the war, the campaign for civil rights began to accelerate * African American Migration: * After the Civil War, many African Americans migrated to large northern cities * Between 1910 and 1940, the black population of New York City leaped from 60,000 to 450,000. * The New Deal: * Under Roosevelt, the number of African Americans working for the federal government increased significantly. * World War II: * During the war, increased demands for labor in northern cities led to a rise in the black population in the North. * This increase in numbers gave...

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Note Taking

...Improving Your Note Taking ▪ Effective note taking is one of the keys to succeeding in school. Students should devote a considerable amount of time reviewing information discussed during classroom lectures. It is very difficult remembering specific details from classroom lectures without good notes. These note taking strategies will help you to take better notes: ▪ Make clear and accurate notes Make sure to take legible and accurate notes since it is not uncommon to forget key details discussed in class after it has ended. Frequently, students comprehend the teacher's lecture, so they'll neglect to jot down specific details only to forget them later. Students who keep accurate notes can review them later to fully grasp key concepts during personal study time. Additionally, since during classroom lectures teachers frequently cover many topics, effective notes enable students to concentrate on specific topics. ▪ Come to class prepared Students properly prepared for class usually take better notes. Proper preparation includes completing assigned reading prior to class and reviewing notes from previous lectures. Students who do this can ask questions about confusing concepts and be prepared for new topics. ▪ Compare your notes To ensure your notes are as accurate and detailed as possible, compare them with the notes of other students after class is over. This is useful because your colleagues will frequently write down lecture details that you...

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Michael Meets Mozart

...Side Notes: • I came up with a killer Mozart-style arrangement involving several songs by modern artists. But I ran into a roadblock with getting permissions. So I decided to do variations on a theme by making my arrangement an original tune. Helpful Hints: • Learn the hardest parts first with the correct fingering. Instead of using a slower tempo to practice longer sections, try using the actual tempo to practice overlapping shorts sections (as small as 2 notes...hands alone if needed). • For those who have heard the recording or seen the video on • When I practice, it helps me to realize that it takes up to 300 YouTube, Steven Sharp Nelson laid down over 100 tracks, including (perfect) reps before muscle memory kicks-in. cello textures never before known possible. Every single sound on the video was made using only the instruments shown: piano, cello, • I like to imagine totally soft and relaxed hand muscles as I play... think "soft hand" when approaching hard sections. mouth percussion and kick drum. Of course we put in additional cool effects. For example the U2-style delay on Steve's pizz at the • For a two-minute-edit version, start at measure 109 beginning. (two-minute-edit minus track available at • A recording of the orchestration only (minus piano) is available at This is very fun for live performances with a monitor speaker next to you on stage so you can hear the parts well. Michael meets Mozart = 91 chills up copyright...

Words: 622 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Note Taking Assignment

...Dean Helton Note-Taking Assignment 1. Why did you choose Cornell, Outline, or Visual Map? I chose the visual map way of taking my notes this morning at church. I have actuallynever taken my notes that way before, but I really enjoyed it. I am a kinesthetic learner and seeing maps and graphs help me understand things a lot better than just simple notes. I was nervous at first to take my notes this way but I very quickly got the hang of it. After the sermon it was much easier for me to look over my notes and understand what the message and sub nots were pointing out. I will now take all of my sermon notes this way. 2. What did you like about the style of note taking you chose? I enjoyed using this style for many reasons. One of the main reasons was because it gave me the opportunity to listen more to the sermon wrather than focusing on writing down the notes that we were given. It also was a huge help to me after when I was looking over the notes. It gave me a clearer picture of what the sermon was about. 3. What did you dislike about the style of note taking you chose? I think the only thing I disliked about it is that it is almost like an outline,a nd if you are not careful you could miss an important long point that need sto be recorded just for the sake of making your picture graph look good. I added a few take away points at the bottom of my notes that I felt like I needed to add so that I could better understand the over all message. 4. How do you plan...

Words: 380 - Pages: 2