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Mtech Thesis


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1.1 General The micro-emulsion inks have a wide range of applications in industry. The ink used earlier for printing purposes contributes to pollution in environment. The pollution is by means of emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are present in the form of an aliphatic solvent. Emission of VOCs from these solvents and their discharge in waste streams are quantifiable. For example a typical medium size cold – set web plant uses 40,000 kg per year of the ink of which 6000 kg is lost as emissions. The plant uses over 10,000 kg per year of cleaning solutions all of which is lost in atmosphere. A typical newspaper uses 100,000 kg per year of ink and emits over 8000 kg of volatile solvents (Maji, 2003). VOC when released into the atmosphere participates in the atmospheric photochemical reactions. Ozone is produced at the ground level when oxides of nitrogen and VOCs react in the presence of sunlight. This is a major component of urban smog, which at elevated levels causes a potential hazard to humans, plants and animals. To overcome the problems of emissions due to solvent-based inks and cleaning of presses, a new type of ink based on vegetable oil has been developed which is biodegradable and environment-friendly. It does not contain aliphatic solvents, and hence its use produces virtually no emissions during printing. Also, this ink contains vegetable oil (castor-oil)-based alkyd resins, which are biodegradable and generate no waste-water threat of a secondary pollution during washing of presses. The main components of an ink are oil, a resin, and a spectrum of other species including pigments. The oil and resin are the most important components. The keys to the new ink's value are not only its strong performance in printing, but also its kinetics during clean-up. It is hoped that in future, these inks will become

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