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The Haitian Diaspora in the Bahamas
By Ria N.M. Treco Florida International University Department of International Relations April 17, 2002

Introduction Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with about 80% of the Haitian population living in abject poverty [1]. Many factors contribute to the economic status of this country including: lack of proper education, overpopulation, environmental problems, and subsequent lack of jobs. All of these factors must be pointed out in order for one to fully understand the reasons for the mass migration that is taking place from Haiti into other countries of the world and more specifically into the Bahamas. Haiti has one of the lowest adult literacy rates in the world with only 48.8% of the total population above age 15 being able to read and write simple sentences. According to the Human Development Report, Haiti ranks 134 out of 162 countries for the adult literacy rate. Furthermore, Oxfam International ranks only four countries in the world lower than Haiti for the availability of basic education for its people. There is inadequate healthcare in Haiti as well. In 1999, the US Agency for International Development in Haiti implemented new programs to make Haitians aware of family planning, however, only half the population of Haiti has access to these facilities. This is closely related to the problem of overpopulation in Haiti. Haiti is one of the most densely populated countries of the Western Hemisphere with upwards of seven and a half million people living on an area of 27,560 sq km. Due to the lack of education and overpopulation, Haiti is facing terrible environmental problems. Nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector and this is due to illiteracy giving most of them no other job options. The agricultural sector consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs about twothirds of the economically active work force. To make matters worse, a full 98% of the forest cover has been destroyed, and few new trees have been planted. Deforestation has caused massive erosion, salinity and sedimentation, which gravely affect marine resources. [2] Therefore, Haitians cannot find work even in the field that they are capable of working in. Haitians live in such horrible conditions that thousands of Haitians risks their lives year after year in search of a better life. Haitians desperate to escape economic hardship in Haiti set out on treacherous, shark-infested waters hoping to arrive in the United States of America. Some persons

spend three days in a speedboat and others spend three weeks floating in on much slower vessels. However, most of them end up here in the Bahamas and many die along the way. Brief History of Haiti as it relates to the Bahamas Understanding migration from Haiti, particularly to the Bahamas, implies knowing a basic history of Haitian and the Bahamian relations. Since aboriginal times Haitians constituted a part of the population in the Islands of the Bahamas. It has been historically proven that much of the heritage of the Bahamian people can be traced back to Haiti. According to Dr. Gail Saunders, the most prominent historian and archivist in the Bahamas, "the aboriginal people of the Bahamas themselves came, more or less immediately, from the northern part (which they called Haiti) of the large island Columbus was to christen Espanola". [3] For most of the seventeen hundreds (1700's) when the French controlled Haiti, Haiti was known as "America's bread basket" and was the richest colony in the Western Hemisphere [4]. During this time, trade and exchanging of products, such as salt and cotton, between the southern Islands of The Bahamas and Haiti was a normal occurrence. Inagua, an island in the southern Bahamas and Tortuga, located in the northern part of Haiti were especially active during this trading period. "Inagua was a good market for Haitian produce" and likewise "Haiti had the most active shipbuilding center" [5]. There appeared to be no Haitian immigration problem in the Bahamas because the movement of peoples from Haiti and the Bahamas flowed both ways. However, between the years 1791 and 1803, the occurrence of a great slave rebellion forced hundreds of colonists, their slaves and free blacks out of Haiti. Many left in search of freedom in the United States but ended up in the Bahamas. The rebellion resulted in Haiti gaining its independence in 1804. From 1804 -1957 there was not much documentation of the immigration of Haitians to the Bahamas. In 1957, Francois Duvalier was elected President of Haiti. In 1964, he declared himself president for life thus beginning the Duvalier dictatorship. With his rule came economic deterioration throughout Haiti worsening conditions for Haitians, especially those living in the countryside depending mostly on subsistence agriculture for survival. Haitians desperate for a better way of life, escaped Haiti in mass numbers beginning in 1957 until present and many of them have ended up in the Bahamas. This paper is a report on The Haitian Diaspora in the Bahamas addressing the economic, social, political and identity issues of the Haitian people in the Bahamas and their impact on The Bahamas. Additionally, this paper assesses which of two major migration theories best explains the Haitian Diaspora in the Bahamas. There is the "push and pull theory" where people decide to leave their homeland when conditions are no longer satisfactory and when conditions in another area are more attractive and "transnational migration theory" where migrants maintain ties with

their homeland as well as host country.

The Haitian Diaspora in The Bahamas Historically, the majority of Haitians that have fled Haiti to come to the Bahamas throughout the 1900's have been economic refugees. According to Dawn Marshall in her study "The Haitian Problem: Illegal Migration to the Bahamas", after an interview with Immigration officials in the late 1960's she learned that "most Haitians come from Port-de-Paix, St. Louis-du-Nord and Cap Haitian" which are all located in the North or Northwestern Departments of Haiti. This information is further supported by "a socio-religious study" taken on by a Catholic Priest named Gayot, which showed that at least two -thirds of Haitians in the Bahamas had come to from the Northwestern Department of Haiti. The first large influx of Haitians entering the Bahamas was during the late 18th century (more particularly from 1793-1804) when a slave rebellion occurred at Cap Francais (now called Cap Haitian). This rebellion was headed by Boukman and commanded by General Toussaint Louverture. "Thousands of armed slaves descended in fury upon the city, putting it to torch and routing the militantly royalist whites of Le Cap, driving them out to sea". [6] These migrants were primarily from the bourgeoisie, the French colonists, and their faithful slaves as well as a number of free blacks fleeing Haiti hoping to arrive in America. Sean McQueeny reported in his journal "The Haitian Problem at the end of the Eighteenth Century" that most persons fleeing Haiti were captured at sea and brought into New Providence as a result of Bahamian privateers - ships privately owned and crewed but authorized by a government during wartime to attack and capture enemy vessels. Privateers realized the high profits their business yielded, so they continued for years even after the government had declared an immigration problem in the House of Assembly in 1793. The second influx of Haitians coming to the Bahamas fled Haiti as a result of the Duvalier dictatorship regime. In the year 1957 military-controlled elections resulted in Dr. François "Papa Doc" Duvalier coming to power in Haiti. At this time the total number of Haitians recorded to be residing in the Bahamas was estimated about 1,000. However, the increase of poverty and the decrease in political stability in Haiti between the years 1957 and 1969 caused the number of Haitians migrating to the Bahamas escalate by approximately 20,000. The majority of these immigrants were from the lower classes populating Haiti's poorest regions. Many of these Haitians were in search of the United States and due to the tide, weather, and the location of the Bahamas ended up in the Bahamas instead. According to Immigration Officials a profitable business transporting Haitians from Haiti to the Bahamas has been going on for

sometime and continues today. The passengers would be charged large amounts guaranteed that they would arrive in the United States. However, they would be dropped off in the Bahamas instead. Some arrive believing they were in the United States and remained here for months before realizing that they are not. [7] The third major influx of Haitians began in 1985 when extensive protests against Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier began to circulate in Haiti. He had succeeded his father. but during the period of his rule Haiti's economic situation had worsened. People wanted the dictatorship in Haiti to end and as a result severe riots began throughout the island. Some persons remained in Haiti and fought, while others decided to take to the sea in search of a better life, just as their fellow countrymen had done years before. The rioting led the U.S. to arrange for Duvalier and his family to be exiled to France. Even though Duvalier is no longer in power, poverty still forces many Haitians to escape even to date. Statistics since the year 1986 show that the total number of Haitians arriving in the Bahamas was staggering. The Ministry of Immigration has provided the statistics for the year 2002 (from January to March) which show that over fifteen hundred (approximately 1,561) Haitians have arrived on Bahamian shores or have been captured by Immigration or Defense Force Officers at sea in the waters of the Bahamas. [8]

The "Push" Out of Haiti There is an obvious "push" out of Haiti as the numbers show that Haitians coming to the Bahamas has increased tremendously over the years. Information gleaned from personal interviews with Haitian and Haitian-Bahamian migrants, conducted on Grand Bahama and Nassau, Bahamas, from February 2002 til mid-April 2002, reported that the "push" out of Haiti was attributed to both political and economic factors with the economic factors as the major reasons. Interviewees posed four major reasons for this: 1. No work . As a result of the poor economy coupled with extreme environmental problems, finding work in Haiti is very difficult. According to the CIA world fact book, "nearly 70% of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming and employs about two-thirds of the economically active work force". When one examines the great number of persons dependent upon the agricultural industry, which is not a thriving industry in Haiti, one can clearly understand why there are difficulties in finding work. Additionally, those who do find work do not make enough money to escape the poverty-stricken lives they live. 2. Expectations of a more prosperous life in another country . Many Haitians leave Haiti expecting a more prosperous life, however many realize in the end that the odds for them prospering in other

countries are very low. In the Bahamas Haitians receive salaries that are a lot higher than salaries they would receive in Haiti, however when the cost of living is factored into the equation living is not as affordable as one would have imagined it to be. Adding to this most Haitians are employed in the low wage sector. 3. In order to give their families better opportunities in life. Haitians are a proud people who are family oriented and want the best for their families. Their children are especially important and family members will go to extreme measures for their families to live better lives, even if it means risking their lives in search of a new host country. More than this some Haitians refer to their children as "wealth" [9], thus viewing their children as a means to move up the social ladder. 4. Discontent with Haitian government . Due to Haiti's history of the Duvalier dictatorship regime Haitians have become discontent with the government. At the beginning of the third influx of Haitian migration, Haiti was in an unstable condition. Riots were taking place and people were very unsettled and uneasy as a result of "Baby Doc" refusing to terminate his dictatorship regime. Many fled at this time because they did not want to be ordered around any longer.

The "Pull" to the Bahamas According to the interviewees The "Pull" to the Bahamas was attributed to the following: 1. A Better Life. Many Haitians come to the Bahamas in search for a better life, however many of them end up living in conditions that are much worse than where they have come from. (see pictures attached). Additionally, the majority of Haitians feel that Bahamians treat them as inferior, thus adding to a psychological strain. 2. Proximity to Haiti. The Bahamas' most southern island called Inagua is just 400 miles north of Tortuga in Haiti. This is a rather short distance to travel in order to escape poverty in Haiti. Trips from Haiti to Nassau can take anywhere from 3 days on speedboat to three weeks on slower vessels. Trips via airplane are much shorter taking about 2 hours. 3. Existing Social Networks. Rather large Haitian communities have been established over the years on the three most populated islands of the Bahamas: New Providence, Grand Bahama, Abaco and Eleuthera. 4. Economic Opportunity. Haitians in Haiti hear that there is money to be made in the Bahamas. 5. Higher Income. Though Haitians are not paid a great deal of money in the Bahamas, they gain a far greater salary than they would have had they remained in Haiti. The average income in Haiti is

300 US dollars per year and many make a lot less than that (because Haiti's upper class is factored into that number). However, in the Bahamas the average income is 15,000 US dollars per year. In addition to this the Bahamian dollar is on par with the US dollar and Haiti's dollar is not.

The Size of the Haitian Diaspora in the Bahamas There is no accurate calculation of the number of Haitians living in the Bahamas. According to Immigration Officials, there are many undocumented migrants and for this reason the Census does not provide a valid count of the total number of Haitians living in the Bahamas. In the text "The Haitian Problem" by Dawn Marshall it explains "the migration of Haitians to the Bahamas has always been an illegal one, therefore it is impossible to give facts on the migration as a whole and such data as are available, represent only the consensus of those concerned in one way or the another". The Bahamas' Census reports for 1980 estimates that the total population of the Bahamas was approximately 240,000, there were 11,000 Haitians officially recorded in the Bahamas. More reliable estimates provided by the Grand Bahama Human Rights Committee in a press release state that there were approximately 40,000. Preliminary census figures for the year 2000 have just been released by the Department of Statistics showing that the Bahamas has a total population of approximately 303,000. Various estimates give the Bahamas a 25 percent Haitian population or greater which would translate to more than 75,000 persons. This is an alarming figure for any country, large or small. Adding to the problem of undocumented Haitians living in the Bahamas is the nature of the nationality laws of both the Bahamas and Haiti. Under Article 6 of the Constitution of the Bahamas, every person born after the 9th of July, 1973, shall become a citizen of the Bahamas at the date of his or her birth if at that date either of his or her parents is a citizen of the Bahamas. [10] Therefore, The Bahamas follows the jus sanguinis law of nationality literally meaning the right of blood. Where the nationality of the child follows that of one or both parents, irrespective of the birthplace of the child. If a child is born to Haitian parents in the Bahamas, that child does not automatically gain citizenship in the Bahamas. This is because the Bahamas does not recognize jus soli law of nationality literally meaning the right of birthplace and further explained as the place of birth determines ones nationality. Adding to this dilemma this is Haiti follows jus soli law of nationality and so when a child is born to Haitian parents in the Bahamas a child is not automatically a Haitian. Due to the law of nationality that takes precedence in each country we end up having a large number of "stateless" children. Therefore in the census many children are not factored into the total number because they are neither Haitian nor Bahamian.

Where Haitians Live in The Bahamas The Bahamas is a country of over 700 islands and cays that stretch from the United States in the North to Cuba and the island of Hispanola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) in the south. The Bahamas comprises an archipelago of islands providing many entry points into the country. This hinders immigration control, making it an extremely difficult task for Immigration officials and Bahamas Defense Force Officers. Haitians are scattered throughout the Islands of the Bahamas with its largest groups living on New Providence, Grand Bahama, Abaco and Eleuthera respectively. Haitians are culturally a very loyal, family oriented people and for this reason they tend to remain together. As a result of this, many Haitian communities have developed over the years. Haitians tend to live in low cost housing areas and shantytowns that are detached from the main city and which are in obscured locations. On New Providence the largest Haitian community is located in the Carmichael Rd. area about ten miles from the city of Nassau. Two other areas in Nassau that have a high concentration of Haitian citizens are Englerston and Fox Hill. On Grand Bahama the largest Haitian community is called Pinder's Point, which is almost exclusively Haitian. Other areas that show a strong Haitian presence are Eight Mile Rock, Lewis Yard, Treasure Cay, Pigeon Pea and the Mud are the most populated Haitian communities on Abaco. Finally in Eleuthera there are large clusters of Haitians living in The Bluff, Governor's Harbour and Rock Sound. There are some Haitians that have defied the odds and have prospered and live a middle class life in middle class areas of the country. However, this number is very small in comparison to the number of Haitians that live in the poorer areas of the Bahamas.

Haitian Diaspora Employment Patterns The majority of the third influx of Haitians arrived from the North West Department of Haiti, which is one of Haiti's poorest regions. Most of these migrants are peasants and thus take on menial jobs in agriculture, janitorial businesses and sanitation. However, those who are second and third generation Haitian-Bahamian glean from educational opportunities and "move up the social ladder". With added resources and education, these second and third generation HaitianBahamians are more equipped to move into leadership positions in the next ten to thirty years. Future research and longitudinal studies would substantiate this theory and prove interesting to pursue.

Obtaining Legal Status for Haitian Migrants The primary concern of Haitian immigrants living in the Bahamas is obtaining legal status in the Bahamas. There are three ways that Haitians can obtain legal status here: through a work permit, marriage or at the age of 18 applying for citizenship if born in one of the islands of the Bahamas. Since many Haitian-Bahamian children are "stateless" until they reach age eighteen (18), securing legal status prior to this poses difficulty legally and otherwise.

The Impact of Haitian Migration on The Bahamas Haitians have been coming to the Bahamas for hundreds of years and for many different reasons depending on the times. Haitians have definitely made an impact on the Bahamas in the economic, political and social spheres. The economic impact. Haitians place a strain on certain areas of the Bahamian economy as well as contribute to others areas. Haitians place a huge burden on government resources in that Haitians take advantage of free medical care in the government-owned hospital and clinics, as well as free education for their children who make up a large number of the total student population. On the other hand, Haitians fill a gap in the economic sphere that Bahamians would not because most Bahamians do not care to work menial, blue-collar jobs. "Haitian labor has contributed significantly to the building of the Bahamas, especially in forestry, farming and tertiary trades such as tailoring, barbering, gardening and domestic work, areas where Bahamians are unwilling to undertake."[11] Haitians have also, made significant contributions in building (see photos). The political impact. The political impact is difficult to define at this time, however, upcoming elections in the Bahamas may cause to surface current political implications. Many Haitians have attained citizenship over the past few years and are now eligible to vote. Haitians have not seemed to have aligned themselves to a particular political party, so in areas that were once deemed a "specific party's area" uncertainty concerning which party will dominate each area has arisen. Many second-generation Haitians who have gained citizenship are now able to vote as well. This research does not provide specific information in this area, although it is speculated to become available in upcoming years. The social impact. In the educational sphere - Haitian children have accounted for some of the top students in the school system. Many Haitian parents walk their children to school to ensure that they will attend and from school to ensure their children attend. Later parents oversee that schoolwork is completed. Clearly, the value of an education is evident by Haitian parents and passed onto their children in order to assure success. "In the Abaco school system children born to Haitian parents account for 95% of the student population."[12] In the environmental sphere - The

majority of persons employed in the low-wage job, menial jobs are Haitians and in this Haitians have contributed to the upkeep of the environment here in the Bahamas. However, in living areas that are predominantly Haitian, this is not the case (see pictures attached). Strongest Identity Factors: Haitians living in the Bahamas tend to identify most with the following social institutions (in order of importance) 1. The religious sector - more particularly the Christian movement. 2. Relatives and fellow Haitians 3. The school system 4. Sports - especially soccer Weakest Identity Factors: 5. Political party affiliation

Haitians tend to stick to themselves, unless they have already been assimilated into the culture. This is a result of the great prejudices against Haitian people that has been perpetrated over the years by political figures as well as the ordinary Bahamian citizen. Some Haitians are assimilating into the Bahamian culture. Years ago it was very easy to single out a Haitians based on dress and accent, now the second and third generation Haitians dress and speak the way Bahamians do and so it is very difficult to determine one's ethnicity.

Evaluating the Haitian Diaspora Migration Type One purpose of this paper is to determine which type migration would best serve as a model for the migration presented in this case: "push-pull" where people decide to leave their homeland when conditions are no longer satisfactory and when conditions in another area are more attractive or transnational migration where migrants maintain ties with their homeland as well as host country. Evidence supports that the Haitian migration to the Bahamas is a case of "push-pull" migration. Though transnational economic ties do exist through the sending of money to family and friends in Haiti, which is said to occur about once a month. Most persons who reported sending money send it with friends who are traveling to Haiti. Haitian owned transnational businesses like those that provide services particularly to Haitians are not common here in the Bahamas. These include money exchange services, cargo and shipping businesses. Haitians learn about the happenings in their country via Miami radio stations such as AM 1420, 1440, 1040 and 1320.

Information concerning Haiti is not readily available here in the Bahamas other than that which airs on news stations like CNN.

Conclusions It appears that, given the opportunity education and work afford, the Haitian people embrace these with ambition and value. Current immigrants accept menial jobs as they provide a better quality of life compared to their homeland opportunities. The highly esteemed educational opportunities, proved by high achieving Haitian students prove that yet another rung on the social mobility ladder is strongly grasped. Additional research is required in all areas where Haitians in the Bahamas are concerned. This is especially true because the Haitian community affects the way that Bahamians live and it will undoubtedly affect Bahamians in the future. Haitians will continue to migrate until they see positive economic, political and social changes in their homeland and the Bahamas will always be one of the top destinations due to the proximity to the United States and the social capital that has been established here. Further research examining and documenting the progress of the Haitian Diaspora in the Bahamas is sure to prove interesting and informative as the community continues to grow and integrate within the Bahamian society.

[1] 2000 Human Development Report: Demographic Report produced by United Nations Development Programme [2] UNESCO country report on Haiti: [3] Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People; Volume One: From Aboriginal Times to the End of Slavery Gail Saunders and Michael Craton [4] Economic and Human Development in the Caribbean Basin Dr. Ken Boodhoo [5] Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People; Volume Two: From the Ending of Slavery to the Twenty-First Century Gail Saunders and Michael Craton

[6] The "Haitian Problem" in the Bahamas at the close of the Eighteenth Century Publication in The Bahamas Historical Society Journal Vol. 16 No.1 October 1994 Sean McWeeney [7] Interview with former Haitian Senator now Bahamian citizen, John Chery [8] Report on Statistics of new Haitians in the Bahamas 2000-2002 (first quarter): Department of Immigration [9] Pride Against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States Alex Stepick [10] Report: Constitutional Dictatorship: A Call for Constitutional Reform Alfred M. Sears 1 June 2000 [11] The Haitian Question in the Bahamas Publication in The Bahamas Historical Society Journal Vol. 16 No. 1 October 1994 Alfred M. Sears [12] The Abaconian: Haitian Labor and Illegal Immigration Dave Ralph, Editor and Publisher 15 November 2000

Additional materials read during Research 1. Haiti - Haitian Refugee Mission October 1992 Beleaguered Report prepared at the Caribbean Human Rights Network Bridgetown, Barbados July 1993 (Revised) 2. "The Haitian Problem": Illegal Migration to the Bahamas Dawn Marshall Published 1979 Institute of Sociology and Economic Research, UWI Mona, JA 3. The Impact of Haitian Migration on the Bahamas: A Health Services Digest Health Information Coordinating Services Unit Ministry of Health and Environment 19 March 1994 4. Report on the 1980 Census Department of Statistics, Nassau, Bahamas 5. Report on the 2000 Census Department of Statistics, Nassau, Bahamas

6. Statistics provided by the Department of Immigration 2002 7. Demographic Information concerning Haiti according to the 2001 World Population Data Sheet produced by the Population Reference Bureau. HAITI

Population (millions) Births per 1000 Deaths per 1000 Rate of Natural Increase (%) Projected Population Change 2001-2050 %

7 33 15 1.7 70

8. Demographic Information concerning Haiti According to the 2000 U.S. Census Bureau and the Human Development Report 2001 HAITI

Life Expectancy at birth (years) Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 live births Adult Literacy (%)

49.2 97 48.8

Literature Review The most comprehensive piece of literature that I found that was directly related to my research has been a research project called The Haitian Problem: Illegal Migration to the Bahamas, published in 1979. It was conducted by Bahamian Researcher Dawn Marshall of the Institute of Social and Economic Research at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. It is a two hundred and forty (240)-page book that comprises historical information concerning both the Bahamas and Haiti. It includes her major research study of the Carmichael area (the area where

most Haitians reside) including three major surveys in 1969, 1970 and 1971. Marshall's book provides historical information, however; no major research has been done since that time. Today's statistics are quite different. Equally important and comprehensive is the book, Pride Against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States, by Alex Stepick. This text is extremely informative in that it provides an in depth look into the Haitian people and their culture. Another book used in my research was Islanders in the Stream, Volumes One and Two. These books proved useful as a historical guide. The Bahamas' most prominent historian and archivist, Dr. Gail Saunders, along with Michael Craton, a professor of history at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada wrote these books. Volume One develops a history of the Bahamas from aboriginal times to the ending of slavery. Volume Two provides pertinent information covering the ending of slavery to the twenty-first century. Although these books were historical in nature, there was no specific research concerning the Haitian issue. However, in the sections where Haitians were discussed, the information was indeed helpful. Two major journal entries were published in the Bahamas Historical Society Journal. The first journal entry, The Haitian Problem in the Bahamas at the close of the Eighteenth Century, written by Attorney at Law, Sean McQueeny. This article was written in 1994 and gives an in depth look at the Haitian problem at the close of the Eighteenth Century. It discussed how Bahamian privaterring proved to be the beginning of the problem of Haitian Immigration in the Bahamas and it sought to show the reader that Bahamians caused this problem on themselves. The second journal entry, The Haitian Question in the Bahamas, written by Attorney at Law, Alfred Sears, proved useful as it gave an account of how this immigration problem is affecting Haitians here in the Bahamas. Apart from the six major books and journal entries used in my research, a number of reports on statistics from the Department of Immigration and the Department of Statistics were used. Additionally, other newspaper and newsletter articles, which discussed the Haitian presence in the Bahamas, proved to be helpful in understanding the Haitian Diaspora in the Bahamas. Most of the research referred to the Haitian presence in the Bahamas as a problem. When one speaks of the "Haitian Problem in the Bahamas" he or she could be referring to a number of issues. Bahamians speak of the alarming percentage of Haitians living in the Bahamas, which accounts now for about 25% of the total population. Bahamians also refer to the second generation Haitians who have been assimilated into the culture and who at the age of 18 are gaining citizenship here and are now taking on more white -collar jobs. Bahamians see this as a threat to themselves and their Bahamian children. When Haitians refer to the problem they speak of the discrimination against them by the majority of Bahamians from politicians to ordinary citizens. Data

supporting these premises comes directly from much of my current research. More research and data collection is needed to further substantiate these issues.

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...Migration has been significantly reshaping the traditional social and economic structures of rural communities of this country. The livelihood activities of rural families are no longer confined to farming and are increasingly being diversified through rural-to-urban and international migration. With the development of trade and industry and the awareness produced by the mass media, rural poor are shifting towards the urban areas in order to improve their living standards and to search for better livelihood opportunities. The lack of employment opportunities in the rural areas and better employment prospects and infrastructure facilities in the urban areas motivate people to migrate to urban areas. In the rural areas, sluggish agricultural growth and limited development of the rural non-farm sector raises the incidence of rural poverty, unemployment and underemployment. Moreover, absence of non-farm employment, low agricultural production has resulted in a growth of seasonal migration. Seasonal migration is the migration for a limited period of the year when no farming activity is underway. As most of the high productivity activities are located in the urban areas, people from rural areas move towards town or cities with a hope to grab diversified livelihood opportunities. Migration primarily occurs due to disparities in regional development. The causes of migration are usually explained by using two broad categories, namely, push and pull factors. Studies conducted in...

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Migration one of the following essay 1 -There are four important factors that cause international migration flows: economic pressures; social networks and connections between migrant sending and receiving countries; immigration policies; and cultural perceptions people in developing countries have about immigration and immigrant receiving countries. Indicate which of these you believe is the most important and second most important factors and explain why. 2-You are the newly appointed immigration advisor to the Obama administration. You have been asked to prepare a brief report for the President outlining what type of immigration admissions and control policies he should adopt in order to provide the U.S. economy with the immigrant labor it needs and reduce illegal immigration. Based on what you have learned in this class, what mix of immigration policies would you recommend and why? 3-Do the positive economic consequences of immigration outweigh its negative socioeconomic consequences for unskilled immigrants or vice versa? Think not just in terms of the wages immigrants receive, but also the type of jobs they do, the labor they provide, their long-term socioeconomic mobility, and how they are treated/perceived by mainstream American society (you do not have to necessarily focus on all these issues). This question is asking you to weigh the pros and cons of immigration for the immigrants themselves, not for American society. 4-Do you think negative public opinion toward...

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