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Physiology

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NQF LEVEL 4: BTEC Higher National
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Physiological Principles for Health and Social Care

PHYSIOLOGY
Introduction
This assignment will investigate the human body organ system and how they work together . Appropriate or case study provided in this assignment will be used in order to investigate the functionality of body system. Main anatomic feature of the human body will be outline, how body system interact to ensure the body functions and grows will be discussed. The part two of the assignment will look at how the body responds to physical activity and it will also identify how the body coordinated internal activities. This assignment will also look at other human body conditions such as obesity, diabetes and discus as to deal with such conditions in order to ensure the wellbeing of individuals with such conditions.

THE human body is composed of ten different systems which are made of organs working in coordination with one another. These organs have to work together as they need each another to fulfil its functions. Human organs support each other’s in order to perform their function. Below is brief descriptions and functions of human body system:

1. Central Nervous System (CNS): CNS is composed of brain, nerves, nerve endings, and spinal cord. It role is to control and coordinate the body functions (coordination of nervous). Will be responsible for sensory input, integration of data and motor output.

2. Cardio vascular system (CVS): is composed of heart, blood, and blood vessels wish includes arteries, veins and capillaries. It role is to allow flow of blood and nutrients throughout the human body, defend the body, thermoregulation

3. Respiratory system (RS): is composed of nose, lungs, trachea, alveolar, bronchi, bronchioles, sacs, and alveoli. It main role is to allow exchange of gases between the environment and the human body (gaseous exchange).

4. Digestive system (GIS): IS role to ensure mechanically chemically, absorption and eliminate waste. It is composed of alimentary canal (oral cavity, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, and anus), pancreas, liver, tongue, salivary glands, and teeth.

5. Urinary system: is serves to regulate the human body’s internal environment which are: urea, ion, ph., water level control and excretion and production of urine. This system is composed of kidney, erecters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

6. Reproductive system: There are two king of reproductive system. 1. The male reproductive which is composed of testes and pens. The role of this system is formation of sperms and to fertilise the female. This system is part of the overall reproductive process of human being. 2. The female reproductive system which is composed of ovaries, uterus, vulva, labia, and clitoris. The role of the female reproductive system is to form eggs and bear the foetus during development.

7. Muscular skeletal system (MSK). The skeletal system: is composed of bones, joints and associated cartilages. This system gives support and strength including shape to the human body. Other role of the skeletal includes leverage for movement, production of red blood cells and protections of delicate body organs storage minerals.

8. Immune system: is composed of special cells, tissues, proteins and organs. It is the human body’s defences against organisms which are infections (germs and micro organisms.)This system also protects and prevents infection and keep people healthy. Any problem with this system can lead the body to infection in skin, mucus membranes, bone marrow that produces B cells and thymus gland production of T cell.

9. Integumentary system: is protecting human body from any damage. It consists of skin and all its appendages (including nails, hairs, sweat glands etc...). This system protects deeper tissues as it serves as waterproof cushion, it regulates the body temperature and excretes wastes. It also control evaporation and allows sensation.

10. Endocrine system: is composed of endocrine glands, Testes, ovary, liver etc... It role is to regulate the body the maintaining homeostasis, reproduction of growth.( www.nice.org.uk/cg034nice.)

1.2. Discuss how body systems interact to ensure the body functions and grow.
ALL the body systems needs to work together to maintain homeostasis and keep the body alive and health.
1.2. a. Homeostasis: is a process by which the body systems keep the body internal conditions constantly regardless changes that may happen to the external environments.
Negative feedback: this happens when the body temperature rise, receptors in the skin and hypothalamus sense a change in value such as body temperature would instigate responses that bring organ function to respond in such a way to correct body temperature (sweet glands producing sweat or muscles shivering).(www.std.about.com.)
Sugar: if sugar level is high in the blood the receptors pancreas are responsible to cheque information constantly in the blood or pancreas play controller centre who release insulin. Insulin is hormone who storage or transporting of glucose inside the cell. And if sugar level is low in the blood, the pancreas is relieved or produces glucagon. Glucagon is production or storage of sugar inside the liver and muscle.
Positive feedback: is increasing response of cycle in the human body.
Example: is a child birth. The child’s head puts pressure on the cervix after the beginning of labour which will cause the cervix to stretch. The hormone oxytocin enhances and stimulates the contractions of labour. This type of regulation is called positive feedback regulation.

Metabolism: is a chemical process which occurs within an organism or a living cell. These chemical processes are necessary for the life maintenance. (Marueb.2008).

Cellular metabolism: is chemical happening inside the cell. And this reaction is going to produce energy either aerobically and an aerobically.
Cellular metabolism is related with the function of digestive systems. Where the digestive systems will break down food molecules mechanically and chemically to provide all fuel molecules in energy production (glucose, amino-acids and free fatty acids). Energy can be produced Aerobically with present of oxygen .While the gas be contribute by respiratory system, by breathing ventilating the lung and facilitating gas exchange, external respiration for the blood to transport this gas to the cells, to facilitate internal respiration for the Oxygen to be used in aerobic energy production.

c. The roles of growth hormone.
Growth hormone is produced by a structure in human brain called the pituitary gland which also produces other different types of specialised hormones. The roles of growth hormone are determination of height, muscle growth and building bones. Growth hormone is activity which has two types of effects: Direct effects and indirect effects. The role of direct effect is to increase fat mobilization and oxidation, and thereby to reduce total body fate especially in childhood.
The role of indirect effect is mediated energy expenditure may be increased by administration of either GH or relatively high dose of (IGF-I).,,which is an hormone secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone acting on its targets cells.(STP online). Will enhance bone growth and will suppress the glucose storage stimulating and increasing metabolism rate Growth requires several hormone coordinated action as it is a very complex process.

2.1. Human body response to everyday activities.
As the marathon will be taken place in 6 month time. The 25 year old bodies will be engaged in physical exercise training more frequently or several times a week. The 25 year old body systems that will be affected by physical exercise are: the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. During exercise oxygen delivery will be limited by cardiovascular function .Because of a rise in the volume of tidal and respiratory rate, pulmonary ventilation will increase to meet increased demands of oxygen. To be effective and efficient, the body cardiovascular system needs to be able to respond to the increased skeletal muscle activity. As exercise involves movement, activation and control of the musculoskeletal will be required. The respiratory and the cardiovascular system will provide the body with the ability to sustain these body movements over the extended periods. Each of body systems will undergo specific adaptations which will increase efficiency and capacity of the body.

The cardiovascular response.
The response of the cardiovascular system to exercise is proportional to the demand of oxygen by the skeletal muscle for any rate of work given. During exercise more blood will be send to the active muscle of the skeletal and more blood will be send to the skin as the temperature of the body increase.(Rowell1986). The response cardiovascular system will include:
Heart rate resting average is 60 to 80 beat/min in healthy adults will increased as the intensity of exercise increases in order to assist with the greater oxygen demand for the contraction of the muscle and waste removal. Maximum heart rate is estimated with the formula 220-age.
Stroke volume rest averages is 50 to 70ml/beat increasing up to 110-130ml/beat due to more demand for oxygen for the contraction of muscle during exercise, which will allow more blood from the heart to be pumped with each beat. In athletes resting stroke volume averages90 to110ml/beat increased as 150-220ml/beat.
Cardiac output rest is about 5L/min. During intense exercise will increase to 20-40L/min due to increase in stroke volume and heartbeat.
Systolic blood pressure individual healthy ranges as 110-140mmHg and 60-90mmHg will increase to200mmHg and levels as high as 250mmHg during exercise in highly trained athletes.

Blood flow resting is 15-20% of coronary circulation will increases to 80-85% in vigorous exercise. The major organ as kidneys, liver, stomach and intestines will take away by the blood and redirected to the skin to promote heat loos.

Respiratory system responses
During exercise the respiratory system will undergo some functioning alteration to accommodate to the situation and this will include: Increase to the respiratory rate, tidal volume increased, ventilation increased due in tidal volume and respiratory rate during exercise. Increased of oxygen uptake, increased in diaphragms and ribcages muscles efforts. Lungs are the major organs to maintain and correct dropping blood pH, as the increased CO2 will turn blood acidic. Kidney will help in releasing buffer solution to neutralise blood acid.

Muscular skeletal response: During exercise will have more range of movement and muscle pliability, increase in the temperature of the muscles, bone density, fuel molecule will increase glycogen storage inside the muscle cell and catabolism process to break down. Oxygen supply and utilisation increment, muscles fibre contractions and muscle fibre recruitment, increase demand of oxygen during exercise. There will be multitude of physiological changes to the muscular skeletal system in addition to the produced additional muscle through training (Terjung 1995). Slow twitch muscle fibre increase, aerobic energy production increase. Energy will be produced an aerobically as well when energy demand increase energy production, resulting in muscle fatigue.
The muscular skeletal system bones will also be subject to change (structure change) resulting from exercise. Resistance to activities requiring
Or other force directed to the body tends to increase the density of bones. (Coyle 1991). Bone marrow increase function, so production of RBC is increased.

Temperature will increase while exercising. Blood flow increase towards the skin and sweat glands will produce sweat. Heart rate will increase in anticipation. Will be regulated by negative feedbacks regulation and by his own nervous system. If pace maker send messages through the sympathetic way, heart rate will increase, if the messages are sending through parasympathetic way, heart rate is decreased.

3.1
All routine tests are recorded with the mutual or signed consent of the patient. Dignity, privacy are preserved, and all his rights are promoted in health care. Confidentiality is maintained by not sharing information just with the consent of the service user or in need to know basis. All data are recorded to build up health history and to be able to monitor the condition and the treatment.
3.2.
Flu is infection and common viral illness spread by caught and sneezes. There are different groups of viruses caused by flu. But if you experience same condition in your body like chest pain, coughing up blood, shortness of breath and flu symptoms are more than a week then go to talk your doctor or GP. If body temperature is high will assess fever and fatigue that response to infection. The doctor will advise to take more cold water, drink juice and take some medication to help manage the condition. The normal heart rate is rate 60/min. If blood pressure, heart rate is high. High pulse can be a sign of complications of flue as well. And if breathing rate is increase will be the lung infection.
Routine tests to confirm flu which are: -Rapid influenza diagnostic test. If a flu test is positive, it means that the affected person most likely has influenza A or B, and treatment with antiviral medication may be prescribed to minimize symptoms.
Chest x-ray: If the x- ray shows lungs redness which can be caused by the infection of bacteria or virus.
Pulse rate \ heart rate checks: The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats in one minute. A steady, strong, not too fast heart rate is one indication of good health. The heart rate measure by placing index on middle finger over the inside of the body wrist with his plan facing up. By press flat fingers firmly until the pulse is count the bests for 1 full minute (or 30 seconds and multiply by. The beats give us per minute his heart rate keeps rising then that indicate complication of the flu.
Blood test: the blood test can prove the presence of infection and to try to indentify the type of organism causing the infection. A complete blood count (CBC) measures many parts of your blood, including the number of white blood cells in the blood sample. The number of white blood cells can show whether you have a bacterial infection. Blood culture can also recommend finding out whether the infection has spread to your blood stream and show which germ caused the infection and then we can decide how to treat the infection.
CT scan
A chest CT scan can show the size, shape, and position of lungs and other structures in the chest and we can find out if there is any abnormality. This test will help us to find the cause of lung symptoms, such as shortness of breath or chest pain. We can also check for condition like tuberculosis and pneumonia.

Obesity.
Obesity is described as somebody who is very overweight with a high measure of body fat. Obesity is caused by eating too much and moving too little and develops gradually from: poor diet and life style choices, lack of physical activity, inherited, and health reason. Same time if you consume high amounts of energy from your diet but do not burn off the energy through exercise and physical activity, the surplus energy is turned into fat.
Care plan for obese person to reduce risks of health. As the person is clearly obese, obesity may increase the risk of many problems on his health like heart disease, heart attacks and many more certain problems. The person needs to follow a diet, exercise program to help reduce his body weight.
The GP or doctor will star with blood test, urine test, general physical exam, calculate is BMI, BMR, The waist size will help understand and reduce risks to his health.
BMI: Normal weighs score of 18.5 to 24.9
Overweighs: BMI score of 25-29.9
Obesity: BMI score of 30+
Having too much fat (around the waist) may increase risks on the person’s health. For a men with a waist more than 40 inches and a woman with a 35 inches and plus may have higher chances to development of obesity related disease.
Blood test:
The test will depend on one’s health and risk factors.
They may include a cholesterol test, a thyroid test and others, depending on the health situation.
Cholesterol test is done to look at the risk of heart problems. The cholesterol ideally total will be less than 200 mm/L.
Obese people are at increased risk for diabetes. The high the body mass index (BMI), the bigger risk.
A fasting blood glucose test checks the quantity of sugar in your body. The normal test is 70 to 99mg/dl. But if your sugar level is 100 to 125mg/dl indicate pre- diabetes, significance that you are in the risk. Results above 125 mg/dl specify diabetes.

3.3. Diabetes types 2.
Losing weigh would prevent and delay the diabetes onset.
Losing weight and exercising will allow the person to reduce the diabetes.
High blood pressure: loosing weigh will help the person BMI range to normal and this will help lower high blood pressure.
Heart disease: loosing weigh will help the person chances of heart disease development. Weight loss will improve cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and blood flow.
Fatty liver disease: the patient is advised to eat healthy diet, loose weigh, and increase physical activity in order to improve liver tests and reverse the disease to some extent.
As the person is considered overweigh, It is recommended for him to exercise more in order to lose weight and healthy eating to help control his weight.
4.1How age may affect the body structure and function.
As the people get older all the vital organs will begin to lose some function. Aging changes which can be found in all of the human body’s cells, organs and tissues will affect the functioning of all the systems in the body. We will look at how the age affects some of the body systems including the nervous system, the respiratory and integumentary system
Aging effects on the Nervous system (NS). As person age, his brain and nervous system will go through some changes which can be considered as natural changes. The person spinal cord and brain lose weight and nerve cells (atrophy). As the person gets older, nerve cells will begin to lose speed of passing messages and alert passing message slower than it use to do in the past. As nerves cells break down, waste products may collect in the tissue of the brain. Causing abnormal changes in the human brain called tangles and plaque to form. Lipofusein which is a fatty brown pigment can also build up in the tissues of nerve. The person senses can also be affected by nerves break down. The aged person might have their reflexes or sensation reduced or lost. Normal part of aging includes slowing of memory, thought, and thinking. These changes are different from individuals to individuals and not the same in every one.
Aging effects on Respiratory system.
The aging effects on the lungs are anatomically and physiologically similar to those occurring during the mild emphysema development. Although aging effects gas exchange, ventilation, and other lung function parameters as well as the lung defence mechanisms, pure changes related to age do not lead to significant obstruction of air way in people who do not smoke. There are many factors which interact in reduction of the respiratory system efficiency in elderly individuals. The lungs ability to inflate and deflate is reduced due to elastic tissue deterioration throughout the body. Arthritic changes prevent the ribs cage to move freely as before. This combined with elasticity change causes chest movement reduction limiting respiratory volume.
Aging affect integumentary system. (SKIN) The integumentary system major functions are to protect the body from environmental hazards and control of the temperature. The affect of age in Integumentary system includes: - Skins thins making older people more prone to injury, and skin infections, causing slow skin repair. Melanin pigment decreases the skin due to aging. Making alders peoples more sensitive to the sun.
Decreases in glandular activity in the skin leading to dry scaly skin to old people.
4.2.
People with diabetes types 2 can lose lower limb as result of this illness. This is because wound and diabetes combination are very dangerous.
As this person has diabetes and advanced in age, she should understand that there is no such a thing as minor wound when you have diabetes especially to the foot. A small wound to foot can turn in ulcer that can lead to amputation if not treated properly, and this amputation can be prevented if good care is given to the foot and treatment to the wound. The reasons for complications from wound healing are that: - Blood flow is decreased by diabetes making the injuries slow to heal. This wound will become bigger and deeper and can lead to amputation of the limb.–People with diabetic usually have neuropathy which reduces sensations in their feet or hands meaning they do not necessarily notice injuries right away. Feet are more at risk when someone has diabetes because feet work harder in people’s daily lives than hands, and people do not look after them so offer making it difficult to spot wound. To prevent wound complication, the person need to check their feet every day, dry them well, keep them from cracking and drying, also being cautions in nails salons.
Appropriate management of wound includes the use of appropriate dressing and application of Medicine such antibiotics. To keep the wound from becoming infection the patient needs to: Avoid walking barefoot, clean the wound daily, and use appropriate wounds dressing or bandages; she may need to wear special foot gear and dispose of old bandages and use clean and new one to avoid contamination.
Osteoarthritis: is a condition that will affect the patient joints, making her joints painful and stiff. Most often osteoarthritis will affect the patient body joint than carry weight (hips, knees, feet and spine). Fingers can also be affected, including thumbs base, shoulders and elbowed or any other joint in the patient body.
A symptom of osteoarthritis includes:
-A reduction in the patient movement range in the joint.
-A deep joint pain and aching.
-A change in the patient joint shape with soft swelling and hand bony grout he caused by extra flue.
-When the patient put weight on the joint, this may cause the joint to give away.
-Grinding and crunching and noise in the person joints when moving them.
These symptoms may get worse some time. Example: When the patient are more active than usually, or when the weather is damp.
Treatment option for osteoarthritis includes:
-Self-help (maintain healthy weights for the body weight, exercising regularly, using walking stick, muscular massage etc...)
-Medicines.
-Surgery.
-Complementary therapies to ease the symptoms.

Hypertension or high blood pressure is considered as risk factor that can increase on individual or a person chance of developing a stroke, heart disease, kidney or kidney disease and other serious health conditions.
Cause of hypertension.
Hypertension is caused by waste toxins and fluid build up because they aren’t removed from the body.
Symptoms of high blood pressure are: high cholesterol level in the blood, which frequently caused by eating oily food, dizziness, nausea, headaches or blurred vision.
Measured in millimetres of mercury (mm hg), blood pressure is pressure of blood in human blood vessels (arteries). Recorded as two figures, the cop number is the systolic pressure and the bottom number is the diastolic pressure. Example 140/90 which is said your blood pressure is over or above each time the professional takes them is considered high blood pressure (hypertension).or doctor is likely to examined by some routine test :
Urine test, blood test to check that their kidneys are ok, sugar level and cholesterol. (NHS choice)
How to manage high blood pressure. Blood pressure is managed by: - Low sodium, adequate exercise, enough sleep and well –balance diet which is: low in fat, low in protein, low in sodium, fruits, free from cholesterol.
High blood pressure is avoided by: remove the bad elements that cause the disease, no drink alcohol, stop smoking, lack of sleep, high animal- based foods, meat and eggs.(www.nice.org.uk/cg034nice).

Conclusion:
Physiology of human body explains the functions of the human body organs together with the human body, and explored the relevant detailed anatomy and physiology.
The report has also explored how routine data which are collected in health and social care may inform or informs the care planning for a individual.
The report has provided an understanding of the main structure and interaction of the main structure and explored the purpose behind gathering routine data from a person accessing on using health and social care service.

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References

Bell, G. H, Emilie -Smith, D , Paterson, C. R(1980), Textbook of physiology 10th end. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.
Carols, R, Harley, J. P, No pack, C.R (1992), Human Anatomy & Physiology International Edition 2dn end. New York: Mc –hill.
Crimando, Dr. J (199) External Anatomy of the Heart. Available at: www.gwc. Maricopa.edu/class/bio202/cyberheart/anthrt.htm (Accessed: 7 December 2009). BEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1996) Advanced Studies in Physical Education and Sport. UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the Study of Sport. UK: Harcourt Publishers Ltd.McARDLE, W. et al. (2000) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & WilkinsBEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. UK: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.GALLIGAN, F. et al. (2000) Advanced PE for Edexcel. Oxford; Heinemann Educational PublishersBIZLEY, K. (1994) Examining Physical Education. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers |

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