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How Will a Severe Terrorist Alert Effect Tourism in South Carolina

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HOW WILL A SEVERE TERRORIST ALERT EFFECT TOURISM
IN
SOUTH CAROLINA
Brianne Buckner
Dr. BRIAN MCCUE
PAD 590
JUNE 21, 2010

STRAYER UNIVERSITY
CHARLESTON, SC CAMPUS

This Directed Research Project (DRP), was conducted and orally presented

By

……………………………………………………………………………….

Brianne Buckner, Student

We hereby certify that this DRP submitted by Brianne Buckner conforms to acceptable standards, and as such is fully adequate in scope and quality.

It is therefore approved as the fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of Hospitality and Tourism Management, MBA

Approved:_________________________________________

Supervising Faculty__________________________________

Peer Review/Technical Advisor________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
APROVAL PAGE………………………………………………………………………...i

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................................................................iii

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES………………………………………………….….iv

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY………………………………….….6 Context of the Problem……………………………………………………………6 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………….7 Main Research Question and Sub-questions………………………………………7 Significance of the Study…………………...…………………………….……….8 Research Design and Methodology………...……………………………...….......9 Organization of the Study………………...…………………………….………..10

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE………………………………..11

CHAPTER 3: SOUTH CAROLINA...….…………………………………..…………...16 Overview……………………………………………………………..………..…16 Military Installations…...………………………………………………………...22 Ports……………………………………………...………………………………27 SC Airports…………..............................……………………………….……….28 Nuclear Plants………......………………..………………………...………….....27 Arthur Ravenel Bridge….....…………………………………….……………….29 Amusement Parks………………..………………………………………………30 SC Beaches……………………………………………………………................30 Miscellaneous Reasons to Visit……………….…………………………...……30

CHAPTER 4: TERRORISM…………..……………………..……………….…………34 Definitions………………………………………………………………………..34 Terrorism in Perspective…...…………………………………………………….34 Intent of Terrorist Groups………………………………………………………..35 Potential Targets…………………………………………………………………35 Types of Terrorist Incidents…………………………………………………...…36 Classification of Terrorist Cells…...……………………………………….…….39 Brief History of Terrorism……………………………………………………….40 Trends and Patterns in Domestic Terrorism...………………………….………..42 SC Terrorism………………………………………………………………..……46

CHAPTER 5: LOCAL PROTECTION………………………………………………….49 Local Police Departments…....……………………………..……………………49 Security at Military Establishments……………………………………………...49 Security at Ports ...………………………………………………….….….……..50 Security for Bridge ...…………………..………………………….……….……51 Nuclear Plant, Theme Parks, Beaches, and other Security…….....………..….....51 Airport Security……………………………………………………...…………..51

CHAPTER 6: FEDERAL PROTECTION………………………………….…………...54 Homeland Security………………………………………………….……………54 Transportation Security Agency…………………………………………………57 Federal Bureau of Investigation………………………………………………….59 Central Intelligence Agency………………………………………….………….61

CHAPTER 7: RECESSION….....…………………………………………..…………...63

CHAPTER 8: FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS…………………..…………..….…..66

REFERENCE LIST……………………………………………………………………...70

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 1: Tourism Spending by Category, 2008, $ million……………………..………..18
Table 2: Economic Contribution of Tourism in South Carolina, 2008………..…..…….18
Table 3: Dependent Industries of the Travel and Tourism Industry……………………..19
Figure 4: Percentage of Day and Overnight Trips To SC……………….……………….20
Table 5: Top States of Origin for Domestic Trips to SC…………………...……………21
Table 6: Top States of Origin for Domestic Day Trips……………….…………………21
Table 7: Top States of Origin for Domestic Overnight Trips…………...……………….21
Figure 8: Domestic Trips to SC by Primary Purpose………………….………………...22
Figure 9: US Consumer and Business Are Turning Cautious..………………………….64
Figure 10: Real GDP Growth, 2008…………………………………………………......65

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Context of the Problem Being a resident of South Carolina the researcher investigated the correlation between the state’s tourism economic activity and an elevated terrorist warning. Homeland Security hosts a site which allows surfers the ability to follow the likelihood of a terrorist attack. This gives individuals the option to know what level of danger, if any, the country is in due to plots being carried out by terrorist. But since this is from a national viewpoint, should South Carolina be concerned? Are there any major locations or events that might attract a terrorism scenario and if yes, what organizations or agencies are responsible for implementing security and protection strategies. South Carolina’s economic history was heavily based on textile and agriculture. In the recent years, however, these fundaments have changed. Currently the most profitable industry in the state is tourism. During a 2003 speech, Senator Clyburn stated, “Transportation and tourism are currently our state’s most important commodities.” He also voiced that heritage tourism is growing by 30% annually. (Clyburn, 2003) Since some conflicting ethnic groups base their attacks on culture differences amongst each other, the state could be at risk for a possible attack. There are various degrees and classifications of terrorism depending on the circumstances. They can be broken down to include civil disorders, non-political, Social Revolutionary, limited political, Nationalist-Separatist, quasi, Religious Fundamentalist, political, New Religious, and official/state. Previously, terrorist attacks have occurred in areas like government agencies, historical monuments, businesses, and museums. South Carolina’s past is full of the presence of the military, notably more related to the civil aspect. However, there is still a strong presence in national military history, including the recent debate concerning the shifting of detainees from the notorious Guantanamo Bay to the naval brig located in Hannahan, SC. There are numerous power plants, military bases, and historical sites which contain characteristics that could be attractive to terrorist groups.
The Statement of the Problem Tourism is the number one industry in the sate of South Carolina. In 200 this export posted $14.4 billion in revenue, which grew to $17.2 billion in 2007. It is also projected to increase by 8.3 billion by 2010. (Clyburn, 2003) This small bit of information suggests that there is a small possibility that an elevated alert would affect the state’s top industry. Information was researched to learn whether or not South Carolina’s top industry would be affected in any way by changes in the alert. .
The Sub-Problems Additional areas to be discussed: 1. Does South Carolina depend on tourism? (Quantitative) 2. Does South Carolina have sites, locations, or events that would attract terrorism activity? (Qualitative) 3. Has any sites, locations, or events in the state ever fallen victim to terrorist groups? (Qualitative) 4. Who is responsible for protecting these sites, locations, and events? (Qualitative)

Significance of the Study Information provided by this researcher can assist citizens, domestic and foreign in search of an interesting vacation spot. Since they are planning a vacation they should know the sites, location, and events that have characteristics that could possibly attract terrorist organizations. In addition, visitors maybe put at ease when they learn about the preventative and protective measures that are in place against such an occurrence. Residents of South Carolina will to benefit by learning about the agencies responsible for their protection during an attack. Entrepreneurs and people who track South Carolinas economy can benefit from knowing if the state’s tourism/hospitality revenues would decrease as a result of an elevated alert. And since tourism is the state’s top industry a shift in South Carolina’s economy would occur if the tourism/hospitality industry saw a major decrease in revenue and that shift could very well be catastrophic. Research and Methodology The researcher will include both qualitative and quantitative analysis by researching literature on government websites, economy sites, books, periodicals, etc.
Organization of Study
The sections in this study are as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction This section provides the problem the researcher will investigate. In addition this section will include not only the main problem, but it will also provide the reader with sub topics to support the main area of concern. Also in this section the researcher provides a roadmap to the layout of the study’s organization.
Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature This section summarized other publications important to the completion of this research.
Chapter 3: South Carolina This section provides facts and findings relevant to the states and its top industry. This section also presents sites and locations that have characteristics that may attract terrorist organizations. As mentioned earlier ten years ago this export posted $14.4 billion in revenue, which grew to $17.2 billion in 2007. It is also projected to increase by 8.3 billion by 2010.
Chapter 4: Terrorist Attacks This section provides a brief archive of terrorism and the reasoning for such activity. This section also includes a description of a variation of attacks used by terrorist. Attacks are also presented in many ways. Meaning they are not only in the form of an explosive or a biological material dispersed by using a Postal Service.
The U.S. Department of State defines “terrorism” to be premeditated politically-motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
Chapter 5: Local Protection This section describes agencies responsible for protecting the mention sites, events and locations. It will further describe the strategies these agencies use to prevent or protect during an attack. There are over 200 agencies enforcing the law in South Carolina. This number not only includes Sheriff and Police departments, but it includes site securities.
Chapter 6: Federal Protection This section will discuss the federal agencies that make protecting the nation from terrorists their priority. This section will also include the ways in which they are able to carry out protective and preventative measures.
Chapter 7: Recession This section describes the changes that occur in the lieu of economic downturns. This section further describes revenues in the state of South Carolina during a national economic downturn. There are believers that say the nation faced an economic downturn during the 3rd quarter of 2001, but other numbers present findings that the nation’s economic woes began as early as mid-2000.
Chapter 8: Findings This section summarizes what the researcher found while completing this study.
Chapter 9: Conclusion The final section concludes what was pertaining to how strong South Carolina’s top industry would be during an elevated terrorist alert.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In the most current times the United States has experienced a rise of threaten activity, coupled with major downturns in the nations economy. Economists and other South Carolina enthusiasts could benefit from learning their relationship one to another. This chapter is a summation of pre-existing publications about these concerns and other sub-areas pertaining to these base concerns. There are numerous groups that would not mind placing the US under attack. The nation not only has many domestic critics, but there are also an even greater number of international critics as a result of activities performed by the nation during certain leadership. These feelings of hatred became obvious at the time of the 9/11 attacks. At the end of these attacks approximately 2,819 were killed, hundreds more injured, and the group destroyed and caused massive damage to several national symbolic landmarks. (Cooper, 2004) Jonathan Essner, stated that acts of terror effects economies in several ways such as homelessness, decrease employment, crime, as well as other severe woes. Two colleagues researched impacts as a result of 9/11 and their results show contributions of hospitality to industrialized and developing countries are of extreme importance. If an occurrence causes a decline in either portion of the industry there will be immediate concerns. The concerns will also surpass lodging and transportation by trickling down to the businesses who are the suppliers to hospitality companies. (Essner, 2003). There is a qualitative study that referred to two tests completed based on the relationship between tourism and terrorism in Israel and Egypt. The countries are both known for experiencing constant terrorist activity and geographic instability and that is why they were used to complete the tests. Tourism is also vital for the two countries national revenues. The two authors studied changes that appeared in the tourism revenues while the countries experienced an attack of terrorism. They concluded that even though tourists’ visits declined during increased terrorists activity, war, and when their regions were unstable, because the countries contain a specific atmosphere visits continued to show a trend-reverting series. They further concluded that their national leaders cannot disregard their tourism industry due to the fact that one of the listed occurrences could adversely impact businesses involved in tourism. (Aly, Strazicich, 2000). In Columbia, SC during a Consumer Affairs, Foreign Commerce, and Tourism hearing in 2002, SC Department of Parks, Recreation, & Tourism chief’s director went under oath to testify about the strength of the state’s top industry. John Durst advised the panel of how popular the state is in due to beautiful places, southern hospitality, and smiling faces. He also talked about how vital the industry is to South Carolina. He mention the fact that it produces 13% of the states labor force, holds 8.8 % of the GSP, and is responsible for 75% of the states local and state taxes. During his testimony he also included that South Carolina was not the only state who had experienced a decline in state revenue prior to 9/11 as a direct result of the negative shift in economies globally. 9/11 then applied more negative force to the weakened economic position. However, his testimony showed that tourism maintained more activity than the other industries in South Carolina. (Durst, 2002) Managing the security of our waterways has been an important topic since 9/11. Three authors investigated the security of our waterways for national lawmakers and it contained information about the US port protection and the federal government’s involvement. In the study describes several strategies that will help lawmakers make informed decisions. Due to the varying degrees of terrorist activity, the combative approach must also change. Federal monies are allocated to ports so they can help prepare for several different circumstances brought forth by terrorist activity. Though they continue to prepare themselves against attack, they are able to combat a wide array of attacks, though the inevitable is that every scenario can not be predicted. There are five dimensions that characterize each possible scenario: locations, perpetrators, tactics, objectives and targets. There are specific monies that are allotted to the five dimensions mentioned. It is the concern of some citizens whether or not the probability of terrorist activity is actually high enough for it to be considered a high priority. (Fritilli, Schrunk, Promack, 2007) While running for office, President Obama pledged that Guantanamo Bay Navel Station would be closed permanently. Since the beginning of its use as a detention camp, concerns have been raised to whether or not prisoners are being treated fairly. Obama based his proposal on the fact United State’s officials repeated denial of torture techniques to obtain vital information from detainees. With the closing of GITMO, this would prove to the world the United States’ innocence and humanitarian attribute. On the other hand lawmakers in South Carolina openly opposed that proposal. Senator L. Graham was quoted as saying, “It doesn’t make sense to hold them in an urban center like Charleston. We should recognize that where they are detained will automatically become a terrorist target.” His feelings was echoed by other state lawmakers who felt Ft. Leavenworth in Texas would be a better location for such prisoners, since it is already the home for maximum military prisoners and the area is not heavily populated by civilians. Meanwhile, a former lawyer under the Bush administration concluded that though he stood firm on his proposal actually placing it into act would be easy to say, but harder to do. (Rosen, 2004) Some professors at USC-Darla Moore School of Business created a profile to be used by the Local Government Funding Reform System Program. In this project the professors illustrate how South Carolina underwent economic shifts dating back to the 20th Century. During this period, South Carolina was mostly an industrialized state, and as the service industry gained popularity, the state had to make adjustments in its economy. When these events occur global, local, and nation economies must be able to adapt according to economies rate of change. Unfortunately, unlike major vacations cities like Myrtle Beach and Charleston that has not had a problem with the adjustments, the more rural towns that look to plants and mills for economic stability are facing tough times trying to adjust. During this profile a graph was created to illustrate the employment discrepancies amongst rural and non-rural areas of the trades, manufacturing and service industries. Also discussed are the different economies within the state in relation to the state’s different regions. This profile is of importance because it provides a detailed account of the state’s shifts in economy over the years. The authors concentrated on the entire state and how the shifts affected each region differently. (Schrunk, Woodward, 2000). South Carolina Citizen’s Guide to Terrorism is an information packet created by the South Carolina Emergency Management Division to be used by citizens in synchronization with the Military Order of World Wars as a generalized preparedness guide. The guide has been under review by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division. However, it should be noted that specified information is available at the offices of those in charge of emergency preparedness and also by way of the Emergency Alert System, which is used during the time of an emergency. (SC Emergency Mgt. Division, n.d.) Clemson University professor, Clinton H. Whitehurst Jr., authored a profile named the Transportation and Terrorist Threat. This composition details the threat of terrorist activity on the different means used in transport and their travel paths. This profile, talks about target characteristics and he also defines the two transportation components along with the non-transport targets as sited by Homeland Security. Another key aspect of his report is the author’s ability to breakdown the terrorist attacks from the terrorists’ point of view. It is noted that transportation is of extreme importance to the majority of individuals. Transportation contributes to how people are able to live, work, and play. Also mentioned are the correlations of transportation and the ability to escape if South Carolina ever comes under attack. Whitehurst states that this is why he is a believer of the continuation into the study of how transportation can be protected, due to the high demands of transportation to the state’s welfare; this would pose it as a likely target for an act of terrorism. The aforementioned literature assisted the researcher in forming a conclusion. They included topics on terrorism, the national economy, terrorist, and South Carolina’s economy. These publications came from individuals in different professions and concentrated on different areas of concerns, but they all related to the tourism industries.
CHAPTER THREE
SOUTH CAROLINA

The researcher uses chapter three to inspect the ecosystem of South Carolina’s history and the reckoning that it may become an aim for a terrorist association. Also, in this chapter, the researcher will determine some potential locations that are primed to become a target. South Carolina’s numerous tourist attractions, including theme parks and historical sites, and the numerous military instillations and nuclear power plants are a few that will be discussed. As one of the original thirteen colonies, South Carolina’s wealth was based on plantations. The economy in South Carolina has benefited from rice, cotton, textile, and manufacturing. South Carolina’s fiscal structure has evolved over time. In the early stages, South Carolina was among the affluent colonies. The system used in agricultural spanned from the coast to the inland, which led to the state becoming apart of the Cotton Belt. But the Civil War destroyed the economy sending the state into an economic uproar. After World War I (1914-18), the price of cotton collapsed. The Boll weevil also destroyed up to half the cotton crop in 1922. This contributed to the value of manufactured goods exceeding the value of agricultural products. It was through the economic relief program that allowed South Carolinians to find means of employment in other fields. South Carolina underwent many different revolutions, including economic, social, and political. Between 1950 and 1980, nonagricultural employment grew exponentially as the State Development Board was created in 1945. Due to their activeness in promoting industry, manufacturing and service sectors has increased. South Carolina’s manufacturing activities have been typically low-wage production of fabrics and other nondurable goods. Due to shifts in the state’s economy, income per capital lagged consistently behind that of the rest of the country. By the 1980s, it began approaching the national average. This economic revolution was paralleled by a demographic revolution. The urban population grew many times faster than the rural population. Transportation equipment and other durable goods have become more significant. The state’s service sector is propelled to a large degree by tourism. Tourism dominates the industry for South Carolina’s economy, as travelers discovered the state’s beaches and mountains. Even large contributors to the economic status from the numerous nuclear power plants and the multiple military establishments did not compare (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia). Due to the increase in tourism, service and retail jobs accounted for the exceptional employment increases in the 1990s. While this signifies the fifth major economic shift, the state’s history has proven that it can tolerate economic transition, and make necessary adjustments accordingly. Meanwhile, the impact of tourism is multiplying. In 2000 the travel and tourism industry posted $14.4 billion in economic activity. In 2005 the economic activity increased by $1.6 billion. Another growth was posted in 2007 when the activity increased again by $1.2 billion and they employed over %12 of employed residents. Based off information derived in 2007, the following graphs represent the importance of the hospitality and tourism industry:

Table 1:
[pic]
Table 2: [pic] New Carolina is a public-private partnership that partner together with other organizations to enhance the competitiveness of South Carolina by developing an organization of businesses that concentrate on servicing one aspect of the industry, developing clusters. The Tourism Cluster Committee commenced the first Tourism industry study performed in the state. This led to the SC legislature appropriating $5 million for product development and $20 million for tourism marketing for 2007. (newcarolina.org) Employment distribution by industry in 2000 informs that 24 percent are in trade, 22 percent in services, 19 percent in manufacturing, 17 percent in government, 6 percent in construction, and 10 percent in all other sectors. Over 216,000 jobs are credited to tourism and travel in some way, while the other 12 percent are State Employment. $10.9 billion in contribution to the state’s economy by tourism and travel means 9% in the state’s total economy. Projected growth of the state’s Gross State Product (GSP) is reported to reach $17 billion by the end of 2010. In 2005, more than $1.2 billion worth of capital investment transpired in the state’s tourism. According to latest information, the yearly 32.5 visitor spends on average $300 per person while in South Carolina. The following table shows the significant value derived from travel and tourism industries in aspect to other areas of profit.
Table 3:
[pic]
Source: SC PRT, 2007

One quarter of all visits by US citizens made to South Carolina are done within a single day. It is usually in parties of two people. In every four trips, there are children traveling also. Each visitor spends approximately $131. The remaining percentage of visits made by US citizens to South Carolina involves overnight stays. Statistically, there are usually two travelers. The average stay is 3.5 nights and spend $752 each person during the trip. Over one quarter of the visitor parties include children in these stays. Practically half of all domestic trips within the state are considered to be domestic leisure travel. Three nights is the average length of nights. One-fourth of the travelers in South Carolina are from South Carolina, while the remaining is traveling from out-of state. Again, there is an average of two people traveling; only this time, one out of three includes children traveling also. The domestic leisure travelers spend $908 during these trips. One sixth of all outings yearly are domestic business travels averaging 2 nights each visit. On average, these trips have one person and one in every twenty include children. The average spent is $396 on the trip. Most domestic business travelers drive to South Carolina, leaving one out of five fly into the state.
Figure 4: Seasonality of Domestic Trips to SC
[pic]
Source: SC PRT, 2008

Table 5:
Top States of Origin for Domestic Trips to South Carolina
[pic]
Table 6:
Top States of Origin for Domestic Day Trips
[pic]
Table 7:
Top States of Origin for Domestic Overnight Trips
[pic]

Figure 8: Domestic Trips to SC by Purpose

[pic] Based on data compiled by I-94 in 2007, 79,974 international visitors to South Carolina stated that South Carolina was either the first or only stop while in the United States. Most international visitors to South Carolina are from Germany or the United Kingdom. 18,780 UK residents and 16,476 German residents visited South Carolina during 2007. The following are the popular tourist destinations of South Carolina visitors.
Military Installments South Carolina is home to several military installments. The origin of the Joint Base, better known as the Charleston Air Force Base came during World War II when the Army Air Corps commandeered the use of the Charleston Municipal Airport to begin field and anti-submarine missions. The airport was given back to civilian control following World War II when the USAF commenced to share the facility. At present, Joint Base is the home of the 437th Airlift Wing which is responsible for the C-17 Globemaster III tactical airlift aircraft, along with the association wing, the 315th Airlift Wing. Joint Base Charleston is accountable for providing Air Mobility Command’s worldwide airlift scope, with their primary mission including flying C-17s which is able to provide military equipment, aero-medical equipment, cargo, and supplies to troops and passengers via airlift capacity. Established in 1916, Fort Jackson Army Base was created to supply the need for trained fighting men during the early days of WWI. Camp Jackson was founded in the summer of 1917, with the first of the recruits arriving on September 5th. Due to the numerous personnel on post, the first base hospital opened on October 22, 1917 to handle injuries and well-being. This military installation has served as the Army’s pioneer in the training environment. Due to initiating over half of all soldiers entering the Army, with eighty percent being female, Fort Jackson remains the foremost active Initial Entry Training Center of the U. S. Army. The motto is “Victory Starts Here.” In addition to Basic Training, Advanced Individual Training follows suit, with one-quarter of newly trained soldiers remaining at Fort Jackson. After this training, the soldier is fully-active duty. In addition to the Basic and Advanced Training, soldiers travel to Fort Jackson for additional training during their active duties to move up in rank. Cutting-edge teaching courses of anti-submarine patrols were needed during World War II, causing the Marine Corps Air Station in Beaufort to be recognized on June 15, 1943. It was disabled in 1946 and then reopened in 1956. The association’s mission “to provide the highest quality in aviation facilities, support and services to promote the combat readiness of Marines and Sailors” in the United States has weathered the Post-Cold War military closures due to the recognition of the growing role of air power in conflicts arising currently and in the future. It is the operational base for Marine Aircraft Group, better known as MAG-31 which performs anti-air warfare and also supplies assistance for aggressive air operations by the Fleet Marine Forces from mobile airfields, advanced bases, or aircraft carriers along with other various air operations. There are currently 700 active-duty service men, including Marines and Sailors, in addition to the 600 civilian workers who guarantee that the roughly 3,400 MAG-31 and its module squadrons and tenant units are readily deployable. The Fightertown’s Hornet squadrons alternate overseas on a regular basis. At any particular time, up to half of the squadrons may be found at an assortment of locales around the world. Marine Corps Recruit Depot located on Parris Island maintains two missions. First, it is responsible for training the Eastern Recruiting Region’s male recruits while also training all female recruits nationwide. In 1891, the first Marines were stationed on Parris Island. On November 1, 1915, it became the first Marine Corp Recruit Depot, a base dedicated to the sole purpose of training and is currently still active as one of the two bases where Marines are made. The Recruit training includes a twelve week process of adaptation into the Marine Corps lifestyle. There is emphasizing on physical fitness. The recruits are required to pass “The Crucible,” a 54-hour simulated combat exercise which includes carrying 45 pounds, in addition to 782 gears, uniform, and the M16 A2 while traveling on foot 48 miles. There are also 29 problem-solving exercises at 36 different stations. It is unanimous that the Marine boot camp is by far the most demanding, both physically and mentally than the other military services. Only after the recruit has finished training have they earned the title “Marine.” Naval Weapons Station, which was commissioned on November 5, 1941 as the Navel Station Depot when it became apparent that ammunition could not be safely handled in large quantities at the Navel Station. During World War II, the mission was to receive ammunition from inland plants and issue it to ships being built at Charleston Navel Shipyard. Following the war, the depot was then responsible for removing ammunition from the deactivated ships. After nearly being deactivated itself in 1948, it was placed on standby status. Ships undergoing overhaul were allowed to store ammunition at the depot during this time. It is now known as the Naval Weapons Station. At this time, the site continues daily operation. Their mission has broadened however. Shaw Air Force Base ranks as one of the oldest installations in the Air Force. Construction began June 27, 1941 for Shaw Field, as it was known back then. Named for 1Lt. Ervin D. Shaw, a Sumter County native killed in action during a long-range reconnaissance flight behind enemy lines in World War I. The mission of the camp has changed through the years. Starting as a training school for cadets, it was the one of the greatest flying fields in the United States. During World War II, it was briefly utilized as a prison camp for Germans. After the war, the 20th Fighter Bomber Group’s headquarters were established and the name of the base was changed. Due to the jet age, further development and expansions were needed. The base’s squadrons had tremendous roles in the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. F-16 planes were also deployed during Operation Desert Shields and Operation Desert Storm. Since 1994, Shaw Air Force Base is the home of the Air Force’s 20th Fighter Wing, whose sole mission is to provide, project, and sustain combat-ready air forces…”fly, fight, and win” in air, space, and cyberspace. Commissioned in 1989, the Navy developed the Naval Consolidated Brig as a medium-security facility used to house prisoners from all branches. The main objective was to incarcerate military inmates with less than 10 years of sentencing. There are several rehabilitation programs with a heavy concentration on conquering substance abuse problems for the inmates for this purpose. In the spring of 2002 the Naval Consolidated Brig was the only base in the continental U. S. to detain enemy combatants. The first was Yaser Esam Hamdi, captured in Afghanistan in 2001, claimed opposition against the United States and he proclaimed to be an Afghan Northern Alliance with the Taliban. In the beginning he was imprisoned at Camp X-Ray at Guantanamo Bay until it was learned that he was a citizen of America. Upon his 2004 release he was released to Saudi Arabia, where he is also a citizen and agreed to relinquish his American citizenship. Other enemy combatants such as Jose Padilla and Ali Saleh Kahlah al-Marri were also detained there. Originally formed in 1670, the Colonial Militia protected residents from invading Spaniards and Indian tribes. This is the oldest branch of military in South Carolina, where it was present in all of the skirmishes, Revolutionary War, until the Civil War which it was defeated. After Reconstruction, Governor Orr fought for the militia’s ability to decrease statewide crime, but was denied by the “Radical Republicans”. In March 1869, congress once again allowed South Carolina to have its own militia, as long as it excluded ex-Confederates. It was then that the state began calling its militia the National Guard. Organized by the Dick Militia Law of 1903, the state militias established the character of the modern National Guard. Now they are seen as an extension of the United States Army. The South Carolina Army National Guard is made up of approximately 10,000 airmen and soldiers that maintain the 80 facilities in South Carolina. The South Carolina Air National Guard was formed in December 1946. Currently, there are 1,200 guardsmen training at McEntire Joint National Guard Base. The SCARNG is integrated with active duty Air Force and operates as part of the Total Force of the U.S. military as an additional unit of the Air Combat Command (ACC.) The primary unit of the SCARNG is the 169th Fighter Wing. The mission of the 169th Fighter Wing is to stand ready for deployment with active duty units in case of a national emergency and to come to the aid of its own citizens when states of emergencies arise.
Ports
The South Carolina States Ports Authority was founded in 1942. It owns and operates public marine terminals in Charleston and Georgetown. These ports are vital international trade infrastructures in the United States and are known for having high productivity and providing access to global markets for American exporters. They also keep the supply chain for imported goods secure. Port activity is the second leading revenue source for Charleston. SCSPA is operated like a private business, and has staff that runs the container yard equipment, work in all container cranes, and operate gates at all terminals. However, licensed operators at the port obtain licensed terminal space and operate within their own yards and gates. The SCSPA has nine members that are appointed to the Board of Directors which must first be appointed by the Governor and then are confirmed by the Senate. Even though the SCSPA is a public entity that is committed to South Carolina’s economic growth, it is not provided with direct funding for neither resources nor operational expenses, making its operation privately funded through its own revenue, ability to issue bonds, and reinvestments.

South Carolina Airports There are 52 public airports in South Carolina in operation. Eight of these airports have scheduled service with commercial airlines that allow passengers to travel to and from many major destinations. Among the popular airlines that operate at South Carolina airports are Delta, US Airways, American Airlines and affiliates, Continental, and United Express. The remaining airports are utilized mostly as municipal and county airports.
Nuclear Plants South Carolina has four nuclear power plants that typically supply more than half of the State’s electricity generation. There are seven licensed commercial light water pressurized reactors (PWRs). The Catawba plant houses the largest pair of PWRs, which have a net capacity of 1,129 MW each. The Oconee plant has the most nuclear capability because of the three light water reactors with a net capacity 846 MW each. H.B. Robinson plant and the Summer plant are single-unit operations with one reactor having a net capacity of 710 MW and 966 MW. In 2008, the state ranked 3rd in nuclear capacity and 3rd in nuclear generation, with nuclear power accounting for 51 percent of the electricity generated. In addition to creating nuclear output, there are also the issues of nuclear waste and low-level waste disposal. Chem-Nuclear Systems Barnwell Waste Management Facility State is one of the two facilities in country that accept low-level waste. Here, the solid waste that has been sealed in containers is buried in a trench that has a drainage collection system. Supposedly, 90 percent of the radioactivity will have decayed after 100 years for low-level waste, compared to the multiple-thousand year’s lifespan of high-level waste. There have been plans to develop two new nuclear units proposed for the V.C. Summer Nuclear Station by the year 2016.
The New Cooper River Bridge Before construction in 2005, there were two bridges that connected downtown Charleston to Mount Pleasant. The 74-year-old Grace Memorial Bridge was 2.71 miles long and was the largest bridge of its type in the world. However, after twenty years of use, the Grace Bridge no longer had the capacity to handle the high traffic. So in April of 1966, northbound traffic was opened on the Pearman Bridge in April 1966. In 1998, a larger bridge was found to be in need that would be capable of sustaining the population predictions, eradicating sub-par traffic safety, reducing the operating expense of preserving two older bridges, and increasing the horizontal and vertical clearances to needed for watercraft traversing the Cooper River at present time. The resolution was to construct the Arthur Ravanel Jr. Cooper Bridge. (http://www.cooperriverbridge.org/) Over $700 million went into the construction of the new bridge, named after Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge, the retired congressman who helped establish the South Carolina Infrastructure Bank that created the capital for the much needed bridge. Designed by Parsons Brinckerhoff, the new Arthur Ravenel/Cooper River Bridge opened on July 16, 2005. It connects the downtown Charleston peninsula with the harbor town of Mount Pleasant with eight lanes, including a 12 feet wide bike lane and pedestrian walkway. The main span also provides a current navigation opening of 186 vertical feet to sustain the passage of modern shipping traffic, with the ability add another 1,000 feet channel when needed in the future. It is also equipped with an elevator for bridge inspectors located in the bridge towers, while under the bridge deck; there are inspection platforms and walkways.
Amusement Parks Located on the North Carolina/South Carolina boarder, Carowinds, with its size being relatively smaller than other national theme parks, is still popular among tourists. Originally Carowinds was 73-acres. The park managed to celebrate its 35th birthday on March 31, 2008 while welcoming its 50 millionth guest and 500 millionth ride. Now it has evolved into a 122-acre park that holds a 20-acre water park and the introduction of the INTIMIDATOR, the fastest, longest, tallest rollercoaster of the Southeast. Family Kingdom, located in Myrtle Beach, is one of the few traditional seaside amusement parks left in the nation. It has an open gate, meaning there is no admission charge allowing guests to enjoy the numerous nostalgic rides, games, and concessions at their leisure. It is the only amusement park located by the beach since the closing of the Myrtle Beach Pavillion in 2006. Pedroland, also known as South of the Border, is located right off of I-95 in Dillon, SC. It was initiated as a truck stop attraction that created anticipation by posting billboards hundreds of miles before the exit. Due to the visitor reception, Pedroland has grown to enormous proportion and now includes a few rides, humorous gift shops, and restaurants.
South Carolina Beaches There are over 200 miles of beaches in South Carolina. They have been named some of the best family beaches on the East Coast by critics. They are divided into three regions, Myrtle Beach/Grand Strand, Historic Charleston Beaches, and the Lowcountry Beaches. The Grand Strand is sixty miles long extending from Little River to Georgetown and offers family beaches, live musical theaters, numerous outlet malls, over 100 championship golf courses, nightclubs, and a wealth of family attractions including Brookgreen Gardens, which houses the world’s largest collection of American sculpture and the only accredited zoo and aquarium located on the coast of the Carolinas. There are over ten million visitors each season to Myrtle Beach, the primary city of the Grand Strand. The historical Charleston beach region is comprised of marshlands due to the many preserves and wildlife refuges. There are, however, luxurious accommodations, historical tours, and many other various tourist attractions. The Lowcountry region is made up of Beaufort, Colleton, Hampton, and Jasper Counties. Cultural sites, resort amenities, and natural features create the basis of tourism in this region.
Miscellaneous Reasons to visit South Carolina There are plentiful state and county parks that are accessible for outdoor recreation including numerous water parks throughout the state. In addition, there is Riverbank Zoo and Botanical Gardens located in Columbia that is a highly rated zoo in America. In Charleston, there is also the South Carolina Aquariums, which draws hundreds of thousands of visitors each year. South Carolina’s State Museum in Columbia which is located in an old textile mill archives South Carolina’s culture and historical moments. Local museums and children’s museums are also found across the state. Although there are no professional sports organizations, sporting events still remain a facet of the state’s recreation. Minor league teams for hockey, basketball, baseball, and the newly added football can be found within the state. Collegiate sports including the University of South Carolina and Clemson University reach maximum capacity at most of their home games. Festivals are plentiful in South Carolina. The Southeast Tourism Society has listed five of South Carolina’s festivals/events on the Top 20 Events of the Southeast. Such festivals have even made international news, such as Salley, SC’s Chitlin Strut, which is listed on the History Channel’s website, highlighted on Sirius Satellite’s Jay Thomas Show, and on the Paul O’Grady Show in the United Kingdom. These festivals are centered on games, arts and crafts, music, activities for the kids, cook-offs, historical tours, and more and create a celebration for the surrounding communities. Fine art is also showcased in cities across South Carolina. There is the collection of European old master paintings located in the Bob Jones Museum in Greenville. One of the state’s largest galleries is established in a renovated colonial mansion and features works by African-American artists. Various classically trained musicians are invited to perform at the many performing art centers, auditoriums, and coliseums. In addition, the state has several dance troupes that perform ballet and other highly acclaimed dance styles each year. Heritage tourism is based off of historical events that range from the assorted Revolutionary and Civil War sites, to the home of Brown v. the Board of Education. Roughly $581 million is spent in this state through heritage tourism, which contributes to 2.7 million visitors yearly. Numerous cultural sites include the Native American burial mound located at the Santee Wildlife Refuge, the Gullah-Geechee Heritage Corridor, and the anticipated International African-American Museum being planned for Charleston. U.S. Congress recognized South Carolina National Heritage Corridor as a National Heritage Area in 1996. The corridor extends through fourteen counties and 240 miles and offers a wide array of the state’s culture, history, and natural landscapes. This chapter shows the changes in South Carolina’s economic development from agriculturally based to the current capacity as a service and trade economy dominated by tourism. Noted in this chapter were predominate tourist areas that could become potential marks for terrorism.
CHAPTER FOUR
TERRORIST ATTACKS

Definition of Terrorism Terrorism is defined as “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.” (Department of Defense, 2010) Terrorism is a premeditated attack that uses intimidation, violence and fear. These elements can each create fear for victims. Terrorist groups involve groups and significant subgroups that not only practice terrorism on the national level, but also direct their objectives internationally, involving citizens or land from multiple nations.
Terrorism in perspective The three aspects of terrorism are as followed: terrorist assailants, individuals directly affected, and individuals affected indirectly. These assailants believe they are legitimate combatants fighting for their beliefs, by whatever means possible. Their strategy is to cause enough chaos to gain recognition from the public and government at the center of their objective. These acts are also used to draw global attention. Effectiveness is not based on the activity; instead it is based on the reaction of the citizens and governing officials. Organizations try to attack the core, which promotes rights to peace, life, and security, all under the agenda to further the terrorists’ main objectives. Political theorist Michael Walzer, states “the purpose of terrorism is to destroy the morale of a nation or a class, to undercut its solidarity, its method is of the random murder of innocent people. Randomness is the crucial feature of terrorist activity. If one wishes fear to spread and intensify over time, it is not desirable to kill specific people identified in some particular way with a regime, a party, or a policy. Death must come by chance.” (Bennett, 2007) It is a strategic plan, a form of criminal activity, religious responsibility, or a justifiable effect due to the abomination and oppression. It is an asymmetric conflict where one side utilizes a source of authority that shares similar benefits to military forces for less costs. Because of the small size and secrecy, it is easily mistaken for criminal activity in the beginning.
Intent of Terrorist Groups
The intent of terrorist groups is: • Cause massive fear, • Receive global attention, • Harass or patronize governing agencies, • Gain possession of funds and assets that can further their success, • Dismember the trust between citizens and their governing body, • Negatively affect the economic structure of the targeted country, • Cause governing bodies to base policies in their favor • Get the release of incarcerated individuals • Cause officials to concentrate on more populated areas so they can function in more rural areas

What Terrorists Look for in Potential Targets The risk analysis allows terrorist organizations to determine possible advantages of an attack on a specified country in correlation to expenses for needed materials and the success rate. “Hard” targets are heavily protected and there is a strong possibility that plans surrounding them will be interrupted before an actual attack. A military base, political organizations, and high ranking politicians are considered “hard.” Target with limited security and protection are considered “Soft.” Shopping centers, power stations, and sporting events are examples of “soft” targets. Terrorists seek to maximize the media coverage, so targets that are hosts to global travelers are more likely to become a victim of an attack. * Demonstrate Reach--Terrorist want to demonstrate their ability to operate in any part of a country. * Disgrace Protection Agencies--Weakens the public’s faith in these agencies’ effectiveness. * Force Over-reaction of Such Agencies--This often comes in the form of large-scale arrests and the suspected utilization of cruel interrogation methods. This generates hostility towards officials, dividing communities, and facilitating new recruitment into the terrorist organization. * Retaliation—Revenge for supposed crimes and wrongdoings brought about by governing bodies.
(Whitehurst, 2003)

Types of Terrorist Incidents Arson and firebombing are used in more occurrences when the attackers do not have the proper equipment, training, or organization compared to larger groups. These acts targeting hotels, utilities, industrial centers, and government buildings illustrate the reflection that the governing body is unable to sustain order. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Assassinations and Armed attacks are ways to inflict psychological drama on the population. Assassinations are considered to be murders of a particular victim, mostly by the use of bombings or small arms. Drive-by shootings are also regularly used during these ambushes or raids. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Bombings statistically are used the most by terrorist because of the less expensive and less complex nature of explosives. Due to the smaller size, they are not as easily detected as before. There are numerous variables involved with the capability of causing mass destruction. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Hijacking is used to forcefully apprehend a variety of transportation, including the passengers and cargo. Skyjacking is used in a mobile hostage blockade through the apprehension of an aircraft. In the event of a skyjacking, the hostage-takers have the greater likelihood of having international hostages, which leads to considerable worldwide news coverage. In addition to the multi-national platform, the terrorists also have the added ability to relocate the aircraft to a supporting country, intensifying the complexity of possible retaliation attempts. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Hostage-taking and kidnapping is beneficial in creating a platform for negotiation that will increase public awareness. Though complex, kidnapping provides leverage that warrants possible exchanges between the freedom of incarcerated comrades and victims, and the ability to increase more financial support. Hostage-taking, like kidnapping, involves humans for negotiation tactics; however, hostage-talking also involves securing a location and refusal to release the location’s inhabitants. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Cyber-terrorism has been rapidly increasing popularity due to the reliance on computers and the internet. This is used when there is little risk of physical harm to themselves, while the outcome is to interrupt or demolish computers and networks, creating major disruptions of business-related and prominent government activities. Although not as highly ranked in destruction abilities, cyber-terrorism’s effect can be grave. Nuclear weapon attacks are not as regular, but the casualty count would be extreme, causing these choices to be referred to as weapons of mass destruction (WMD). These weapons are still being created by countries in an attempt to compete with in close proximity countries. It is belief that possessing these weapons will prevent an imminent attack from happening. With the increase in fabrication of WMD, terrorists now have greater access to these weapons. Unstable nations may not have the ability to protect their WMD from accidental lose, illicit sales, or theft and seizure. In addition, terrorists can gain WMD access through orchestrating their own research or by hiring engineers to build them. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Bioterrorism is the when biological agents are released to harm citizens. There are classified viruses, bacteria, and toxins that are used in the attack. The most dangerous biological diseases include anthrax, botulism, the plague, smallpox, tularemia, and hemorrhagic fever. Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDD) are devices that explosively spread radioactive materials. Also called a “dirty bomb,” it contaminates the area, making the area inaccessible until it is decontaminated. They are difficult to build, and the blast area is where the radioactive particles are the most dangerous. When the particles are dispersed, they become weak. The panic of the public and the explosion itself are the true devastation. Classifications of Terrorist Cells Separatist groups consist of those who wish to separate from an established entity through political, religious, or domination independence. The principles of separatists are equity, anti-imperialism and the opposition of activity from other countries. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Ethnocentric groups operate on the belief that race is the essential trait of societies. They are known for using their race for their foundation. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Nationalistic groups focus their allegiance to one nation. They place the well-being of a country before any other nations. This act is signified through the establishment of new nations or by separating a portion of the nation to merge with an existing state sharing their belief. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Domestic groups are “home-based” terrorist that maintain residency in their home county while they oppose their policies, cultures or beliefs. These terrorists are mainly associated with extremist organizations. Their efforts are focused primarily on socio-politics. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) International or Transnational is terms often used to signify the span of an organization. International groups function in many countries while focusing their actions towards particular geographical areas. An example is Hezbollah, who have entities throughout the world and also maintain operations in several countries. Their issues, however, focus on Lebanon and Israel. Transitional groups function globally, but have no main connection with one country. Al Qaeda is transnational because its members are from different ethnic groups and they live worldwide. Their objectives are targeted towards multiple countries with conflicting political systems, different ethnic compositions, opposing religions, and differences in national interests. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Social groups incite extremist behavior and terrorism based on single issues or “special interests.” Such issues include animal rights, minority rights, pro-life/pro-choice, and environmentalists/ecologists and have produced activities worldwide. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) Religious groups have been increasing. These groups use religion to inspire terrorism. The prevalence of these groups have risen 43% between 1980 and 1995, with Islamic groups proving to be the most active and posing the largest threat to the United States. However, extremists have been noted in all religions to use violence to uphold their religious views. Their agendas are viewed as holy writ, making them non-negotiable. (Terrorism Research, n.d.)

History of Terrorism From a global aspect terrorism is apart of world history. There have been instances dating back to the Roman Empire. 1st Century AD. The Zealots of Judea are the earliest accounts of a modern-day terrorist group. The objective was to overthrow the Roman occupational forces in addition to Jews that were considered to be partners with the Romans. Zealots remained underground until their motives were made pubic. They were conquered; however they committed mass suicide at the fortification of Masada. (Terrorism Research, n.d.) The French Revolution led to revolutionaries unleashing what is considered the “Reign of Terror.” Terror was utilized to advocate a particular political opinion. Execution by guillotines filed the agenda of hate and personal vendetta of the revolutionaries. Maximillien Robespierre, one of the leading figures in the revolution, was instrumental in sending the suspected opponents to their death, only to die the same way after he was seen a threat to the newly appointed government. In the United States, the first substantial act of terrorism affecting English-speaking citizens was the “Barbarous Massacre” in March 1622. The Powhatan combatants killed 30 percent of the Caucasians in Virginia. They destroyed Jamestown in a few hours. Although not called “terrorism” at the time, the shock tactic was effective. The Barbary Pirates, who had occupied the Barbary Coast since 1492, sailed the coast of North Africa. The pirates captured wealthy travelers, then selling them into slavery if they could not pay the ransom and extorted other nations. When the United States drafted the first fiscal budget in 1784, $80,000 was allocated to the contribution of the Barbary government. (Gawalt, n.d.) The Barbary Nation soon realized the amount of natural resources in the United States and increased their request, earning them a payout of one million dollars in 1795. Other nations were making side deals with the pirates, encouraging them to extort their enemies. There were many failed attempts by governments to stop the harassment. However, when Thomas Jefferson became elected, the US refused to raise the Barbary tribute, creating the first Barbary War from 1801 - 1805. Marines were sent to Tripoli, forcing a new treaty. (Gawalt, G). Then during President Monroe’s term in 1815, the United States went to war once again with the Barbary Nation. This war lasted one year and encouraged other European nations to fight back also. Barbary rulers were finally overcome by European imperialism after another decade. (Oren, 2007) Another example of terrorist attack in the United States occurred during the War of 1812 by British General Robert Ross when he invaded Washington and captured the city on August 24, 1814, burning the majority of government buildings, including the White House and the Executive Mansion. His act was fueled by the Americans’ role in destruction of York. (War of 1812, 2009) Aviation history shows the first confirmed case of air sabotage was October 10, 1933. A nitroglycerin bomb was placed on a plane, causing an explosion mid-flight, killing all seven passengers. Two men hijacked a plane that left Sacramento headed for San Francisco on July 5, 1972. Soviet Union was their intended destination. FBI rushed the plane, killing both men. Luckily there was only one passenger out of 77 that received any wounds. Pan American Flight 103 left London on its way to New York on December 21, 1988. It exploded after less than an hour in the air over Scotland, killing all passengers and 11 individuals on the ground when the remains hit a gasoline station and a row of houses. There was a timer-activated bomb that was hidden in a cassette player in a suitcase. A Libyan, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi was convicted on January 31, 2001 for his involvement.
Trends and Patterns in Domestic Terrorism Domestic terrorism is almost systematic in other parts of the world. In the U.S., however, it happens in cycles. There are on average 10,000 terrorism investigations by the FBI annually, with only an average of 350 cases making it to prosecution. Out of these cases, only 50 are internationally centered, leaving the majority to be domestically charged. There was the Huan’s Mill Massacre or the Mormon War is considered the first US religiously motivated acts of terror. Joseph Smith, prophet and founder of the Church of Jesus Christ and the Latter Day Saints envisioned Missouri as the place to establish the Church of Zion. The locals felt threatened by the Mormons, considering them religious extremists to be outnumbering them in their state. In 1838, Governor Lilburn Boggs ordered all Mormons to be killed or forced out of the state of Missouri. A militant group of Missourians surrounded the small town of Haun’s Mill, leaving only one escape route. The Mormon men, who stayed behind and were encircled by the militants, were killed. 17 Mormons were killed or severely wounded, including three boys who hid in a blacksmith shop. (Landis, 2007) Many consider John Brown’s actions to be terrorist attacks by definition. The American abolitionist wanted to end slavery by advocating and practicing armed insurrection. Brown’s “divine mission to take vengeance” was in hopes of ending to slavery. He and five of his sons set up in Osawatomie in 1855 and became leaders of antislavery guerrillas in the area. It was on May 24, 1856 when Brown and his assembly of men invaded Pottawatomie Creek, known to be proslavery. They proceeded to brutally kill five men, cutting them into pieces. Then in the summer of 1859, 16 Whites and 5 Blacks set up with Brown in a rented cabin across from Harpers Ferry, the location of the federal armory. On the night of October 16th, Brown took sixty men hostage with the hopes of encouraging the escaped slaves in the area to join his “army of emancipation.” U.S. Marines captured Brown while killing his cohorts, two of which were Brown’s sons. Brown was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death by hanging on December 2, 1859. His charges were for murder, treason against the United States, and encouraging slave insurrection. He was considered a martyr. (John Brown, 2009) On May 4, 1886, an anonymous attacker cast a bomb into a crowd, which resulted in the death of seven police officers while injuring an additional sixty others in what is known as the Haymarket Riot. Strikers were protesting for eight-hour workdays against the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company in Chicago. Violence the day prior resulted in the death of one and multiple injuries sustained by others. Police were called to shield the strikebreakers. August Spies and three others were hung for the bombing on November 11, 1887 even when no proof was provided. (Haymarket Riot, 2009) Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the most notorious among hate organizations in the southeast United States in the pursuit of their white supremacist agenda. Starting as a social club formed by six young men for amusement after the Civil War, in Pulaski, Tennessee. Due to their ghostly appearance and stating that they lived in Hell, Blacks were petrified of them. The white supremacist formed the KKK constitution in 1867. The peak years were 1868-1870, in which the Klan declared it their duty to restore the White rule in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia, killing freeman of color and white supporters. In 1869, the group was forced to separate, though, several chapters refused to cease. The United States passed the Ku Klux Act in 1870 and the Force Act in 1870 allowing the federal government to “suspend the writ of habeas corpus, suppress disturbances by force, and impose heavy penalties upon terrorist organizations.” (Ku Klux Klan, 2009) President Grant deployed troops to arrest hundreds of conspiracy advocators. In 1882, United States v. Harris declared the Ku Klux Klan Act to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. The KKK was to blame for thousands of murders, lynches, and burning crosses. By the 1920’s, there were over four million members nationally in the new Klan. (Ku Klux Klan, 2009) President Lyndon B. Johnson denounced the Klan on national television after a connection was made to the murder of a white civil-rights worker named Viola Liuzzo while transporting civil rights marchers in Alabama. The Klan was unable to sustain as racial tolerance grew. (Ku Klux Klan, 2009) The Black Panther Party (BPP) formed in California in 1966. Their involvement in the Civil Rights agenda of the 60s was that a non-violent campaign would be slow in creating the necessary changes needed for equality. Violence was included into their public platform. Founders, Huey Percy Newton and Bobby Seale, convinced followers that a “revolutionary war” was needed. Even as an African-American party, they addressed concerns of other oppressed minorities. Equality in education, housing, employment, and civil rights were the motivation. (Haskins, 1997) During the Vietnam War era, BPP waged war against the government. However, the FBI received intelligence that allowed them the opportunity to stop alerted and able to defeat the BPP’s movements. It has been a belief by BPP supporters that the FBI used a dishonest plot creating dissidence within the ranks of leadership. It is also proposed the FBI was accountable for creating “Black Propaganda” campaign to influence citizens’ perception of the BPP as a national security threat. By spring 1978, the party was deemed over. (Haskins, 1997) The BPP made services available for less fortunate people, including the Free Food Program and Free Medical Research Health Clinics. The Intercommoned Youth Band was also created, provided community pride in the movement. Huey P. Newton wrote that these programs were what the African-American communities needed but since the government would not grant these programs. Domestic terrorist attacks have also been headed by individuals. The deadliest act of domestic terrorism prior to the 9/11 attacks was the Oklahoma City Bombing carried out by Timothy McVeigh. McVeigh’s agenda was revenge for the Waco Siege two years prior, hoping to inspire a revolt of the government. On April 19, 1995, a truck bomb was detonated in front of the federal building. Out of the 168 casualties, 19 children were under the age of six. The Centennial Olympic Park bombing on July 27, 1996 in Atlanta Georgia during the 1996 Summer Olympics was orchestrated by Eric Robert Rudolph. He was also responsible for a 1997 double-bombings on an abortion clinic in Atlanta, a lesbian nightclub also in Atlanta in 1997 and the 1998 bombing of a Birmingham, AL abortion clinic. Both abortion clinics and nightclub were rigged with two sets of explosives, the initial bomb detonating and the second designed to go off later, when law enforcement personnel had arrived on the scene. Rudolph was an adherent of Nord Davis, the ideologue who built a walled compound and advocated killing gays and those who engaged in mixed-race relationships, all the while denouncing the New World Order controlled by Jews.
Terrorism in South Carolina The history of South Carolina’s terrorists attacks were committed by hate organizations. Whites, the minorities of the state, embedded fear in Blacks, creating little resistance from the majority, by using police and militia. The Klan terrorized South Carolinians, just like other southern states. Recorded instances of the KKK’s revival included two bombings in 1957 and two in 1962 with victims being a White family, two Black families and a Black-owned taxi service. In 1994, Greelyville became the base of the Klan in a field near Macedonia Baptist Church. These members had come to the conclusion that particular churches encouraged the manipulation of the government’s welfare systems, even teaching members how to do such. Macedonia Baptist Church was burned On June 20th and Mt. Zion AME was torched the following night. Timothy Welch and Christopher Cox were convicted of arson in addition to Arthur Haley and Hubert Rowell receiving prison sentences of 15-21 years. It was ordered by a jury that the Christian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Grand Dragon Horace King and four other Klansmen to pay $37.8 million for their involvement in the conspiracy to burn Macedonia Baptist Church. In October 1996, Clayton Edwin Spires and Joshua Grant England, members of the Christian Knights of the KKK, were accused of the drive-by shooting that targeted Black teenagers standing outside a nightclub in Pelion. In December 1998, Spires pled guilty to shooting three of the teenagers and is facing up to life in prison. The Southern Poverty Law Center has identified 45 active hate groups across the state at this time classified as the following: * Neo-confederate believes strongly in the cultures of the old South and that non-whites are corrupting their culture. * Neo-Nazi hate Jews, shares a hatred for Jews, homosexuals, minorities, and at times Christians. * General Hate displays a variation of hate policies. * White Nationalist advocates Caucasian superiority and is similar to other groups. * Black Separatist disagrees with interracial marriages and they promote divided institutions and they even argue for a divided country.
(“South Carolina hate,”) This chapter depicted the definition of terrorism, along with detailing the purpose and types of terrorism. Evolution of terrorism has been described through the history of terror, including the different weapons and tactics used. Key moments in terrorism‘s timeline were also detailed. In the next chapter, local agencies will be identified with their roles in keeping South Carolina protected and prepared.
CHAPTER FIVE
LOCAL PROTECTION

Local Police Departments

South Carolina has 213 Law Enforcement agencies, including Airport Security, Campus Police, Police Departments, and Sheriff Offices. Post 9/11, precedence of these and other national agencies has been the complete instruction of all employees, allowing proper response to terrorism simulations. In 2006, it has been noted by the Council of Foreign Relations that many police departments have committed an increase of resources towards terrorism-related activity. This allows the gathering of intelligence to head off possible threats and to be primed for an actual attack. Until 9/11, most local agencies considered terrorism a federal responsibility. Now, however, local agencies have strengthened relationships with the federal agencies such as the FBI and the CIA to provide a collaborative effect. Local agencies have also done the following: * Modified objectives during different acts of terrorism. * More security for nuclear power plants, landmarks, transit systems, places of worship, ports of entry, etc. * More security during public events. * Formed a counterterrorism department. * The increased use of technology mainly used during searches.
(Council on Foreign Relations Editorial Staff, 2006)

Security at Military Establishments

Military bases provide their own defenses against terrorism. Billions of dollars have been expended by the Pentagon to upgrade its current security perimeter. Random Anti-terrorist Measures are performed on bases by setting up temporary checkpoints, utilizing dogs to investigate vehicles at entry points, combining foot patrols in some areas. The intention is to be less predictable by consistently changing the look and location of security measures. Following 9/11, added defensive procedures at military facilities nationwide include the presence of armed guards, entry barricades, road closures, and surveillance cameras, including instilling new programs that promote service members and their families to report probable terrorist plots when noticed. Even with the added security measures, some bases remain exposed due to their locales. Fort Jackson in Columbia has their main access gate opposite a busy civilian community, including shopping centers, apartments, restaurants, and churches. When one comes on post as a visitor, the civilian enters a designated area where driver’s license or identification cards are required by everyone 15 years old and up. The driver’s information, along with the vehicle information is logged along with the destination and time of entry. At one time, the Pentagon attempted created a database of the potential groups and individuals who may cause harm to military bases and their employees, however, this received orders to cease after complaints that it included names of anti-war rally participants. When deemed necessary, local law enforcement agencies are available to aid military bases whenever required.
Security at Ports A three-year plan was developed in 1998 to enhance access control including the use of color-coded visitor passes, vehicle decals, and a computer-based identification system capable of controlling access. The ID system was already implemented for employees, however, before such a system can be put into operation for the outstanding port community, proper legal standards and protocol must be adhered. Millions of dollars have also been endowed by the Authority for high mast lighting; a well-trained and certified police force, and fencing approved by customs. Even with the priority changes since 9/11 and the need for abrupt action, the Port of Charleston was prepared because they already provided a solid policy that was not available at other locations. The first steps more in-depth anti-terrorist prevention included measures put into practice to deter theft and drug-smuggling. Port security collaborates with local and state units to contest threats. In addition to working closely with HAZMAT specialists, local and state law enforcement agencies, and local fire departments, the Authority has also joined efforts with the U.S. Coast Guard, INS, USDA, and Customs in dealing with port interfaces with cargo, crew, and passengers. (South Carolina Port Authority, 2002)
Security of Bridges Bridges are under the jurisdiction of local law enforcement. Some are also equipped with video surveillance. For example, the Arthur Ravenel Bridge is fully equipped with several surveillance cameras recording from multiple viewpoints. The Coast Guard is reliable for guarding the waters underneath the massive structure.
Security of Nuclear plants, Theme parks, and Beaches These locations have personal security companies; however, local law enforcement agencies are available for assistance if needed. The security personnel hired for these locations are highly-trained individuals that would be the first responders in the event of an attack.
Security at Airports and other Transportation Systems There is a steady presence of security maintained outside and inside airports. It has been ordered that airports retain some type of law enforcement agency. Two months after 9/11, the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) procured inner airport security. This element of the Department of Homeland Security is accountable for the nation’s transportation systems. Partnering with local, state, and regional agencies, the TSA directs security measures for the highways, railroads, buses, mass transit systems, ports and the 450 U.S. airports. TSA must approve private security agencies implemented by airports. As of 2004, the US federal budget set aside $4.5 billion for aviation security. Airports, however, were only allocated $17 million. The largest percent went into increasing passenger checks and to expanding the network of systems utilized to detect explosives in luggage. (“U.S. Airport,” 2004) There are over 700 million travelers passing through airport security checkpoints yearly. This high volume encouraged TSA to recently begin introducing revisions to passenger screening protocols at checkpoints in order to improve security, enhance passenger experience, and to enrich the work experience for Transportation Security Officers. There are specific responsibilities of TSA, individual airports, and the airlines in order to maximize the line of defense. The TSA is responsible for: screening all passengers, carry-on and checked luggage, assessing threats to transportation, overseeing the implementation, and ensuring the adequacy of security measures at airports. Airports are responsible for: adopting and carrying out security programs that provide for the safety and security of persons and property, providing law enforcement support, preventing unauthorized access to security areas. Airlines are responsible for: security of their aircraft, in many cases at the larger airports airlines are responsible for security of their own terminals, work areas, and other facilities including cargo and maintenance hangers, and for training employees and contractors on security-related duties. (US Dept. of Homeland Security, TSA) Five different restricted areas with various security levels divide commercial airports: Security Identification Display Area, Secured Area, Air Operations Area, Sterile Area, and Public Area. Individual airport operators determine the boundaries of each area on a case-by-case basis dependant upon the airport’s physical layout. (Chambers, C., Kellogg, L., n.d.) This chapter described the local protective agencies along with the responsibilities of each. There are numerous police and law agencies active across the state. Every military installation has a military police unit, and the other mentioned destinations are equipped with their own security operations to be used in combination with each other when required. The next chapter will describe other federal measures of protection.

CHAPTER SIX FEderal protectION

After 2001 the United States government was forced to modify preventative and protection measures in order to provide US citizens with proper security agencies. These attacks coupled with the whispers of WMDs, President George W. Bush declared to fight terrorism. After the war was declared, there was an enormous amount of modifications made to the nation’s security. National lawmakers have enacted stiffer laws for people to enter the country; the government is now able to tap the phone calls of suspected terrorists, and the country no longer tolerates threats. The national government now trains state protection agencies in case of an act of terrorism. Also in the beginning 2001 the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century (Hart-Rudman Commission) suggested the government should create a National Homeland Security Agency to combine and improve the assignments given to the many agencies and department that was responsible for homeland security. But almost two weeks after the events in September 2001, President Bush stated that an Office of Homeland Security would be formed. As an executive department the Department of Homeland Security, under the US Code title 5, their mission is as follows:

The primary mission of the DHS is to prevent terrorist attacks within the US, reduce the exposure of the US to terrorism, reduce the damage, and aid in the resurgence, from terrorist attacks that transpire in the US, carry out all tasks of entities transferred to the Department, including by acting as a crucial point in response to manmade and natural occurrences and emergency planning, ensuring that the roles of the agencies and subdivisions within the Department that are not directly related to securing the homeland are not eliminated or abandoned except by a specific Act of Congress, ensuring that the general economic stability of the US is not demolished by efforts, activities, and programs aimed at securing the homeland, and monitoring associations between illegal drug trafficking and terrorism, coordinate efforts to dissolve such associations, and otherwise add to efforts to sanction illegal drug trafficking. The Department is also responsible for investigating and prosecuting terrorism; except as specifically presented by law with regards to entities transferred to the Department under this Act, primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting acts of terrorism will be vested not in the Department, but rather in Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies with jurisdiction over the acts in question. (Homeland Security Act 2002)

After suggestions the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3 created a Homeland Security Advisory System as an improvement to the security of the US to inform the nation’s citizens of the risk of an act of terrorism. This system engages different colors and levels to indicate the current threat condition. Each agency has specified measures of protection that are correlated with each threat condition that allows for the opportunity for flexible changes in they way the respond to changes in the national risk level. The three components of this system are the Color- coded Threat Level System, Homeland Security Threat Advisories and Homeland Security Information Bulletins. Each threat entails information about an occurrence or a threat as one of the nation’s critical landmarks or system is at risk of being affected. These alerts are able to be used as a form of communication for at risk infrastructure that can not operate in significance thresholds, specificity or timeliness of warning alerts. The alert is also used in conjunction with public safety officials and the domestic and international residents. After September 2001, the United States will remain at risk for yet another act of terrorism. Protection measures are organized in accordance to each threat level. • The alert is Green when the threat level is low and during this time generalized protection measures are in a affect in accordance with protection agencies specified responsibilities which are: refine and exercise pre-established strategies, ensure employees are properly trained on the alert system and the specified pre-established department protection measures, and installing a strategic plan that will make sure all facilities and regulated areas are undergo assessments consistently in order to determine how susceptible they are to acts of terrorism, and all likely processes are use to avoid this possible actions.

• The alert is Blue when the threat level is considered guarded. Government officials set this level when there is a general possibility that an attack can occur. Also under this alert all actions under the Green alert are still in place, but agencies also consider the following: ensuring the lines of communication among response agencies are in place, make necessary modifications to procedures conducted by response agencies, and provide US citizens with all pertinent information that can lead them to follow the necessary plans when necessary.

• The alert is Yellow when the threat level is at an elevated position. Under this condition the possibility of an attack is more realistic. The following are added to the measures that were previously enacted under the Green and Blue alerts: surveillance is increased in major areas, nearby authorities are briefed on emergency plans, decisions are made to decide whether modifications to pre-established plans are necessary, and pre-established plans are executed as necessary.

• The alert is Orange when the threat level is high. At this time all previously established plans are placed into action and along with those actions officials at all levels are in constant contact with military agencies: by making sure there is heightened security at public venues and events, evacuating and shifting worksites, placing heightened restrictions on threatened facilities.

• When the alert is Red the likelihood of an attack is severe. When this occurs all other established plans are placed in affect and during this time the following precautions are added: employees are appointed to facilitate the crucial needs during the emergency, giving specific assignments to response agencies and necessary resources are accessed, all means of transportation are monitored more closely, and certain government and public facilities are closed. (Department of Homeland Security) These alerts are changed according to the consultation meetings between the Presidents Homeland Security Assistant and the Attorney General. When necessary the Attorney General will also ask for suggestions from others that work in the Homeland Security Department. The following is a list of requirements that the Attorney General must follow: Assign the threat advisory with the help of the aforementioned others, say when inform the civilians of the threat alert, identify other information that is related to the threat and to other levels of government, form a system that allows all levels of government and private areas to receive information expeditiously, and with the help of the director of the CIA the Attorney General will also continue to assess threat level and make consistent reports to the top government officials. Although the Attorney General plays a major part in creating reactive and proactive plans all departments must create plans specific to their agencies in accordance to the broad plans set forth by the Attorney General. In the fiscal years of 2001-2006 the DHS allocated funds for many protective strategies. A major project funded during this time was Operation Noble Eagle. This project allowed combat airplanes to fly over and patrol some cities in the United States. Additional monies were also added to the creation of more DHS mission, that included protecting the nation against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) related terrorist attacks. Other than the DHS the United States has other organizations in place to assist in their protection. Some of these agencies are: the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Transportation Service Agency (TSA).
TSA
This agency was created to monitor the security checkpoints at airports in the US. These checkpoints are the passageway for over 600 million during a one year period, so this agency was added to make these passageways more secure. Employees of this agency are operating at over 600 checkpoints where they screen about 8,000 bags daily. The agencies modified the way passengers were searched while at the checkpoints. Some of the modifications included: more technology use during searches, signs to help passengers prepare for checkpoints and less traffic in specified areas. Nine years ago after the September events in was placed into law that airplane passengers be thoroughly searched to make sure they were not in possession of any harmful items. The TSA also works together with security agencies responsible for highways, mass transit, and maritime vessels. This agencies not only responsible for checkpoint securities, but during national events they assist in securing the United States air space. The heightened precautions are to deter any violent actions to be committed. Currently over 75% of global passengers have to undergo more strenuous checkpoints. The department now included full body scans, which are operating in some of the major US airports. Not only are they using body scans, but many items are no longer allowed in the passengers possession while onboard an airplane. Aerosol, liquids, and gel items are required to be packed in a checked bag or mailed to its destination. Passengers are no longer able to travel with the most common holiday items such as food contained in a liquid or syrup, but after being screen properly cakes and pies are still allowed. But, unlike before you must wrap your gifts after reaching your destination because guards have the right to unwrap them of security purposes. Some tips provided by the TSA are as follows: organize you carry-on baggage by layering your contents, pack larger electronics in your carry-on instead of your checked baggage, follow the 3-1-1 Rule while packing liquids in your carry-on, when possible pack coats into checked baggage, no wrapped gifts, undeveloped film belongs in your carry-on bag and will be hand searched to avoid x-ray damage, leave items home when you cannot determine if they are acceptable or not, limit piercing and where clothing that will be easy and comfortable to pass through security checkpoints, make sure you travel with all necessary information. (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) Remarks that may have once been overlooked will now cause a person to be detained. Noisy obnoxious travelers will not be tolerated. Many have voiced complainants about the modifications set forth by the TSA and more specifically the 3-1-1 Rule. (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) The agency created this rule after the bomb threat in mid 2006 in the UK. This bomb was liquid based and following that incident over 50 countries enacted the same rule. Anything can be taken on an airplane except for dangerous explosives and chemical, but the passengers must know how to pack their belongings. With over 600 million travelers using air travel during a year it is obvious that airplanes are definitely a permanent aspect in our lives. And with that amount of travelers the baggage count is large as well, so the TSA purpose to ensure the safety of these passengers. The agency screens every bag in US airports and they also check international passengers before they enter a US airport.
FBI
In the early 1900s, under the reign of President Theodore Roosevelt, the Special Agents organization was formed, but a year after its creation it was renamed the Bureau of Investigation. From its inception controversy surrounded the organization, because US residents was not comfortable with the fact that organization would not be limited by jurisdictions. At the time the organization was created its main purpose was to investigate land fraud, bankruptcy, peonage, national banking, antitrust and naturalization, however after the tragic events of 2001 the organizations added purpose was to aid in the protection against acts of terrorism. There mission states: Our mission is to identify and disrupt potential terrorist plots by individuals or terror cells, freezing terrorist finances, sharing information with law enforcement and intelligence partners worldwide, and providing strategic and operational threat analysis to the wider intelligence community. Over the past five years, we have dramatically strengthened our ability to combat terrorism. (U.S. Department of Justice) To accomplish this mission the FBI underwent major modifications. They have shifted resources, for instance agents that concentrated on criminal activities were separated and some began concentrating on terrorist activities. The creation of the Joint Terrorism Task forces was followed by the growth of 3,000 additional agents and police officers. Joint Centers were created, which was a milestone in sharing information between the HHS, FBI, DOE, CIA, DHS, DOD, etc. Support and Operational Response such as the Aerial team, which reacts globally to terrorist threats and acts was made possible. Centralized efforts to locate and dismember funding for terrorist were made possible with the formation of the Terrorism Financing Operations Section. Finally, concentration on WMDs resulted in the placement of WMD directors for each office. Other than fighting terrorism internationally the FBI must also combat domestic terrorism in the United States. This agency identifies and provides preventative measures to avoid acts of domestic terrorism; they must also investigate the acts when they have been carried out. Loosely they are looked upon as the on-site leader for the Unites States government while responding to a domestic incident. Due to the modifications of the FBI by the Nevada Joint Terrorism Task Force, four members of an anti-government organization were captured on charges such as weapons, federal money laundering and tax evasion.
CIA
In 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) with was later named the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) under the reign of President Truman. Then the CIA was responsible for organizing the United States intelligence activities and disseminating, evaluating and correlating opposition that are planning to target the nation. (“History of the,” 2002) At the end of 2004 then president, George W. Bush signed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act. This act reorganized the Intelligence Agency and in conjunction with the modifications to occupied positions the act is also responsible for creating the position of the Director of National Intelligence. This official supervises the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) and the Intelligence Community. (Central Intelligence Agency, 2007) The mission of the CIA is to assist the top policymakers in making decisions relating to national security, collect, analyze, evaluate, and disseminate foreign intelligence to, by following these steps: The CIA is responsible for identifying issues that are relevant to the security of the nation. The agency is given the responsibility to research plans created by terrorist groups, including the ways in which they plan to execute the use of their chemical or biological weapons. The CIA obtains, translates, and deciphers foreign periodicals and coded messages. Sometimes the agency must find foreign individuals to learn about their native country. They also have access to satellites and professionals who report what is found on the photographs. Assessing the whats, the whys, and the next step that will continue to provide a safe environment for the United States. The assessments are completed within specified time periods and they do not contain biases from politics and they are submitted to top officials by way of reports and oral hearings. DHS is responsible for making policies in reference to opposition, but they receive the necessary information from the CIA. The CIA is not to be confused with a law enforcement agency though they work alongside with the FBI in reference to counterintelligence and counterterrorism. (Central Intelligence Agency, 2007) Prior to the tragic incidents of 2001 the military, CIA, and FBI were the main protectors for the United States, but after September 2001 the DHS and TSA was created to aid in protection strategies. Combined the organizations are able to serve the nation at a maximum capacity. The nation is now more equipped to protect itself against acts of terrorism, especially not that they are able to communicate more efficiently.

CHAPTER SEVEN
RECESSION

By definition when an economy experiences a decrease in GDO they are considered to be in a recession. GDP, which is the abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product is on of several ways that economist evaluate the strength of an economy and it also provides the monetary value of services and goods created during a specified period. The U.S.’s 2000s recession started developing in the summer of 2000, and becoming the actual recession from March 2001 until November 2001. There were massive amounts of money invested in correcting the projected Y2K issues, which ceased following the beginning of 2000. This is seen as one trigger for the recession. It is also believed that since professionals made the decision to halt allocations for technology the stock market began to experience a decrease in the mid 2000s. In 2001 numbers showed a large surplus in budgets, causing increased deflation. Economist in Kenya suggested that the financial problems began because national leaders were hoarding money. It was also at this time when the preliminary high caused by the fast increase on money being invested globally into the worldwide web dropped to it its true position. The tragic events of 9/11 also caused mayhem in the US. Citizens bonded together for support, but spending reduced substantially. In addition, the corporate scandals of Worldcom and Enron sent Americans into a state of alarm. These factors were detrimental to the U.S. economy. At the end of 2007 the US housing market began to decline and it forced another economic breakdown for America. Immediately following this event, the decline caused realtors to change careers and several financial institutions had to close their doors. This time was also difficult for automobile companies and mortgage companies. Some of these professionals also found themselves in the unemployment line. Some researchers consider the nation’s current economic disparities to be the worse since WWII and they forecast the continuous plummet for multiple years.
Figure 9: [pic] Three years ago the stated had one of the worst GDP’s coming in at $28,364. An economist from Wachovia in Charlotte, Mark Vitner attributed the decreased GDP to the growth in population but the decline was not of importance unless it continued at that same rate in the future. But he also mentions that downturns of this magnitude translate to residents being unable to afford their living expenses. The stated made the decision to fight back against these downturns by increasing development and growth in places that produce expensive products. Such as the technical and professional service areas increased by .42% and utilities saw a .28% increase, which was the best growth rate in the nation according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis. A senior researcher analyst working with the South Carolina Department of Commerce advised, “Those industries that are creating that workforce have increased at a higher rate than the rest of the country, and that’s the kind of growth South Carolina needs to improve its per-capita ranking.” While manufacturing, construction, and financial areas felt some of its worse economic woes in 2008, other areas especially those surrounding the tourism industry either saw no change or they experienced growth. Also in this period reports showed that South Carolina’s GDP grew by .6% to $127 billion, which was close to the nation’s average of .7%. SC was also able to maintain a high credit score. The state was issued triple A ratings by Fitch, Poor’s, and Moody’s, but officials realize that if poor spending and increased debt continues the state will encounter further disparities.
FIGURE 10: [pic] This chapter discussed the economic woes experienced by the US since the 21st century. Spending is still trying to recover from the events that began prior to the year 2000, beginning with the Y2K repairs, September 11th and other numerous scandals. South Carolina made the needed adjustments by increasing development and growth in areas that provide expensive products, and creating a foundation ample for continued growth in the technical and professional service areas

CHAPTER EIGHT
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

Upon completion of this research it was learned that there are professionals who follow specific strategies in order to protect the mention sites, locations, and events. But a tragic act of terrorism would be detrimental to the health and life of South Carolinians. So since the tragic events that occurred in September of 2001 government officials made sure that the all levels of law enforcement can communicate effectively. With a more effective way to communicate, protection agencies are able to operate in the best interest of the citizens they took a vow to protect. Through extensive reading it was learned that there are many things that could have an affect on the state’s tourism. Citizens are not only participating in pleasure trips, but some in fact are traveling due to requirements put forth by their employers. Citizens will always remember the tragic events that took place in 2001, but then president, G.W Bush wanted citizens to continue living their lives without fear. Visitors enjoy vacationing in the state because of its rich history and it is a place where they can relax. Most visitors enjoy the fact that the state temperate averages about 65 degrees year round. Each region offers travelers a plethora of options when deciding on a place to visit. South Carolina will maintain its attractiveness due to its historical landmarks and the negative exposure received from state government officials. Though there has been a decline in the number of people traveling since the tragic September 2001 events, this state experienced encouraging adjustments. From 2002-2007 the state experienced an incline of 30% in the industry. Professionals have suggested that at the end of 2010 the industry will have revenue of 25.5 billion. Employment for the industry will increase to 253,600. According to the definition many will agree that the state has encountered terrorist like occurrences dating back to slavery and then the hate acts of the KKK. Eleven years ago Charleston, SC began to prepare itself in case of an act of terrorism. The city compiled the Research Planning Inc. of Virginia in order to name possible sites that would attract terrorist. (Nuclear Control Institute, 2001) By no means did they try to assume that they would be undefeated against any opposition, but their ideal was to prove that when individuals underwent the proper training would be more than able to protect the city. But, though the state has began preparing themselves for an act of terrorism the state does not appear to be at high risk for such occurrence in respect to other states that have larger and more popular cities, such as New York City. The researcher found that according to a list of major United States cities the first SC city listed is Charleston and it is number 225. So as the aforementioned information states terrorists would be more prone to attack one of the top ranking cities. Because of the state’s many attractions many tourist will continue to visits the area even during an elevated alert, reason being because more individuals are making reservations in more immediate areas, to reduce traveling costs. The state will also see increased visitors due to the addition of a year round cruise line. No matter what the situation travel has a place in the life of all citizens. Most of us are traveling to shop, appointments, work, other residences, events, and other occasions. Though many individuals have begun traveling closer to home, other will remain to choose airplanes as their means of from one place to another. But it was found that though there are many air travelers, the bulk of travelers prefer to use trains, cars, boats, and buses. The researcher also concluded that the mentioned protection agencies are more than sufficient to protect South Carolina in lieu of act of terrorism. Operating within the state is a system that assists its residents during such incidents where certain protocol needs to be followed. (SC Emergency Management Division) The state’s Citizen’s Guide to Terrorism was compiled to assure citizens that the state is dedicated to its residents and their safety. In earlier years, individual residents struggled to receive help from the national governing body because state agencies were not able to receive them when needed the most. But after much needed changes and the organization of the Homeland Security agency, agencies are able to communicate with limited issues. The Terrorist Advisory System allows individuals to understand what risk they face when choosing to travel by airplanes. Since September 2001, the alert for traveling by air remains at high alert. But with the high alert comes the higher level of security measures in place by all protection agencies. Nonetheless, the number of air travelers has continued at some rate for purposes of pleasure and business. It was not the intention of the alert system to scare citizens, but government officials wanted citizens to be able to decide how they wanted to travel. Though things have been put in place for tighter security, there will always be citizens who will refuse to fly or use any other type of public transportation while the alerts are high. The hospitality and tourism industry has displayed staying power during these economic downturns, ranking as the state’s top industry. Even during the recession, tourism has continued to have a positive impact on the state’s economy. Studies who that numerous amounts of the travelers that come to South Carolina are residents of nearby states, but the state also gets many international travelers. The regions in the state will continuously show themselves attractive to visitors from near and far. (New Carolina) And to make sure this occurs corporations in the state formed New Carolina, in order to bring these individuals that share the concerns for the state’s top industry together for the sole purpose of improving and maintaining the industry. Nationally recessions affect the way consumers spend, but this state has found ways to increase their tourism industry and make it number one in the state. As stated before the state saw an incline in the tourism numbers during 2002-2007 and this was after the recession that occurred in 2000. Also, though the state’s GDP was one of the lowest nationally, it had an incline of 60%. These facts do not appear to be detrimental to the state, but it is the belief of economists that if such activity becomes continuous the ending result will be detrimental. But with all the numbers and situations presented the economists will continue to argue that tourism will remain the top industry for the state.

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