Free Essay



Submitted By cailouden
Words 1596
Pages 7
Describe the following tissue types:
Epithelial - Epithelial tissue covers the entire surface of the body. It is made up of cells nearly pressed and extended in one or more layers. This tissue is specific to structure the covering or coating of all inward and outer body surfaces. Epithelial tissue that happens on surfaces on the inside of the body is known as endothelium. Epithelial cells are packed firmly together, with practically no intercellular spaces and just a little measure of intercellular substance. Epithelial tissue is generally divided from the underlying tissue by a meagre sheet of connective tissue; cellar layer. The basement membrane gives structural backing to the epithelium furthermore ties it to neighbouring structures. Epithelial tissue can be divided into two groups depending on the number of layers of which it is creates. Epithelial tissue which is stand out cell thick is known as basic epithelium. On the off chance that it is two or more cells thick, for example, the skin, it is known as stratified epithelium. There are also nerve supplies to the epithelia but they are supplied with oxygen and nutrients from deeper tissues by diffusion.
There are three types of epithelial tissue, which include cuboidal, columnar and squamous
Simple cuboidal epithelia are a type of epithelium that refers to a single layer of cube-like cells. These cuboidal cells have large, spherical and central nuclei. The cells of this sort of tissue can withstand more trauma than basic squamous epithelia and are adjusted for dispersion and discharge. This is one of the specializations found in epithelial tissues. Straightforward cuboidal epithelium is found in organs that are specific for emission, for example, salivary organs and thyroid follicles, and those that are particular for dispersion, for example, the kidney tubules. As its name concludes, this tissue comprises of a solitary layer of cuboidal cells on the storm basement membrane.
Simple columnar epithelial cells are longer than they are wide. Characteristically, their nuclei are found at the base of the cell. The cells are connected by tight junctions. The cells receive nutrients through the basement membrane, which separates the cells from the capillary basal layer. Simple columnar epithelial cells can specialize to secret mucus that coats and protects the surrounding surface from damage. They are usually found in the lining of the intestine and gallbladder. Basic squamous epithelial cells are slim and level (the most slender of all epithelial cell-sorts), which allows them to have a large surface zone. The cells, scale-like in appearance, have a tendency to have bigger, circularly formed cores. As a basic sort of epithelium, straightforward squamous epithelium is one cell-layer thick, and in this manner each cell of the tissue comes in immediate contact with the basement membrane. Likewise with different sorts of epithelia, basic squamous epithelial cells are bound together by tight intersections, framing a specific boundary, which is significant to its capacity. Connective
Connective tissue is made up of cells and extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is made up of fibres in a protein and polysaccharide matrix, secreted and organised by cells in the extracellular matrix. Variations in the composition of the extracellular matrix, determines the properties of the connective tissue. For example, if the matrix is calcified, it can form bone or teeth. Specialised forms of extracellular matrix also makes up tendons, cartilage, and the cornea of the eye. General connective tissue is either loose, or dense, depending on the arrangement of the fibres.
Blood - Every tissue in the body needs a blood supply. Many of the white blood cells leave the blood vessels and migrate into the connective tissue and epithelia.
Cartilage is usually found in close association with bone in the body. It is a type of connective tissue which is tough, semi-transparent, elastic and flexible. The matrix or ground substance of cartilage consists mainly of glyco-protein material, chondroitin. The cartilage cells (chondrocytes) lie scattered in the matrix. Cartilage is covered by a dense fibrous membrane, the perichondrium. No nerves or blood vessels occur in cartilage. In some vertebrates, such as sharks, the entire skeleton is made up of cartilage. In mammal embryos, the skeleton first forms as cartilage tissue. Cartilage acts as a model and is gradually replaced by bone as the embryo grows. Such cartilage is known as temporary cartilage. The process by which bone tissue follows the cartilage model and slowly replaces it is known as ossification. Permanent cartilage (cartilage which does not become ossified) is found in the tip of the nose, in the external ear and in the walls of the trachea (windpipe) and the larynx (voice-box)
Adipose tissue forms a thick layer under the skin and around the kidneys. Adipose Tissue is a loose fibrous connective tissue packed with many cells (called "adipocytes") that are specialized for storage of triglycerides more commonly referred to as "fats". Adipose tissue acts as an insulating layer, helping to reduce heat loss through the skin. It also has a protective function, providing mechanical protection ("padding") and support around some of the major organs, e.g. kidneys. Adipose tissue is also a means of energy storage. Food that is excess to requirements is converted into fat and stored within adipose tissue in the bod
Nervous tissue is responsible for sensing stimuli and transmitting signals to and from different parts of an organism. Neurons are the basic unit of nervous tissue. As we have previously discussed, structure and function are very much intertwined within biology and the structure of a neuron is uniquely suited to its function within nervous tissue. A neuron consists of two major parts:
Cell Body
The central cell body contains the neuron's nucleus, associated cytoplasm, and other organelles. Nerve processes are "finger-like" projections from the cell body that are able to conduct and transmit signals. There are two types:
Axons - typically carry signals away from the cell body.
Dendrites - typically carry signals toward the cell body.

Striated muscle, also called voluntary muscle, striped muscle, or skeletal muscle , most common of the three types of muscle in the body. Striated muscle is attached to bone and produces all the movements of body parts in relation to each other; unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, striated muscle is under voluntary control. Its multinucleated fibres are long and thin and are crossed with a regular pattern of fine red and white lines, giving the muscle its distinctive appearance and its name. The skeletal muscles are composed of muscle fibers, long fused cells containing multiple nuclei. The muscle fibers are packed together in bundles by connective tissue and are packed with myofibrils.
Non-striated muscle lacks visible striations. Smooth muscle is the only muscle of this type and without striations, other less obvious characteristics are used to identify this tissue. Before we examine smooth muscle in longitudinal or cross-section, it might be worth our while to determine why some myofibers are striated while others are not. Smooth muscle can be identified in cross-section or longitudinal sections by keeping some structural features of these cells in mind. Smooth muscle cells are spindle-shaped. In longitudinal sections, this spindle shape may not be immediately obvious because membranes of smooth muscles do not stand out.
Cardiac muscle tissue is made up of many interlocking cardiac muscle cells, or fibres, that give the tissue its properties. Each cardiac muscle fibre contains a single nucleus and is striated, or striped, because it appears to have light and dark bands when seen through a microscope. The dark bands represent areas of thick protein filaments made of myosin proteins that block light passing through the cell and appear dark. Between the dark bands are thin filaments made of actin protein that allow light to pass through and appear light. When the muscle fibres contract, myosin pulls the actin filaments together like an accordion to shrink the muscle cell and make it contract. While each cell is not very strong by itself, millions of cardiac muscle cells working together are easily able to pump all of the blood in the body through the heart in less than a minute. Cardiac muscle tissue is able to set its own contraction rhythm due to the presence of pacemaker cells that stimulate the other cardiac muscle cells. The pacemaker cells normally receive inputs from the nervous system to increase or decrease the heart rate depending on the body’s needs. However, in the absence of nervous system stimulation, the pacemaker cells can produce a regular heart rhythm.

Eroschenkodi, V. P. (2005). diFiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Hart, K. (2007). "Epithelial tissue: Simple Cuboidal Epithelium". Histology Photomicrographs. Peninsula College 14/10/14<>

Gartner, L.P. & Hiatt, J.L. (2007). Color Textbook of Histology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.

Wiechmann, A. & Pillow J. "Female Reproductive System". Interactive Histology Atlas. University of Oklahoma Health Science Center. 14/10/14 <>

Wiechmann, A. & Pillow J. "Respiratory System". Interactive Histology Atlas. University of Oklahoma Health Science Center. 14/10/2014.

Dr. Karen Bernd. (2010). Simple Cuboidal Epithelium. Available: Last accessed 14/10/2014.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Exercise Physiology

...Measurement of Serum triglyceride and serum glucose Protocol: ● Patient should not have any bleeding disorder ● Patient should not engage into any physical activity before the test ● Blood should be drawn from the healthy finger; devoid of any infection. ● Tip of the finger should be thoroughly cleaned with alcohol swab before taking the sample ● Serum triglyceride and glucose measurement device should be calibrated before testing. ● Sensor code should match the code set on the device. ● Patient should be in 8-12 h fasting state before the test ● Ask the patient about the medications he/she takes Equipment: Serum triglyceride and glucose level are measured by using cardio check device. Cardio check device (Fig.1) comes with the sensors and memory chip. Sensors are different for triglyceride and glucose measurement. Different memory chips are used for the measurement of serum triglyceride and glucose level. Memory chips come with the sensors suitable to it. Only those sensors should be used with corresponding memory chips. Sensors are placed on the given space on the device. Memory chips are inserted on the device and the device is calibrated for the measurements. The device can be connected to the printer. Memory chips stores the readings, it can be retrieved and printed later. Different gauge of lancets are required. Device should be calibrated before testing. Proper memory chip and sensor strip should be inserted for specific test. Proper care should...

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Exercise Physiology Lab

...Exercise Physiology Lab Lab Questions: Q 1) Which human body system's activity was most affected by exercise? Explain why you think this was the case. A 1) The Human body system's activity that was most affected by exercise was the circulatory system. It was the circulatory system because it was the system that increased the most after exercise. I think this is the case because it had to work the most and it had the most effect on the body. Q 2) Which human body system's activity was least affected by exercise? Explain why you think this is the case. A 2) The human body system's activity that was least affected by exercise was the muscular system. It was the muscular system because it only increased by 9% after exercise. I think this is the case because it didn't have a lasting effect on the body. Q 3) On a separate sheet of paper, please type an essay fully explaining how all of the following concepts are related to each other. Include the necessary equations, name any body systems involved. Effectively, create a story linking all of these terms together. • amount of glucose usage • oxygen intake () • heart rate () • rate of breathing () • number of repetitions of a certain muscular-moving exercise • muscle cramping • rate of ATP production () • carbon Dioxide output () A 3) When you Exercise you notice several things about your body. You breathe heavier and faster, you take in more oxygen and let out more carbon dioxide, your heart beats faster, your muscles...

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Spirometry Practical Physiology

...1. According to the results obtained, the experimental VC is lower than the predicted VC value. The experimental values for VC, FRC and TLC are substantially lower than the predicted values which are based on heights and ages. The differences in the results could possibly be because to the person has a smaller chest cavity, a lower level of fitness or a habit of smoking which decreases FRC. Psychological effects such as self-consciousness of the person could have also caused the differences in the values. The structure of the equipment, having a long connection tube also adds on to the dead space hence increasing the level of CO2 over time, which can alter the results. 2. As shown in our results, the time period between the expiration peaks in flow pattern is shorter than the inspiration peaks. This shows that exhalation is a passive action because it does not require effort, therefore air flows out faster and expiration occurs over a shorter time compared to inspiration. During inspiration, muscular effort is needed and the pattern of the flow shows that period of inspiration is longer than expiration. 3. RV cannot be determined by ordinary spirometry because it is physically not possible to exhale the RV. The RV is there because during inspiration a lower pressure is created in out lungs. If the RV is not present, our lungs would collapse. While spirometry cannot determine this, special techniques have been made to determine this, such as nitrogen washout. 4...

Words: 736 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Muscle Physiology P1 Research Paper

...nd Chronic Effects of Exercise on the Body Describe the musculoskeletal, energy systems, cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise (P1 & P2) Explain the response of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise (M1) There are a number of ways which the musculoskeletal system responds to acute exercise. These include: Musculoskeletal: • Increased blood supply- When we exercise there is an increased demand from the body for oxygen. More oxygen is required in order for our muscles to function; they require more oxygen as a result of the muscles having to work harder when we exercise. To allow an increased heart rate which brings more blood around the body warming up must occur on the behalf of the person. When the muscles work there is also a high demand for other nutrients such as fats and carbohydrates, these are used to make the adenosine triphosphate which is used for energy. The blood vessels in our body must expand in order to allow red blood cells to pass through and reach the muscles quicker. When the blood vessels expand in order for a higher volume of blood to pass this is called vasodilation and this ensures the nutrients needed for the muscles to function are being delivered in the correct quantities. As the muscles are working at an increased rate more blood is required as well as the nutrients, the extra blood arrives from areas such as the digestive system...

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...NQF LEVEL 4: BTEC Higher National Certificate (HNC – HSC) Physiological Principles for Health and Social Care PHYSIOLOGY Introduction This assignment will investigate the human body organ system and how they work together . Appropriate or case study provided in this assignment will be used in order to investigate the functionality of body system. Main anatomic feature of the human body will be outline, how body system interact to ensure the body functions and grows will be discussed. The part two of the assignment will look at how the body responds to physical activity and it will also identify how the body coordinated internal activities. This assignment will also look at other human body conditions such as obesity, diabetes and discus as to deal with such conditions in order to ensure the wellbeing of individuals with such conditions. THE human body is composed of ten different systems which are made of organs working in coordination with one another. These organs have to work together as they need each another to fulfil its functions. Human organs support each other’s in order to perform their function. Below is brief descriptions and functions of human body system: 1. Central Nervous System (CNS): CNS is composed of brain, nerves, nerve endings, and spinal cord. It role is to control and coordinate the body functions (coordination of nervous). Will be responsible for sensory input, integration of data and motor output. 2. Cardio vascular system...

Words: 4243 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay


...Introduction This essay will firstly outline the main anatomical features of the human body. Secondly, it will explain how the body systems interact with each other, to ensure the body functions and develops. References of relevant literature will be used throughout the whole essay. Principles of physiology Task 1 List all the systems of the human body and their functions. Explain how body systems interact to ensure proper functioning and growth of the human body. The human body main anatomical features are: * Central Nervous system The central nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord and a network of nerves. This system is responsible for sending, receiving, and interpreting information from all parts of the body. This system has full control over all other systems. * Cardio Vascular/Circulatory system The cardio vascular system is a network made up of the heart, blood, blood vessels, arteries and veins. This system moves blood, nutrients, hormones, oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body. It also gets rid of wastes that needs to be disposed of. * Respiratory system The respiratory system consists of the trachea, the lungs and the diaphragm. This system is where oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide removed. This process is called breathing. * Digestive System The digestive system consists of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. This system is responsible for the breakdown and absorption...

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Exercise Physiology Test Name: Justin Dueyen Athletes and other sportsmen such as soccer players require a pre participation routine before the start of a match or any routine practice. Such routines should include a warm up session that is followed by a stretching session. The warm up session functions to elevate core temperature by engaging in some light calisthenics or light running (White, 2008). In turn, this increases extensibility and flexibility of muscles and tissues. Similarly, the stretching routine also serves to increase the extensibility and flexibility of muscles and tissues. This paper will give the rational for using dynamic stretching, its benefits and the specific movements that one can use during the stretching process. Dynamic stretching is among the preferred stretching techniques used by a majority coaches. It involves the controlled swinging of both arms and legs without stretching out of one’s range of motion. In this case, the stretch is produced by both active muscular contractions and momentum (Reilly, 2007). During dynamic stretching, one uses certain movements depending on their sport in preparation for body movement. This type of stretching tends to be confused with ballistic stretching. This is because if one stretches beyond their static ability, it is no longer dynamic stretching but rather ballistic stretching. This routine of dynamic stretching should begin from low intensity and gradually progress to...

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Joseph's Story

...intracellular organelle have membranes as part of their structure? How would the breakdown of the membranes of these structures affect the function of Joseph’s heart? All intracellular organelles have membranes, ( Cytosol consist of ATP that transfers nutrients to the cardiac muscle and throughout the body (Anatomy and Physiology third edition, pg. 76). Without ATP being carried to the cardiac heart muscle through the cytosol it cannot receive proteins and nutrients. The function of the heart if affected and the cell membranes are damaged and can die. D. Two important pieces of information- the instructions Joseph’s body needs to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease- are both contained within the cells on which structures? Joseph has a family history for cardiovascular disease. The predisposition is within the power house of the cell called mitochondrial DNA (Anatomy and Physiology third edition pg. 85). In order to repair the damaged cells within Joseph’s body the synthesis from mRNA proteins are needed (Anatomy and Physiology third edition pg. 90). E. Joseph’s heart attack has caused the function of his cells to change. What types of proteins in the cell membrane were involved in the homeostatic imbalance of his heart cells? APT that is contained in the...

Words: 631 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Interview Questions in Safeway

...A Laboratory Manual for Human Anatomy And Physiology First year Diploma in Pharmacy (PH) Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, Mumbai CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CELL,MSBTE,MUMBAI. LABORATORY MANUAL DEVELOPMENT FOR DIPLOMA IN PHARMACY Particulars Education Technology Consultant Project Institution Shri. D.M.Makone, Team for design Mahatma Gandhi Vidyamandir's, Institute of Industrial And Pharmaceutical Technology, Panchavati,Nashik-422 003 November-2005 - May 2006 Principal,Shri.Vilas M.Aurangabadkar I.I.P.T. Panchavati,Nashik - 422 003 Shri. Bhaurao K.BacchavI.I.P.T., Panchavati, Nashik - 422 003 1. Shri. Bhaurao K.Bacchav I.I.P.T.,Panchavati,Nashik 2. Shri. Avinash R. Bhutada Shri.D.F.Lodha, Pharmacy College, Chandwad 3. Shri. Nadeem A. Logade, AIT's Institute of Pharmacy, Malegaon. Project Period Chief Project Coordinator Project Coordinator Subject Experts © 2006, Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, 49, Kherwadi, Aliyawar Jung Road, Bandra (East), Mumbai-400 051 Maharashtra State, India. No part of this Laboratory Manual be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from MSBTE Mumbai. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION Certificate This is to certify that, Mr./Ms./Mrs. Roll No. of First Year Diploma in pharmacy (Institute) has Completed the term work satisfactorily in Human Anatomy and Physiology PR. ( 0809) for the academic year 200 to 200 as prescribed in the curriculum. Place...

Words: 3097 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


...The Barometric Pressure (total atmospheric pressure) at sea level is 760torr. The atmosphere is 20.9% oxygen so the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is 160torr. In order for inspiration to occur (atmospheric air to enter the lungs) the diaphragm (the muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity) receives action potentials and pulls down, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity (and the lungs). According to Boyle’s Law this increase of volume, decreases the pressure on the lungs below normal 760torr. Because of the pressure gradient between the atmosphere (high pressure=760torr) and the lungs (low pressure<760torr) air rushes into the lungs (inspiration). The tidal volume that enters the body is 500mL, 150mL of this fills the anatomical dead space (trachea and conduction bronchioles, bronchioles 1-17). The remaining 350mL enters the respiratory bronchioles (bronchioles 18-23) where gas exchange occurs. Air enters the one cell thick alveoli where partial pressure of oxygen is 100torr, there are 300 million alveoli in the lungs which creates a cross sectional area of 70m2 (where gas exchange can occur). The alveoli are in direct contact with the 1 cell thick pulmonary capillaries where erythrocytes travel one at a time, creating a diffusion length of 20 microns. The partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries before reaching the alveoli is 40torr. Due to the partial pressure law, oxygen diffuses from its high partial pressure in the alveoli...

Words: 1763 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Constancy of the Internal Environment

...MODULE 1 By Alina Corina Nicorescu Presented to Name of your University Contents Introduction 3 The constancy of the Internal Environment 4 Biological functionality is multilevel 5 Bibliography 7 Introduction Claude Bernard was a French Physiologist who was best known for his works and discoveries during his lifetime in the field of digestive processes, the liver and the regulation of the supply of the blood though the vasomotor nerves. The most renowned and important discovery of Bernard was related to use of the secretions of the pancreatic tissues to break down the molecules of fat into smaller particles so as to aid the digestion process and the other specific discovery was that the principle process of digestion does not take place in the stomach rather it takes place in the small intestine. His next discovery unveiled the ability of the liver to split the reserves of the glycogen energy into sugar particles so as to use them as a quick source of energy for the body and to maintain the levels of the sugar in the body. Finally, Bernard discovered the control of the vasomotor nerves on the blood vessels, and how it responds to the changes in the temperatures while operating in an environment. With this the Bernard was able to advance his work on blood vessels and tried to understand the ability of the body to constantly maintain the internal temperature. This led him to formulate the ideas in relation to the constancy of the internal environment of the...

Words: 1535 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Approaches to Human Body

...• Quadrants and regions • Anatomy and physiology • Microscopic to macroscopic • Body systems • Medical specialties The body planes and the body directions are used when trying to describe the location on the body it can also be called anatomical directions. For example anterior is used for front or in front of and posterior is for after, behind, following. The body cavity is being used when studying any fluid filled space in the multicellular organism. Like the pelvic cavity, ventral cavity dorsal cavity and so forth. Regions and quadrants are used to determine what part of the body you are studying, we determined that with planes there is front and back and now with regions and quadrants it gets a little more specific. Anatomy and physiology are used to determine how each part of the body work and why it works the way it does. Microscopic to macroscopic is the study of the bodies smallest parts and how they come together to make a large complex system. Body systems are how the organs function in the body, how the heart beats how we breathe. Medical specialties are the treatment for a specific area in the body. • In health care each organizational approach is used differently. The quadrant system is used more so when health care workers are doing examinations and they are trying to localize pain, tumors or abdominal structures. Doing a CT scan determines what plane of the body is being looked at. With anatomy and physiology the health care provider can explain the...

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Intro to Anatomy & Physio

...Anatomy and Physiology (pp. 1–3) A. Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to each other, and physiology is the study of the function of body parts (p. 2). B. Topics of Anatomy (p. 2) 1. Gross (macroscopic) anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye. a. Regional anatomy is the study of all body structures in a given body region. b. Systemic anatomy is the study of all structures in a body system. c. Surface anatomy is the study of internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin. 2. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. a. Cytology is the study of individual cells. b. Histology is the study of tissues. 3. Developmental anatomy is the study of the change in body structures over the course of a lifetime; embryology focuses on development that occurs before birth. 4. Specialized Branches of Anatomy a. Pathological anatomy is the study of structural changes associated with disease. b. Radiographic anatomy is the study of internal structures using specialized visualization techniques. c. Molecular biology is the study of biological molecules. 5. Essential tools for studying anatomy are the mastery of medical terminology and the development of keen observational skills. C. Topics of Physiology (p. 2) 1. Physiology has several...

Words: 2871 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...BSC2085L HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I LAB SYLLABUS Term 20151 Session 1 INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Mizanur Rahman OFFICE: Bldg. 72/ 2nd Floor (Academic Success Center) OFFICE DAY/TIME: Monday: 10:45 am -11.45 am/ Tuesday: 6 - 7 pm (Academic Success Center/Bldg.72/2nd Floor) TELEPHONE: 954-529-7195 (Prefer email than call me) EMERGENCY HOTLINE: 954-201-4900 (For school open/close info) CLASS ROOM: 70/116 CLASS DAY/HOUR: Monday: 12 - 1:50 pm (Ref.# 499260) Tuesday: 8 - 9:50 am (Ref.# 494608) Tuesday: 10 - 11:50 am (Ref.# 494609) Tuesday: 4 - 5:50 pm (Ref.# 494616) E-MAIL:     PRE-REQUISITES: BSC2085 (Human Anatomy and Physiology I) CO-REQUISITES: BSC2085L TEXT: Exploring Anatomy & Physiology in the Laboratory / By Erin C. Amerman, 2013 (2nd Edition), ISBN-13: 978-161731-056-0) COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a laboratory section that runs in conjunction with the Human Anatomy and Physiology I (BSC 2085) course. This...

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...neural and hormonal reactions. WEAKNESSES 1. It’s reductionist, which leads to the following criticisms: (a) If someone comes to you with depression is it any use to them to tell them that their serotonin receptors are not functioning properly? (b) Mind/body problem 1: psychology has great influence on physiology (stress and illness) (c) Mind/body problem 2: sensation is not necessarily the same as perception (d) Consciousness: what is it, where is it and is it any use finding it? (e) What about free will? Biological approach advocates determinism 2. Evolutionary approach has a number of problems: (a) Altruism: difficult to explain. Even sociobiologists come up with some very convoluted explanations. (b) Our developing cortex means that we rely less on instincts and more on “higher” processes. (c) Our behaviour is very much socially and culturally determined. 3. Genes: Difficult to separate genes and environmental influences on behaviour. 2. If we know the physiological basis of some aspects of behaviour (e.g. depression) then we can treat the problem using drugs, which could solve the problem entirely if it’s simply a straightforward chemical imbalance. Plus, some aspects of physiology and anatomy are very useful when it comes to diagnosing brain damage etc. 3. Evolutionary theory can offer some neat explanations of behaviour that would otherwise be inexplicable (e.g. graffiti, appendix). 4. The more we know about the brain, the more we should be able to explain how we tick: it is...

Words: 307 - Pages: 2