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Pakistan Movement

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Ideology of Pakistan

The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state.

The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. The Muslims believed that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are two social orders that produced two distinct cultures. There is no compatibility between the two. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims are not confined to the struggle for political supremacy but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart.

The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Evolution of ‘Two Nation Theory’
Concept of Muslims as a Nation developed before the establishment of Pakistan. Pakistan was the product of this concept of nationhood rather than Pakistan creating a concept of nationhood. Retrospectively the Muslim nationalism emerged with the advent of Islam that introduced new principles pertinent to every sphere of life. It pledged the redemption of the humankind establishing a benign society based on Qur’anic teachings. The beginning of the Muslim nationalism in the Sub-Continent may be attributed to the first Indian who accepted Islam. The Arab traders had introduced the new religion, Islam, in the Indian coastal areas. Muhammad bin Qasim was the first Muslim invader who conquered some part of India and after that, Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks and opened the gate to preach Islam. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri, Miran Hussain Zanjani etc. entered Sub-Continent. They, rejecting the vices in the Indian society, presented the pure practical picture of the teachings of Islam and got huge conversions. Qutub-ud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in India that followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties. Thus a strong Muslim community had emerged in India who had its own way of life, traditions, heroes, history and culture. Islam could not be absorbed in Hinduism. Deen-e-Ilahi, Bakhti movements, etc. created reaction amongst the Muslim ulama to preserve the pure Islamic character and save it from external onslaught. Role of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and others is noteworthy. Equality and social justice inspired conversions to Islam.

The British won over the Muslim rulers due to the industrial and scientific developments and modern war strategy. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims who were held responsible for the rebellion by the British. The Muslims were put into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the Muslim nationalism. The Muslim scholars sought to reform the teaching of Islamic law and to promote its application in a Muslim society. The prominent name among them is Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) who awakened and guided his community well in time. His educational drive, the Ali-Garh movement, proved to be the best means of social mobility for the Muslim gentry under colonial rule.

In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the British. The Congress worked and helped the British rule. Sir Syed advised the Muslims not to join it because, he thought, the Muslims were not in position to involve into the anti-government activities. It has been argued that Sir Syed's fear of Hindu domination sowed the seeds for the "Two Nations Theory" later espoused by the All-India Muslim League, founded in 1906 and led to its demand for a separate state for the Muslims of India. Sir Syed argued that modern education and non-political activities might be the key to Muslim advancement. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western political lines.

All India Muslim League had been founded in Dhaka to promote loyalty to the British and to protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India. Thus the concept of
‘separate electorates’ was put forward to dawn a new day for the Indian Muslims.

The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations.
The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.
Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards.

Hindi-Urdu Controversy
Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims. Hindu nationalism was rival to the Muslim nationalism. The Indian nationalism forced Muslims to organize themselves politically to defend their interests effectively. After 1857, Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the major assault by the Hindus on Muslim heritage and legacy of the great Muslim Empire. Hindus were biased against Urdu as it was the Muslims’ language. They demanded Hindi as the official language replacing Urdu. There were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in Banaras in 1867. It was the start of the Hindi-Urdu controversy. On the very issue, Sir Syed foretold about the unstable future of Hindu-Muslim unity. Hindus struggled vigorously to replace Urdu by Hindi in the offices. This enhanced the importance of the sense of Muslim separatism.

The Muslim nationalism is manifested with the sublime principles to implement like:

1. Rule of Law, socio-economic justice, equity and fair play.

2. Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste, sect, religion or region.
3. Religious and Cultural tolerance.
. Respect for human dignity and rights. 5. Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions.

These principles are enshrined in the constitutions. We ought to work towards realization of these goals in reality and create institutions and processes that reflect these principles and values.
The Aligarh Movement

The War of Independence 1857 ended in a disaster for the Muslims. The British believed that the Muslims were responsible for the war of 1857 and therefore, they were subjected to ruthless punishment and merciless revenge. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their enemies because they had ousted them from power. With the war of 1857 this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Thus the Mughal rule came to an end and the sub- continent went directly under the British crown.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan made modern education the way to progress

After the Muslim rule, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy restricted Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English as the only medium of instruction as well as the official language in 1835. A wrong attitude of everything modern and Western, and disinclination to make use of the opportunities opening under the new regime was created among the Muslims. This tendency, had it continued long, would have proved disastrous for the Muslim community.

Such were the days of despair and despondency when Sir Syed appeared on the horizon of Muslim India to rescue them. Sir Syed had the conviction that regeneration of the Indian Muslims had not at all visualized that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e. an era of science and learning which was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for the regeneration of the Indian Muslims, which brought a complete orientation in their lives. He tried to transform Muslim minds from medieval outlook to a modern one.

Hali and Shibli were also associated with the Aligarh Movement.

Sir Syed’s first and foremost objective was to modernize the Muslims following the Western cultural values that could create friendly atmosphere for the two communities. He motivated his community to learn the Western philosophy and English literature to get along with the ruling people.
Therefore, in order to fulfill this desire he started the Aligarh movement. He had two immediate objectives in view: 1) To remove the state of tension between the 2)
Muslims and the British government, and 3) 2) To induce them to get jobs and other facilities under the new government. 4) To him, this was the only way for the Muslims to prosper.
The ideas of Sir Syed may be summed up as following: 1. To create an atmosphere of mutual understanding between the British government and the Muslims
2. To motivate the Muslims to learn Western education 2. 3. To persuade Muslims to abstain from agitational politics
Fortunately, Syed Ahmad Khan was able to attract a number of sincere friends who shared his views and helped him. Among them were well-known figures like Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk, Nawab Viqar ul Mulk, Hali, Shibli, Nazir Ahmad, Chiragh Ali, Mohammad Hayat, and Zakaullah. All these personalities advocated the cause set by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Some English professors like Bech, Morison, Raleigh and Arnold also contributed greatly in building up the Aligarh college into a first rate institution.

Syed Ahmad launched his educational movement by setting up Gulshan School at Muradabad - 1859; Victoria School at Gazipur in 1863; Scientific Society for the translation of English works in the native language, Urdu, at Aligarh in 1864; Aligarh Institute Gazette imparting information on history - ancient and modern, science of agriculture, natural sciences, physical sciences and Advanced Mathematics in 1866; Committee Striving for the Educational Progress of Muslims - 1870; ohammedan Anglo-Oriental School (MAO) at Aligarh in 1875 at the pattern of English public schools and later raised to the level of college in 1877 and university in 1920; Mohammedan Educational Conference (1886), which met every year to take stock of the educational problems of the Muslims and to persuade them to get modern education and abstain from politics; it later became a political mouthpiece of the Indian Muslims and the forerunner of the All India Muslim league.

Besides his prominent role in the educational uplift of the Muslims, Syed Ahmad Khan’s writings played important role in popularizing the ideals for which the Aligarh stood. His Risala Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-Hind in 1858; and other writings as Loyal Mohammedans of India; Tabyin-ul-Kalam and Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya rooted out the misunderstandings about Islamic teachings and helped create a cordial relation between the
British Government and the Indian Muslims and also helped to remove the misunderstanding about Islam and Christianity.

It was this platform from where Syed Ahmad Khan strongly forbade the Muslims to join the Hindu dominated political party, the Indian National Congress. He regretted the Urdu-Hindi controversy initiated by Hindus and predicted that both the nations could no longer live together. He stood for reserved Movement theory.

seats for Muslims and also promoted the idea that Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nations, which led to the Two Nation

Syed Ahmad Khan’s Aligarh Movement played a significant role to bring about an intellectual revolution among the Indian Muslims. Thus Aligarh Movement succeeded in achieving its major objectives and boosted up the depressed Muslim community to the real status of nation.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and His Contributions

The great emancipator of the Indian Muslims Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born at Delhi in 1817. This is the period when the great Mughal Empire was close to a complete collapse. Sir Syed’s family had already joined the East India Company and his maternal grandfather served in Iran and Burma under the British government. Sir Syed got interest in English from his maternal family. SM Ikram writes, “For this insight into the affairs of the state and first contacts with Western learning and civilization he was indebted to his maternal grandfather…” (S. M. Ikram, Modern Muslim India, p.18). Sir Syed was very healthy by birth and his grandfather remarked: “A Jat has been born in our family.” (Ibid., p. 19) The death of Sir Syed forced him to join the British as head clerk in 1839. The death of his brother made him serious and energetic to face the neuroses of life courageously. Another event that changed him entirely was the War of Independence in 1857. In 1841, he passed examination and became sub-judge. At the eve of the War of Independence he was performing the duties as sub-judge in Bijnore. He established educational institutions and after coming at Aligarh he rejuvenated his aspirations to work for the depressed Muslims of the Subcontinent. He devoted his entire life for this purpose to bring the Muslims close to the British. He died on March 27, 1898 and was buried in Aligarh.

His Services
He took responsibility of the Indian Muslims when they had been thrown in backwardness, depression andn humiliation. The British held them criminal of the War while the Hindus had won the British being anti-Muslim force. In such environment, Sir Syed guided his community to rejoin the life. To Dr Qalb-i-Abid, “Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was among a very few leaders produced by Muslim India, who like Mohammad Ali Jinnah made a tremendous contribution in guiding the destinies of the Indian Muslims.” (Dr Q. Abid, Muslim Struggle for Independence, p. 11.)

Sir Syed and Politics
In the political arena, Sir Syed carved numerous successes; he eradicated misunderstandings between the Muslims and the British infused due to the past particular incidents. Awakening among the Muslims about the political ups and downs and co-existence in the presence of other nations in India was another contribution of Sir Syed. He motivated the Muslims to absorb the modern education of the West because this was the very motive of the Western expansion in the world. He visualized the bright future of the Muslims if they engaged themselves in the Western learning.

Sir Syed won the British confidence and cordial relationship by saving their lives during the War of Independence. He utilized this relationship for the betterment of the Muslims. It was a subtle situation because the government had put the War crimes on the Muslim shoulders and assaulted their every aspect of life: “These events were a trauma for the Muslims; …the methods used by them shocked the civilized world. The detestation of Delhi as a centre of Muslim culture was horrendous; Bahadur Shah Zafar…was exiled to Rangoon; Lt. Hodson shot three Mughal princes and later 24 princes were tried and executed; a vast ocean of blood there was; Some Muslims were shot dead and their dead bodies were thrown into the river Jamna…” (Ibid., p. 14). All Muslims were ousted from land, property and employments that made them third class citizens of India. This created revengeful sentiments among the Muslims who detested British, their culture and civilization. Sir Syed was of the view that British were a civilized, educated, wise and disciplined nation and occupied India with the new war strategy and munitions that could not be matched by the locals and particularly by the Muslims. Therefore at the juncture the Muslims should mould themselves according to the pace of time to avoid more disaster.

Sir Syed published Loyal Mohammedans of India and Risala Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-Hind that helped both the nations to redress their grievances. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded but Sir Syed warned the Muslims from the sinister aspirations of the Hindus. Another factor was that he intended the Muslims to abstain from the politics that could result in friction with the ruling nation.

Urdu-Hindi Controversy
Urdu grew as common language of all the Indians regardless of origin or religion but in 1867 the Benarsi Hindus started campaign to replace Urdu by Hindi. To gain the objectives, they declared numerous organizations, which discouraged Sir Syed who said to Shakespeare that since now both the nations could not live together. Later the followers of Sir Syed tried their level best to save Urdu language. Mohsin ul Mulk was the outstanding person who organized the Muslims in defense of Urdu.

Muslims-as a Nation
Sir Syed used the word ‘nation’ for the Muslims. Some writers criticize that he declared Hindus and Muslims one nation. But as a matter of fact, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity that meant
‘the working relationship’ between the two nations as once he said: “Hindus and Muslims should try to be of one mind in matters which affected their progress.” He favored separate electorate for the Muslims in 1883 saying that the majority would override the interests of the minority. (P. Hardy, pp. 136-37)

United Indian Patriotic Association
In 1888, he set up the Patriotic Association to meet the propaganda of the Congress. Muslims and Hindus joined the Association. It advocated the Muslims’ emotions.

Mohammedan Defense Association
In December 1893, Sir Syed founded the Association. Its main purpose was to protect the political, religious and social rights of the Muslims.

Sir Syed was great because he contributed greatly to the Muslim struggle for identity. Otto von Bismarck served the German nation with the help of all government sources but Sir Syed did the same without all this. To Khalid Bin Sayeed, “Many tributes have been paid to Sir Sayyed, particularly by modern educated Muslims for being daring enough to put forward such views in an age which was by no means liberal or tolerant.” (Dr Khalid Bin Sayeed, Pakistan, the Formative Phase, p. 17).
Major Political Developments 1857-1918 Major Political Developments 1857-1918

The year 1857 brought decline to the Muslim rule in India. Muslims and Hindus participated in the War of Independence but the British held only Muslims responsible for the rebellion. The Muslims were persecuted ruthlessly and left at the mercy of time. The post war era was disastrous for the Muslims but some personalities emerged on the national scene and played excellent role to guide their people in this critical situation. The Central Mohammedan Association of Justice Amir Ali Syed and the Aligarh movement are very prominent in this regard. Their efforts for revival of the self-identity and political positioning in the Indian society enabled them to face any challenge in the future.
Some important issues have already been discussed in the previous lectures. So a brief reference to events in historical context may be given:
• Decline after the 1857 Uprising

• Sir Syed and his colleagues’ efforts for revival
• Removal of misunderstanding between the Muslims and the British
• Educational movement or acquisition of modern knowledge and English
• Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the issue that unearthed the hatred and enmity of
Hindu community towards the Muslims.
• Formation of the Congress was a method to incorporate the Muslims in Hinduism. It popularized the agitational politics that Muslims could not afford because they were still recovering the past gaps.
• Hindu Revivalist movements mostly targeted the Muslims that accelerated the pace of widening the gulf between the two nations.
Events Since the Beginning of 20TH Century Partition of Bengal, 1905
2. Simla Deputation, 1906 1. 3. Formation of the Muslim League, 1906 2. 4. Changes in the Goals of the Muslim League, 19135. Lucknow Pact, 1916 3. Partition of Bengal: 1905 4.
United Bengal’s area covered 189,000 sq. miles with 80 million populations. Dr Abdul Hameed writes in his book, Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was imperative even if Curzon had not initiated it. A Lt. Governor had problems in looking after the eastern areas. Mainly Muslim suffered because of the rotten administration by the British. Before 1905, many proposals of partition of Bengal had been under consideration but Lord Curzon decided to practicalise this administrative scheme. East Bengal became incidentally a Muslim majority province having 13000000 out of 31000000. West Bengal was a Hindu majority province. Muslims were very happy on the partition as this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly an opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly but Hindus retaliated furiously saying it the division of motherland. The Congress joined the anti-partition movement. They started widespread agitation, violence and boycott of foreign goods. The main reason of Hindu protest was that they had loosened grip over the eastern parts.

Annulment of the Partition on 12 December 1911 5. The British government revoked the partition to avoid trouble on the visit of King George V. The Muslims were disappointed by the government response to the violent strategy of protests adopted by the Hindus. The Simla 6. eputation 1906 7.
In fact Simla Deputation was in line with a kind of thinking that was developing amongst the Muslims during that time i.e. they had certain interests and they must stand up to protect their rights and unless they do that that objective would not be achieved. The Simla Deputation of
1906 was the first systematic attempt on the part of the Muslims to present their demands, to the British government and to seek their acceptance. The Simla deputation comprised 35 Muslims from all over India. It was a galaxy of Muslims leaders from all the provinces, from one end of India to the other and it had Muslims of all background. Therefore, when in 1906, this deputation called on the Viceroy, it was the most representative Muslim delegation. This delegation was led by Sir Agha Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Malik served as a secretary and this delegation met the Viceroy in Simla that was why it was called as Simla Deputation. The memorandum which they presented was a kind of demands which were the uppermost in the minds of the Muslims at that time. The delegation emphasized that the Muslims should not be viewed simply in numerical terms but they should take into account their historical importance and the kind of contribution the Muslims had made to British India and keeping in view that importance they should work towards accommodating their demands. The delegation emphasized that democratic principle should be introduced keeping in view the peculiar conditions and circumstances of India. The diversity, the fact that there different kinds of people living in India and the fact that the Muslims consider themselves to be a separate entity, all these things had to be taken into account because the India was not a homogenous amalgamated or monolithic political identity. It was a political identity comprising diversity, divergence in view, divergence in outlook and when you introduce some kind of system then these realities had to be accommodated. In view of this submission they presented some demands:
Representation more than their population because of their importance.
Separate electorate eservations of Muslims seats in government jobs.
Special share in Municipal or district boards University senates and syndicates
Muslim representation in Viceroy Executive Council.
Muslim University at Aligarh.
The Viceroy was sympathetic towards the demands. It encouraged the Muslims to launch struggle for their rights parallel to the Indian National Congress but it required an organized platform.
Formation of the Muslim League in Dhaka: December 30, 1906

Time had come to formally organize the Muslims after the success of the Simla Deputation. The Muslim leaders desired to create a permanent political forum. After the meeting of the Mohammedan Educational Conference, the Muslim leaders met to set up the All India Muslim League. Wiqar-ul-Mulk chaired the meeting. Nawab Salimullah proposed Muslim League and Hakim Ajmal Khan and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan seconded.

In the Karachi session Dec. 1907 its constitution was approved and in March 1908 at Aligarh, Agha Khan was formally elected its president.

London Branch: May 1908
Justice Amir Ali Syed organised a branch of Muslim League at London and responded effectively to the misunderstandings and conspiracies of the Hindus against the Muslims.

GOALS:
1. Protection and promotion of political rights and interests of the Muslims.
2. Cooperation with other communities without prejudice to the above goal.
3. Fostering sense of loyalty, among the Muslims, towards the government
4: Change in the Goals of the Muslim League 1913

Important developments occurred during the first decade of the 20th century like annulment of the Partition of Bengal and Western aggression towards Muslim countries, Balkan wars, Libya-Italy war, Demolition of the mosque in Kawnpur (1913), etc. weakened Muslim faith in the British. This led to a major drift in the Muslim League’s policy. In 1913, the League changed its goals:
• Self government under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in India.
• Good relations with other communities’ cooperation with any party working for similar goals.
This change brought the ML and Congress closer. In this way the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslims set in. The role of the Quaid-i-Azam is highly noteworthy to bring the Congress and the Muslim League to the table. He joined the Muslim League in 1913.
Lucknow Pact, 1916
The Lucknow pact was the product of Hindu-Muslim unity envisaged by M. A. Jinnah. In December 1915, the ML and Congress met separately in Bombay. Both the parties set up committees for making a scheme for constitutional changes in consultation with other political parties. ole of the Quaid-i-Azam
Jinnah did a lot to unite the two nations along with the recognition of the rights of Muslims. Meeting of both parties held at Lucknow in 1916. The constitutional proposals were approved: 1. One Third seats for Muslims in the Imperial Legislative Council.2. Separate Electorate
3. Half members of the Executive Council to be elected by the Imperial 2. Legislative Council. 3. 4. Commissioned ranks of the army for Indians. 4. . Expansion of Provincial Legislative Councils. 5. 6. Half members of the Governor’s Executive Council be elected by 6. Provincial Legislative Council 7. 7. Weightage to minorities in provinces. 8.
Gains from Muslim Point-of-view 1. Separate Electorate
2. One Third Muslim seats in Central Legislature.
3. Unofficial bill, if opposed by three-fourth members of a community, it will not be passed. 2.
August 20, 1917 Announcement by British Government
Secretary of State Montagu promised for: 1. Greater association of Indian in all branches of government.2. Responsible government 2. 3. Induction of Indians in the commissioned ranks. 3. Conclusion:
The historical struggle of the Muslims confirmed their identity. They organized their political party to address the demands. They also got recognition by the Hindus as a separate nation. The British accepted their role in the political domain002

- The Khilafat Movement The Khilafat Movement

The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.
Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstrations, boycott, and other pressure by the two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.
Goals:
1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.2. Territorial solidarity of Turkey be preserved.3. Control of holy the places should not be given to non-Muslims.

Dimensions:
The writings of the Muslim intellectuals provoked the sentiments for the preservation of Khilafat and retention of the Muslims control of the holy places. The Muslims journalism played a vital role to steer the direction of the struggle. Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Comrade and Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. were the prominent newspapers and magazines which performed their duties to express their resentment. The Allies imposed humiliating terms on vanquished Turkey.
Protests in India:
All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:No participation in victory celebrations.
Boycott of British goodsoon Cooperation with the Government
The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919. Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Jauhar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920.

Rowlett Act, 1919
Rowlett Act was a black law introduced in India. To the law, the government got authority to persecute any Indian and the arrested had no facility of legal assistance and right to appeal just as the ‘Lettres de Cachet’ in France before the French Revolution. Jinnah resigned from the central legislature as a protest.

Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919
The people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar but General Dyer opened fire to disperse the throng that cast a huge human casualties (379). It is considered one of the great tragedies in India. In 1940, by killing Governor Punjab, Sir Michaal O’ Dayer, ‘Ram Muhammad Singh Azad’ got revenge of the Indian massacre.

The Nagpur Session of the Congress (Dec. 1920) approved non-cooperation with Government but Jinnah opposed and left the Congress because he was against the use of extra-constitutional means of protests.

Non-Cooperation:

• Return Titles.
• Boycott of courts and educational institutions.
• Resign from jobs.
• Later resign from police and military jobs. Refusal to pay taxes.
Khilafat Conference, Karachi, July 1921In the session the participants expressed their loyalty to Turkish Sultan. They decided to continue the agitation and supported Attaturk to expel foreign forces from Turkey. ijrat Movement 1920-21
The Indian ulama (religious leaders) declared India ‘Darul Harab.’ Darul Harab means the place (country) where Muslims are not allowed to perform their religious practices. In the said situation, the Muslims should migrate to the nearest safe place. The ulama issued verdicts to go to Darul Islam, Afghanistan. There was an impression that King of Afghanistan would welcome them. So the migration took place at large scale. Initially Afghans welcomed them. Later, they closed the border and pushed the migrants back to the Indian territories. It resulted in loss of lives and money. Many died during this mission. Some went to Soviet Union from Afghanistan because they had nothing in India now.

End of the Movement lah Revolt Malabar Coast, near Kalicut
Moplahs were the descendents of the Arab Muslims settled in the Sub-Continent even before the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim. In August 1921, they revolted against Hindu landlords whose treatment was very brutal with them. Later this clash changed as Moplahs versus the Police and Hindu. This embittered the Hindu-Muslim relations. here was an increase in violence day by day and the Chorachori Incident (UP) in February 1922 worsened the situation. The Congress volunteers set a police station on fire and 21 policemen were killed. Gandhi suddenly called off the movement.
Developments in Turkey
In 1922 Attaturk emerged as a national leader and restricted powers of Sultan. Next he was appointed Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly. In March 1924, Khilafat was abolished. This caused a widespread resentment among the Indian Muslims. They sent delegations to Turkey but failed to achieve their objectives.

Conclusions:

1. It was re-affirmation of the reality that religion is a mobilizing force and especially Islam has mobilization capacity to organize masses.

2. It was the movement launched on the basis of extra-territorialism. Later, no such movement but Pan-Islamic sentiments continued.
. It resulted in the sufferings of the Muslims
. Hindu-Muslim unity proved short-lived.
Reactivation of the Muslim League and other Muslim organizations to restart their activities as a separate nation was the great outcome.

Muslim Politics in British India: 1924-1935 Muslim Politics in British India: 1924-1935
1. Delhi Muslim Proposals
2. Nehru Report
. Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen Points
4. Simon Commission
5. Round Table Conferences
6. Constitutional Proposals

Backdrop:
The Khilafat movement brought Hindu-Muslim communities to cooperation. The leaders made the efforts to revive harmony for preparing constitutional proposals.

1: Delhi Muslim Proposals: March 1927

Important Muslim leaders on the initiative of the Quaid met in Delhi to discuss constitutional and political issues. The major demands were:

• Punjab and Bengal: statuary Muslim majorities
• No Weightage in provinces
• Sind to be separated from Bombay
• Constitutional Reforms in NWFP
• One-third seats for Muslims in Central Legislature
• On communal issues, no law will be passed if three-fourth members of the concerned community oppose it.

If these demands are accepted, they will give up ‘separate electorate.’ Subsequently, the Muslim League was divided in the Punjab, Shafi League and Jinnah League. Sir Muhammad Shafi opposed Jinnah on the issues:

• Separate electorate
• Attitude towards the Simon Commission. Jinnah continued his unremitting efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity.

2: The Nehru Report: 1928
The main objective was to constitute proposals for the Indian Constitution. The Congress called All Parties Conference that appointed a 10-member committee in May 1928 under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru and Secretary ship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

Recommendations that threatened Muslim interests are:

• No Separate electorate
• No One-third seats for Muslims in Central Assembly
• No reservation of seats for Muslims in Punjab and Bengal. In Hindu- majority provinces, the Muslims may be given seats according to population
• Sind to be made a province if it can bear its expenses. Balochistan, NWFP were accepted to be given constitutional status on certain conditions.

Quaid-i-Azam tried to get amendments in the Report in the All Parties Conference in Calcutta but did not succeed. This is the very moment when Jinnah remarked, “it is parting of the ways.” He presented the 14 points as a Muslim leader.

3: Jinnah’s Fourteen Points: 1929
1. Federal system with residuary powers with the provinces
. Provincial autonomy.
3. Separate electorate for Muslims.
4. Effective representation to minorities in the provinces but the majority should not be reduced to minority
5. One-third representation of Muslims in Central Legislature.
6. One third Muslim representation in cabinets.
7. No changes in the boundaries of the Punjab and Bengal that would adversely affect Muslim majority.
8. Religious freedom to all.
9. No law will be passed if three-fourth elected members of a community declare that it is against their interests.
10. Sind to be made a separate province.
11. Constitutional Reforms in NWFP and Balochistan.
12. Muslim representation in govt. jobs.

13. Constitutional safeguards for Islamic culture and civilization, education, language, personal laws and Muslim institutions. Government should provide financial assistance.
14. No constitutional amendment unless all constituent units of the federation agree to it.

These points reflected the aspirations of every Muslim living in India.

4: The Simon Commission:

The British government sent a commission to seek the opinion of Indians on the future shape of constitutional arrangements. It arrived in India in 1927 and it published the report in 1930. Most political parties boycotted it. It presented its report containing several constitutional proposals:

• Federal system of government with strong centre
• Two Houses.

• Abolition of Dyarchy system in provinces
• More powers to provincial governments.

• Governor not to interfere in day to day affairs.

• Constitutional changes in NWFP

5: Roundtable Conferences: 1930, 1931, and 1932

First Session of the Conference

In the first session, a number of prominent Muslims like M. A. Jinnah, Sir Shafi, Maulana M. A. Jauhar, Zafarullah Khan participated. They emphasized federalism, self- government, safeguards for minorities, separate electorate, preferential representation in central legislature, secure majorities in Punjab and Bengal.

Second Conference
Maulana M. A. Jauhar had died after the first conference. Iqbal, Jinnah and others participated in the second conference. Gandhi represented the Congress. The key issues of the session were ‘Federation’ and ‘Minorities.’

The Communal Award, August 1932

Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the Communal Award:

1. Separate electorate for all minorities of India.
2. Weightage to minorities
3. No Muslim majorities in Punjab and Bengal as was followed in Lucknow Pact
4. One third representation for Muslims in Central legislature
5. One fourth representation for Muslims in services
6. Sind to be made a province

Poona Pact, September 1932
The Congress expressed strong reaction against the right of separate electorate to the Indian minorities, especially to low caste Hindus whom Gandhi named Harijan (sons of God). Dissonance in Gandhi is conspicuous that he observed fast unto death on the right to the ‘sons of God.’ An agreement with low caste to surrender the separate electorate right was concluded to save Gandhi’s life.
3rd Roundtable Conference: Nov. 17-Dec. 24 1932

The main issues had been discussed in the first two conferences and now the rest of them were to be discussed. It was poorly attended conference. Quaid did not participate despite living in London. Gandhi did not attend as he had been detained.

The conference brought no change in party positions and widened Hindu-Muslim gulf.

White Paper on Constitutional Proposals: March 1933The British government issued a small document in the form the White Paper. It included detail of working basis of the Indian constitution with Dyarchy in the centre and full responsible governments in the provinces.

Government of India Act, 1935

Approved by the King: August 1935

Despite these efforts the communal problems could not be settled as satisfactory to the nations living in India particularly the Muslim. Therefore the key issues remained unchanged:

• Hindu Muslim Relations
• Failure to arrive at settlement
• Muslim demands transmuted from safeguarding rights to complete independence---Pakistan.
ALLAMA IQBAL’s Presidential Address December 1930 ALLAMA IQBAL’s Presidential Address ecember 1930

Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal ranks amongst the Muslim intellectuals who left a deep impact on history. He inspired Muslims of the Sub-Continent and beyond. He infused a moving spirit and identity in the Indian Muslims. He presented a framework of their political future and talked how that would help to achieve the goal of Ummah. He presented a vision and dream in his Allahabad Address.

1: Background

The Hindu-Muslim question had great importance and stood crucial to British Indian history after
1857, especially in the 20th century. To Muslims, the key issue remained ‘separate identity.’ They tried their level best to make the rival nations understand that the Muslims are a separate nation having different culture and civilization, interests and rights. The Two Nations theory could not fascinate the Hindus and the British peoples because they believed in ‘territorial nationalism.’ The Hindus desired to absorb them in their majority but they could not face the arguments of the Muslim intellectuals. By 1930, Muslims had developed a sense of identity and political demands. Iqbal delivered his Presidential address in this background.

Iqbal’s stay in Europe, 1905-08, helped to crystallize his thoughts. He returned to India in 1908 and started work on the roots of Muslim decline and the mechanism to uplift the Muslims. He reminded them to follow the teachings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) practically as the ideal leader. He emphasized on the ideals, teachings and principles of Islam. He sought salvation through Islam. He was awarded with many prominent social positions:
• Title of Sir was conferred in 1922
• Member Punjab Legislative Council (1927-1930)

He delivered lectures on Islam in Aligarh, Hyderabad and Madras (1928-29). At Allahabad, he presided over the meeting and delivered his famous address.

The Address, December 1930

Iqbal presented a review of the political and social situation of India and solution of the ills befalling India. He evaluated the importance of role of Islam in the lives of Muslims of British India. He said that the European view of duality of religion and state does not apply here in the Indian society. Rejecting the secularism he said, religion is not a totally personal affair.

He explained that Islam offers an ethical order, socio-political structure, legal framework, code of life, culture and civilization. It is a living, dynamic force that has a profound impact on the lives of Indian Muslims. With the force of Islam the scattered and disoriented people have been turned into an organized force.
The Muslims are not willing to submerge their religious individuality. They have lack of trust, fear of domination from Hindus. If the British want any sort of internal harmony it would be impossible unless the communal question is settled. It’s historical reality that India is a continent inhabited by diverse people. No political arrangement may be acceptable without recognizing this reality.

• If the Muslims have an opportunity to develop in accordance with their Islamic civilization and tradition, they would be willing to sacrifice their lives for India.
• Federalism cannot succeed without recognizing the national identity of the
Muslims.
• Territorial redistribution of British India on the basis of religion has become a need of time.
• Punjab, NWFP, Sind and Balochistan be amalgamated into a state, self government within the British empire or without it. The formation of such a consolidated North Western Muslim state appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North West India. To India, it will offer peace and security due to internal balance of power.
• Islam is a people building force in India that has given moral consciousness and political identity to the people.

Importance

Iqbal’s address is a forceful and logical presentation of the Muslim case in India. Why should they be treated as a political entity rather than a minority?

• Territorial adjustments will enable the Muslims to develop themselves in accordance with their ideals and serve the cause of Ummah.
• Redistribution of territory developed later on concept of Muslim homeland.
• He further expressed these ideas in LETTERS TO JINNAH from May 1936 to November 1937. He talked of a separate federation of Muslim provinces. The North Western India and Bengal can be considered as entitled to self-determination like other nations in India and outside. Shariah’s development is impossible without a free Muslim state or states. He advised the Muslims to be above self-interest and devote themselves to Islam.
• In difficult times, Islam has saved the Muslims.
• Faith, culture and historical traditions are more important than patriotism.

- Muslim Politics and Chaudhry Rahmat Ali Muslim Politics and Chaudhry Rahmat Ali

Intellectuals give lines of movement, leaders act upon and the masses prove good soldiers and this way nations accomplish their achievements. Rahmat Ali was one of the eminent scholars who made a significant contribution to the movement for the establishment of Pakistan. He was conscious of Muslim identity and outlined proposals for the partition of India for the sake of Muslims. He was the man who coined the name, PAKISTAN, for the Muslim state. When he first presented his proposal for a Muslim state, nobody took it seriously.

The Muslim intellectuals and leaders were concerned about the future of the Muslims in India. They ensured a secure future for Muslims. For this purpose they worked out various proposals for securing a homeland. Rahmat Ali becomes relevant here.
Biographical Sketch

Ch. Rahmat Ali was born in Hoshiarpur district in 1893. Traditionally he did his B.A. from Islamia College, Lahore. He did the private and government jobs for some time and then left for Cambridge University for higher education.
He was involved actively in the activities for the protection of rights of the Indian Muslims along with some other students at Cambridge University. His activism goes back to his student days in Lahore when he talked of separate state for Muslims of India.

Rahmat Ali’s Views
He said that North Western areas are Muslim majority ares. We will not only keep these majorities but will turn them into a Muslim state. Muslims should get rid of Indianism, it is better for Muslims and Islam.
In his writing, NOW OR NEVER (January 1933), he proposed the name of Muslim state, PAKISTAN.
P PunjabA Afghania NWFP K Kashmir

S Sind
TAN Balochistan
INDIA cannot be described as a state/country or home of single nation. This state did not exist as one political entity before the advent of the British. The Muslims are a distinct nation who has maintained its identity throughout. They are a separate nation. They have as much right to live as the Hindus. Pakistan should be separated from the rest of India. He further said that the conflict between Muslims and Hindus is not religious, sectarian or economic but an international. The Muslims are striving for survival; Hindus are trying for domination over the other nations living in the Sub-Continent particularly the Muslims.
He established the Pakistan National Movement in 1940. He began to talk about Bengal and Hyderabad as Muslim areas and separate states. Bang-i-Islam would comprise of Bengal and Assam and Osmanistan of Hyderabad Deccan.
He visited Pakistan in 1948 but the atmosphere of the motherland did not suit him and so he returned to Cambridge. He died there on 11 February 1951.

His Contribution
It is the ever-shining contribution of Rahmat Ali that he coined the name of the Muslim state. He said that being nation, the Indian Muslims deserved a separate homeland. He gave the future lines to the Muslims considering Islamic thoughts universal and true in comparison with the contemporary isms. When the Lahore Resolution was passed, it was instantly described as Pakistan Resolution. It, the division of India, was the solution of Hindu-Muslim question but Rahmat Ali proposed this long before the Lahore Resolution.

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