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University of North Carolina at Pembroke
English and Theatre DEPARTMENT

COURSE: ENG 2100: African American Literature
Fall 2014
INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Charles Tita
OFFICE: West Building, Office of Distance Education
OFFICE HOURS: Monday 4-6 and Tuesday/Thursday 10:30-12
OFFICE PHONE: 521 6352 FAX: 910 521 6762
LECTURE TIME: Tuesday/Thursday 2-3:15pm

Gates Jr., Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2004.

Locke, Alain, ed. The New Negro. New York: Atheneum, 1968.

hooks, bell. Teaching to Trangress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Harrold, Stanley. American Abolitionists. New York: Pearson Education, 2001.

Youngs, J. William T. American Realities: Historical Episodes-From First Settlements to the Civil War. New York: Longman, 2000.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, 1963.

A survey of African American literature, introducing students to genres, trends, and major periods of African American literature, ranging from the 17th-, 18th- and 19th- century autobiographies and narratives to 20tth –century works. Authors include: Jupiter Hammon, Briton Hammon, Sojourner Truth, Nat Turner, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Sterling Brown, Richard Wright, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka, Toni Morrison, Haki Madhubuti, Ton Cade Bambara, and August Wilson.

COURSE OBJECTIVES By the end of this course, you will: o be able to distinguish amongst genres of literature; o be familiar with various works by and about African American writers in various literary genres; o be familiar with the Black Aesthetic, as well as other literary theories; o gain appreciation and skill for reading and analyzing literature; o gain an understanding of diverse traditions; o be able to discuss the unusually unique culture and literary traditions of Americans of African descent—“In the history of the world’s great literatures, few traditions have origins as curious as that created by African slaves and ex-slaves writing in the English language in the third quarter of the eighteenth century” (Norton Anthology of African American Literature, p. xxxvii); o know about the various forms of literary expression (spirituals, work songs, poems, sermons, slave narratives, autobiographies, short stories, novels, and plays) that capture the African American experience; o be able to distinguish between oral and written forms of African American literature; o become familiar with representative primary texts of African American literature; o be able to identify the distinctive elements of literary genres; o have an understanding of literary terminology; o have basic knowledge of literary theories; o expand your facility in critical thinking; o increase your ability to use and acknowledge sources.

INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD In preparation for each class session, you are required to read assigned materials for the week as outlined in the “Schedule of Activities” section of the syllabus. In other words, you should read the material for Week Two before the beginning of Week Two. You should always come to class prepared for vigorous discussion, an impromptu quiz, and group collaboration. In order to participate meaningfully in class discussion and maximize your learning experience, it is critically important that you read the assigned texts prior to each class meeting.

We will spend our class time analyzing the texts you will have already read, and students will work in small groups to explore readings and identify connections amongst authors and genres. Groups will take turns to make short presentations that will serve as prelude to general class discussion. Come to class prepared to contribute class discuss as well as listen to others’ opinions, even if you do not agree with them. Mutual respect is expected and required.

GENERAL EDUCATION OBJECTIVES The course seeks to mold you to become “students with broad vision, who are sensitive to values, who recognize the complexity of social problems, and who will be contributing citizens with an international perspective and an appreciation for diverse civilizations.” Also, the course will “foster the ability to analyze and weigh evidence . . . make informed decisions, write and speak clearly, and think critically and creatively” UNCP Catalog.

Blackboard Although this is a face-to-face class, we will use Blackboard to supplement seated class time, interact with one another, and keep ourselves engaged.

Student-to-student interaction The class will be divided into small study groups of four or five per group. These are support groups for quick exchange of ideas, especially about the research paper. Group members will also peer review each other’s writing using a specific set of guidelines that will be provided.

Student-to-instructor interaction In addition to the support you will receive in class, you will have opportunity to get help from me outside of class time. Within the Discussion Board in Blackboard, you can post a question for me in the forum called “Ask the Professor”. All questions will be answered within 24 hours during the workweek. Questions posted on Friday or during the weekend will be answered by close of business on Monday. If your question is personal in nature, you should make an appointment to meet with me or you may send me an email from your Bravemail account.

REFLECTION I implore you to engage the readings with both caution and abandon, that is, you should read critically while allowing yourself to be absorbed by the literary texts. In addition to the assigned readings for each week, I have provided a number of probing questions for your reflection. You should raise similar questions yourself as you read.

Additional Resources University Center The University Writing Center is located in Room 308 of D.F. Lowry. Please make use of the important resource.

UNCP Religious Holiday Policy Statement The University of North Carolina at Pembroke has a legal and moral obligation to accommodate all students who must be absent from classes or miss scheduled exams in order to observe religious holidays; we must be careful not to inhibit or penalize these students for exercising their rights to religious observance. To accommodate students’ religious holidays, each student will be allowed two excused absences each semester with the following conditions: 1. 1. Students who submit written notification to their instructors within two weeks of the beginning of the semester shall be excused from class or other scheduled academic activity to observe a religious holy day of their faith. Excused absences are limited to two class sessions (days) per semester.

2. 2. Students shall be permitted a reasonable amount of time to make up tests or other work missed due to an excused absence for a religious observance.

3. 3. Students should not be penalized due to absence from class or other scheduled academic activity because of religious observances.

A student who is to be excused from class for a religious observance is not required to provide a second-party certification of the reason for the absence. Furthermore, a student who believes that he or she has been unreasonably denied an education benefit due to religious beliefs or practices may seek redress through the student grievance procedure.

Statement on Literature Program Assessment Committed to improving the quality of educational services offered to students, the literature program seeks to assess student achievement of course learning outcomes. Student work from this class may be randomly selected and used anonymously for program assessment. Copies of your coursework including any submitted papers and/or portfolios may be kept on file for assessment and accreditation purposes. The assessment process will not affect your grade in this class or require you to complete additional work.

ADAAA Syllabus Access Statement

Federal laws require UNCP to accommodate students with documented learning, physical, chronic health, psychological, visual or hearing disabilities. In post-secondary school settings, academic accommodations are not automatic; to receive accommodations, students must make a formal request and must supply documentation from a qualified professional to support that request. Students who believe they qualify must contact the Accessibility Resource Center in the D. F. Lowry Building, Room 107 or call 910-521-6695 to begin the accommodation process. All discussions remain confidential. Accommodations cannot be provided retroactively. More information for students about the services provided by ARC and the accommodation process may be found at the following link:

This publication is available in alternative formats upon request. Please contact the Accessibility Resource Center in the D. F. Lowry Building, 521-6695.

ATTENDANCE POLICY Please see UNC Pembroke’s policy on attendance.

GRADING POLICY In order to receive full credit for your work, assignments must be submitted on time. Late work will not be accepted. There will be no make-up quizzes/tests and exams, except in the event of excused absences. You will receive a numeric score for all graded work and class participation with the following corresponding weights:

Class Participation/: 100points (10%) Impromptu Quizzes 100points (10%) Two announced tests: 200points (20%) One short paper: 100points (10%) Group Participation 100 points (10) Annotated Bibliography: 50points (5%) Research Plan: 50points (5%) One research paper: 200points (20%) Final Exam: 100points (10%) Total: 1000points (100%)

Letter Grade Computation

|Letter Grade |Percentage |Performance |
|A |93-100% |Excellent Work |
|A- |90-92% |Nearly Excellent Work |
|B+ |87-89% |Very Good Work |
|B |83-86% |Good Work |
|B- |80-82% |Mostly Good Work |
|C+ |77-79% |Above Average Work |
|C |73-76% |Average Work |
|C- |70-72% |Mostly Average Work |
|D+ |67-69% |Below Average Work |
|D |60-66% |Poor Work |
|F |0-59% |Failing Work |

Tutoring: The tutoring program of the Academic Support Center helps students achieve their academic goals by offering group or individual tutoring in all General Education and many upper-level courses; contact or 910-775-4408.

The University Writing Center The University Writing Center, located in D.F. Lowry 308 and available online at, is a peer-to-peer tutoring service where UNCP students can seek assistance with written assignments at any stage during the writing process, from brainstorming ideas to drafting, revising, and editing.

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY You are expected and required to abide strictly by UNC Pembroke’s Honor Code. The Honor Code is linked to the course on Blackboard, and it is important that you read and re-read it to be intimately familiar with the policy.


• Come to class prepared to learn, that is, well rested and focused on the class material. • Prepare for class. Complete the assigned reading before coming to class, in order to have a general familiarity with literary terms and primary texts to be presented and discussed. • In class, take notes and, more importantly, listen to what connections and ideas are being expressed. • Share your comments, answers, and questions with the whole class. Muttering to yourself and/or your neighbor is rude, and disturbs those around you. • Complete all class assignments on time. Time management and organizational skills are essential. • Invest in adequate study time. A minimum of 2 hours for each in-class hour is suggested. • No sleeping or placing of your head on the desk during lecture/discussion! • Gentlemen must remove hats upon entering the classroom.


In order to promote effective teaching and learning in ENG 210, I will: • Provide accurate and current information; • Stay on task and keep you on task; • Come to class prepared; • Listen to your ideas and questions; • Be available for additional help outside of class hours; • Commit time and energy to guiding each student’s learning process; and • Foster an atmosphere of learning in the classroom.




Introduction to one another and to course • Overview of syllabus (syllabus is available in electronic format on Blackboard) • Elements of African American Culture (intra-racial issues color-isms, segregation, class, etc) • The early beginnings of African American Literature

The Vernacular Tradition

“Go Down, Moses”
“Swing Low, Sweet Chariot”
“Steal Away to Jesus”

GOSPEL (19-25)
“Take my Hand, Precious Lord”
“Peace Be Still”
“Stand by Me”

BALLADS (31-41)
“John Henry”
“The Signifying Monkey”

In a short paragraph, respond to each of the following questions: A. What are the origins of spirituals as a musical genre? B. What are the origins of gospel as a musical genre? C. What are the similarities and differences between these two genres?
Please be sure to refer to some the spirituals and gospels in your responses. Bring your written responses to class for discussion.


“We raise de wheat”
“Me and My Captain”
“Another Man Done Gone

WORK SONGS (41-43)
“Go Down, Old Hannah”
“Can’t You Line It?”

“Ain’t Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Round”
“We Shall Overcome”

THE BLUES (48-63
“Prove It On Me Blues”

Addison Gayle, Jr. The Black Aesthetic: Introduction (1911-1918)


Pick a few of these songs and explain how they mirror Black Aestheticism.


JAZZ (64-68)
Duke Ellington: “It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing)”

Smokey Robinson et al.: “The Tracks of My Tears”
Marvin Gaye et al.: “What’s Goin’ On?”

HIP HOP (78-92)
Public Enemy: “Don’t Believe the Hype”
Queen Latifah: “The Evil That Men Do”

James Weldon Johnson: “Listen Lord, a Prayer”
Martin Luther King, Jr.: “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop”

“Big Talk”
“Why Sister in Black Works Hardest”
“How Mr. Rabbit Was Too Sharp for Mr. Fox”
PRACTICE QUESTIONS What is Black Aesthetic? In a fully developed paragraph summarize Addison Gayle’s “Introduction” in which he defines/explains Black Aesthetic.

Test #1 Analysis paper assigned



Jupiter Hammon: “An Evening Thought” (163)
Olaudah EQuiano: A Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano—Chapter One (190-200)
Phillis Wheatley: “To the University of Cambridge”, “On Being Brought from Africa to America”
David Walker: David Walker’s Appeal—“Article 1. Our Wretchedness in Consequence of Slavery” (227+)
Sojourner Truth: Ain’t I a Woman—(246)
Harriet Jacobs: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl—“The New Master and Mistress” (284+)


a. What is the theme of Hammon’s poem? b. How did the “slave narrative” emerge as a genre? c. Look up the term “aesthetic”. d. Using specific examples from Olaudah Equiano and Harriet Jacobs, discuss one “aesthetic” quality of the slave narrative. e. Make a list of the illustrious contributions of David Walker to American civil society. f. David Walker, in his “Appeal”, alludes to the nature of slavery in Roman Empire (p. 256). What message is Walker sending through this allusion, and to whom?


Henry Highland Garnet: “An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America” (346-352)
Victor Sejour: “The Mulatto” (352-365)
Elizabeth Keckley: “Behind the Scenes” (365-384)
Frederick Douglass: From “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?: An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York, on 5 July, 1852” (385+)
Frances Harper: “Ethiopia”, “The Slave Mother”, “Bury Me in a Free Land”, “A Double Standard”

PRACTICE QUESTIONS i. Identify one theme that links the works of Sejour, Keckley, and Harper. Explain how your chosen theme manifests in the selections you have read. ii. Analyze Harper’s use of imagery in “Bury Me in a Freeland” iii. What is the thesis of Douglass’ address? iv. What is the thesis of Garnett’s address? v. What are the similarities and differences between the two addresses? vi. Make a list of the illustrious accomplishments of Frederick Douglass. Analysis paper due Research paper guidelines provided


Booker T. Washington Up From Slavery: “Chapter III. The Struggle for an Education” (586+) “Chapter XIV. The Atlanta Exposition Address” ((594+)

W.E.B. Du Bois The Souls of Black Folk: “1. Of Our Spiritual Strivings” (693+) “III. Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others” (699+) “Criteria of Negro Art” (777+)

James Weldon Johnson “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing” (794)


James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) composed “Lift Every Voice and Sing” (popularly known as “the Black National Anthem”), and he is credited for “encouraging younger writers to find more expansive forms than dialect in which to portray the complexity of African American experience” (Call and Response, P. 866). Analyze “Lift Every Voice and Sing” to show how Johnson uses imagery to foster Black pride.

How did Johnson’s work help shape the “spirit” the Harlem Renaissance that was soon to follow?
Research topic due



Arthur A Schomburg: “The Negro Digs up His Past” (962+)
Anne Spencer: “At the Carnival” (973)
Alain Locke: “The New Negro” (983-993)
Marcus Garvey: “Africa for the Africans” (997)
Claude McKay: “If we Must Die”, “Africa”, America”, “The White House”
Zora Neale Hurston: “Sweat” (1022)
Sterling Brown: “Long Gone” (1250)


a. Why is Alain Locke’s The New Negro usually referred to as the manifesto of the Harlem Renaissance? b. Is “We Must Die” a sonnet? Explain by analyzing he form of the poem.

DUE: Short Paper #1

ASSIGNMENT: Prepare position paragraph for term paper for class discussion.

Arna Bontemps: “A Summer Tragedy” (1282+)
Langston Hughes: “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, “Mother to Son”, “Danse Africaine”, “Harlem”, “Theme for English B” (1309-1310)
Countee Cullen: “From the Dark Tower” (1351)
Helene Johnson: “Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem” (1353), “Remember Not” (1353)


1. Discuss Hughes’ use of imagery in “The Negro Sings of Rivers” 2. Considering the historical context of the poem, how does “Harlem” paint a picture of the dream motif?

Test # 2


Melvin Tolson: “Dark Symphony”, From “Libretto for the Republic of Liberia”, “The Birth of John Henry” (1368+)
Richard Wright: “Long Black Song” (1419+)
Ann Petry: The Street Chapter I: The Apartment


How effective is Petry’s use of imagery in “Like a Winding Street”?

Look up the word tragedy in the sense of Aristotle and explain if “Long Black Song” is a tragedy.

What is Sarah’s tragic flaw? Explain. (One paragraph)

What is Silas’ tragic flaw? Explain. (One paragraph

Annotated bibliography due


Ralph Ellison Invisible Man Prologue (1548) Chapter 1: Battle Royal (1555)
Margaret Walker: “For My People” (1619)
Gwendolyn Brooks: “Saddie and Maud”(1627)

--Test # 3
--Due: Annotated Bibliography for Research Paper

Lorraine Hansberry: A Raisin in the Sun


The title of Hansberry’s play is borrowed from Hughes’ poem “Harlem”. How fitting is this title to Hansberry’s play?

Identify some of the themes and images in the play that can be explored in a research paper.


Lorraine Hansberry: A Raisin in the Sun


Look up the meaning of “modern tragedy” as defined by Arthur Miller in 1949. Does A Raisin in the Sun fit this definition? Explain

Due: Bring Two Drafts of Research paper – Use one for peer review and submit one to me for review and feedback.
Research draft due

UNIT VI: The BLACK ARTS ERA, 1960-1975

Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz): The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1859) Chapter Eleven: Saved (1860+)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (1896)
Addison Gayle, Jr.: The Black Aesthetic (1911+)
Larry Neal: “The Black Arts Movement” (2039+)
A.B. Spellman: “Did John’s Music Kill Him?”
June Jordan: “In Memoriam: Luther King, Jr.” “Poem about My Rights”
Haki Madhubuti: “Introduction [to Think Black]” “Malcolm Spoke/who listened?”
Nikki Giovanni: “Beautiful Black Men”


Maya Angelou: “My Arkansas” I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Chapter 15; Chapter 16
Toni Morrison: “Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation” “The Site of Memory” “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature”

Presentations of Research
Submit Revised Draft of Term Paper

Dec 8-12

Important Dates to Remember
Aug 20: Start of Semester
Aug 26: last Day to Add/Add Courses
Sept 3: Census Date
Sept 1: Labor Day
Oct 3: Midterms
Oct 10: Midterm Grades Due
Oct 16-18: Fall Break
Oct 24: Last Day to Withdraw from Courses
Nov 26-28: Thanksgiving Holiday
Dec 4: Classes End
Dec 5: Reading Day
Dec 8-12: Final Exams
Dec 12: Graduate Commencement
Dec 13: Undergraduate Commencement
Dec 15: Final Grades Due in Registrar’s Office

Course Introductions: Aug 20-24
Module One: Aug 25-31
Module Two: Sept 1-7
Module Three: Sept 8-14
Module Four: Sept 15-21
Module Five: Sept 22-28
Module Six: Sept 29-Oct 5
Module Seven: Oct 6-12
Module Eight: Oct 13-19
Module Nine: Oct 20-26
Module Ten: Oct 27-Nov 2
Module Eleven: Nov 3-9
Module Twelve: Nov 10-16
Module Thirteen: Nov 17-23
Module Fourteen: Nov 24-30
Module Fifteen: Dec 1-4
Final Exams: Dec 8-12

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...Intro to Philosophy Wendy Broussard-Murray Aiuonline Intro to Philosophy Mere Assertion – A belief that what you think is true just because you want it to be, but you have nothing solid to prove it to be correct. It is basically ones opinion. Example: Brenden did not steal the IPod because he is not a thief. Circular Reasoning – (begging the question) A question that is never really answered or proved. Example: Perry Marshall claims, “DNA is not merely a molecule with a pattern; it is a code… and an information storage mechanism. All codes are created by a conscious mind; there is no natural process known to science that creates coded information. Therefore, DNA is designed by a mind.” (Perry, 2014) Ad Hominem – The attack on a person’s character distracting you from the real issue. Example: Don’t believe what Larry says about raising children. He is the head of pro-abortion campaign. Red Herring – During a disagreement, one person goes on a tangent, bring up a different side of the disagreement that distracts everyone from what is really going on, usually not going back to the original disagreement. Example: A person is reading a book and is lead to believe a specific character is guilty, when in fact the person is innocent. Pseudo-questions – A question that has no real answer because it makes no sense. Example: “Do you support the right to possess a hand gun as set forth by our constitution?” (Gracyk, 2012) False Cause – It is assumed that there is a...

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...HZT4U1 Mrs. Faria February 13, 2014 Philosophy Reflection Essay What is Philosophy? Philosophy is more than simply a school subject, it is a worldview that involves complex and contemplative ways of thinking. It can also be considered as a hypothesis, the love of wisdom, law, equation, and major part of it, science and religion. As Socrates once said " philosophy is a quest for wisdom- an unrelenting devotion to uncover the truth about what matters most in one's life." As mentioned above, Philosophy according to Socrates is a process of proving the truth and validity of certain visual ideas. Philosophy branches out. To understand Philosophy, we need to know what makes someone a philosopher, which helps to determine analytic philosophy. Along with this, we need to understand the method of philosophy which leads us to the true value of philosophy. The study of philosophy is a discipline that develops analytic thought and, ultimately, autonomy. To understand philosophy, and how it leads up to autonomy through analytic thought, we must understand what makes someone a philosopher. in the article " What makes someone a philosophy" by Mark Warnock, she helps to define the subject. Warnock clearly defines a philosopher through her articles. She says "Professional recognition is unimportant: what matters is that a philosopher is someone who thinks at a high level of generality, has 'explanatory ambition' and most importantly, provides arguments in support of his or her views. these...

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...Philosophy LueAnn Wolaridge PHL/215 February 03, 2010 Steve Elder Philosophy According to Moore, Philosophy means “to love wisdom,” the tract on which one travels seeking answers to questions of knowledge, existence, moral judgment, and society. One cannot define philosophy in one compact, single minded definition. Philosophy is to broad and thought provoking field of study to seek one concrete definition. Philosophy in my mind is an attempt to understand how we all connect in the universe. Philosophers ask questions that make one go “umm.” Because there are no wrong answers in philosophy. Each answer can provoke question after question and still not present the answer one seeks. Take the question “if a tree falls in the woods and no one is there to hear it do it make a sound?” First thought would be to say yes it does make a sound. But philosophers may argue the question, how do we know it makes a sound, it was not heard. “What is sound?” “Is sound produced only if one can hear it?” “Does falling produce sound or did the tree produce sound?” Philosophical questions are speculative, which give philosophers the road to examine different avenue of study at once. Philosophy tends to overlap other areas of study from physic, art, science, to any other subject that one can name. Any subject can be study philosophically when the right questions are asked. Questions are categorized in different areas of study. Epistemology deals with the questions concerning...

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...Emerson’s Unifying Philosophy Throughout human existence, scholars have earnestly pursued knowledge and the attainment of truth. Historical figures such as Plato, Descartes, and Emerson sought answers to daunting questions of: ‘What is truth?’; ‘What is reality?’; ‘How is wisdom acquired?’ Many scholars believe these philosophers presented conflicting viewpoints: Plato encouraging skepticism among all previous historical, cultural, and personal perspectives; Descartes questioning definitions of reality and his very existence; Emerson encouraging self-trust and confidence in one’s ideals, opinions, and convictions. Surprisingly, reconciliation can be reached from these three differing hypotheses. Emerson’s thesis merely expounds from Descartes and Plato’s philosophies. He builds from Descartes’ search for self-identity and reconciles Plato’s skepticism with his views of self-trust and unconformity among scholars. Throughout “Mediations I and II”, Descartes disputes definitions of reality and identity, establishing a precursor to Emerson’s philosophy. Initially, Descartes questions all notions of being. In “Mediation I”, Descartes begins his argument explaining the senses which perceive reality can be deceptive and “it is wiser not to trust entirely to any thing by which we have once been deceived” (Descartes 59). But, he then continues to reason; “opinions [are] in some measure doubtful…and at the same time highly probable, so that there is much more reason to believe in...

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...PHILMAN PRELIM Lesson 3: Greek Wisdom of Man The Greek Triumvirate The Greek Triumvirate of philosophy is known for having a chain of teacher-student relationship. Socrates was the teacher of Plato; Plato was the teacher of Aristotle; and Aristotle was the teacher of one of history’s greatest conqueror – Alexander, the Great. The Greek Triumvirate & the Three Oriental Sages * Although the teachings of the Three Oriental Sages and the Greek Triumvirate are dissimilar, they however, have a resembling view on the soul of man. * The Oriental sages and the Greek triumvirate believed that man’s soul pre-existed his body. * The Greek triumvirate believes that man, in his original and ideal existence as a soul or a « pure mind », knew all things by direct intuition and had all knowledge stored in his mind. However, when man was banished into his world of sense, man blurred out and forgot almost everything he ever knew. * The Greek triumvirate posited that the present problems of man was caused by ignorance or lack of knowledge and that the only way for man to solve these problems is by recalling all his previous knowledge. * However, while they believe in the vitalityt of looking into one’s self as a method to resolve man’s problem, there are still major differences when it comes to the ‘specifics’ of their ideologies. Socrates * He was born in Athens circa 469 B.C. and died in 399 B.C. * He is known as one of mankind’s greatest teachers. ...

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...P LA T O and a P LAT Y P U S WA L K I N TO A B A R . . . Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes < T H O M A S C AT H C A RT & D A N I E L K L E I N * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * P l at o a n d a P l at y p u s Wa l k i n t o a B a r . . . PLATO and a PLAT Y PUS WA L K I N T O A B A R . . . < Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes Th o m as Cat h c a rt & Dan i e l K l e i n A B R A M S I M AG E , N E W YO R K e d i to r : Ann Treistman d e s i g n e r : Brady McNamara pro d u c t i on m anag e r : Jacquie Poirier Cataloging-in-publication data has been applied for and may be obtained from the Library of Congress. ISBN 13: 978-0-8109-1493-3 ISBN 10: 0-8109-1493-x Text copyright © 2007 Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein Illlustration credits: ©The New Yorker Collection 2000/Bruce Eric Kaplan/ pg 18; ©Andy McKay/ pg 32; ©Mike Baldwin/ pgs 89, 103; ©The New Yorker Collection 2000/ Matthew Diffee/ pg 122; ©The New Yorker Collection 2000/ Leo Cullum/ pg 136; ©Merrily Harpur/Punch ltd: 159; ©Andy McKay/ pg 174. Published in...

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