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# Sc4730 Assignments

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ITT TECHNICAL INSTITUTE
SC4730
Environmental Science
Onsite Course

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Assignments and Exercises………………………………………………………… page 2
Labs…………………………………………………………………………………….page 16
Project…...............................................................................................................page 21

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Unit 1 Exercise 1: Statistics and Graphing

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will interpret and graph descriptive statistics.

Assignment Requirements
Work in small groups to complete Problems 1-4 given in the worksheet provided by your instructor (Problems Worksheets). This is also available at the link below. Fill out one activity sheet (found at the end of the document) for each of the 4 questions. Required Resources * Statistics and Graphing (SC2730.U1.HO1) Worksheets also available at: http://esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/stats/stats.pdf * Problems Worksheets (SC2730.U1.HO2) also available at: http://esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/stats/problems.pdf Submission Requirements
4 completed activity sheets (1 each for Problems 1-4)

Unit 1 Problem Set 1: Scientific Method Applied Problem Sets

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will outline the steps of the scientific method.

Assignment Requirements
Refer to the Applied Problem Sets located on pp. 153-162 of the Wagner lab manual. Use the scientific method to complete the problem sets.

Answer Questions 1-6 for Problem Set 1 and questions 1-8 for Problem Set 2.

Submission Requirements
Use Microsoft Word for Problem Sets 1 and 2, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced.
Use Microsoft Excel for graphing and charting problems in Problem Set 2. Print and submit.

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Unit 2 Problem Set 1: Quantification of Environmental Problems Applied Problem Set

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will explain how risk assessment helps us manage potential health risks.

Assignment Requirements

Explore the quantification of environmental problems by completing Problem Set 3 on pp. 163-169 in the Lab Manual.

Answer questions 1-10 in Exercise Set I.
Answer questions 1-10 in Exercise Set II.
Answer questions 1-10 in Exercise Set III.
Answer questions 1-10 in Exercise Set IV.

Submission Requirements
Microsoft Word 1-2 pages
Use Microsoft Excel for Exercise Set IV. Submit the electronic version (.xls or .xlsx)

Unit 2 Exercise 1: Environmental Health

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will explain how risk assessment helps us manage potential health risks.

Assignment Requirements
Use the handout provided by your instructor.

Work through the example calculation provided: a starting concentration of DDT found in algae is used that to calculate the total amount of DDT consumed by a shrimp. The amount consumed by the shrimp divided by the weight of the shrimp will yield an approximate concentration of DDT in the shrimp. A similar calculation will yield the concentration of DDT in a fish, and another will yield the concentration in an adult human.

Calculate a hypothetical bioaccumulation of the common lipophilic pesticide DDT as it progresses through the food chain from algae to fish to humans. Required Resources * Estimating Bioaccumulation Worksheet

Submission Requirements
Hand calculations or 1 page Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel document

Unit 3 Problem Set 1: Ecosystem Diagram Applied Problem Set

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will differentiate the three main terrestrial biomes in terms of climate, soil, and characteristic organisms and distinguish between primary and secondary succession.

Assignment Requirements Complete the Ecosystem Diagram, Problem Set 4 on p. 171 of the Lab Manual. Draw the ecosystem and answer the 5 questions.

Submission Requirements
Hand-drawn sketch
1-2 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 3 Problem Set 2: Biogeochemical Concept Diagram Applied Problem Set

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will diagram and explain the carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles.

Assignment Requirements Explore the biogeochemical cycles by completing Problem Set 5 on p. 173 of your lab manual.

Submission Requirements
Hand-drawn diagram

Unit 4 Exercise 1: Calculating Population Growth

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will explain the factors that produce changes in population size and suggest a means for controlling population size.

Assignment Requirements Summarize the factors you think are important in determining population growth. How do these variables differ in different countries? Make a proposal for a population control policy that could be implemented in the United States. Discuss whether such a proposal is necessary in this country.

Submission Requirements
2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 4 Exercise 2: Technological “Leapfrogging”

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will evaluate technologies that are polluting and suggest alternatives.

Assignment Requirements
The textbook states that “air pollution is generally worse in developing countries than in highly developed countries.” One reason for this is that cleaner technologies can be more expensive than older, less polluting technologies. But this is not always the case: sometimes cleaner technologies can be cheaper, and sometimes developing countries can focus on less polluting industries as they develop. For example, running telephone answering services is far less polluting than producing low-quality steel.
Identify:
* Several technologies that are less polluting and less expensive than earlier versions of the technology * Several developmental alternatives to highly polluting industries

Discuss how these technologies could be adopted in developing countries, as well as the social, economic, infrastructure, or other limitations on their adoption. Required Resources * Internet access

Submission Requirements
2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 5 Exercise 1: Trees and Carbon

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will estimate the aboveground biomass in an acre of forest.

Assignment Requirements
This activity illustrates how carbon cycles through the biosphere and how mankind affects this cycle. In particular, it focuses on quantifying carbon sequestration by trees. Using the handout provided and the data set assigned by your instructor, complete one activity sheet for the data set (Note: If your instructor does not assign a particular data set, use data set #1.). The activity sheets for each data set are found at the end of the document. Required Resources * Trees and Carbon (SC4730.U5.HO1); also accessible at http://esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/trees-carbon/trees-carbon.pdf

Submission Requirements
1 completed activity sheet (corresponding to the data set you were assigned.)

Unit 5 Problem Set 1: Global Warming, CO2, and You Applied Problem Set

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will discuss some of the potential effects of global climate change.

Assignment Requirements Complete Problem Set 6 on pp. 175-180 of the Lab Manual. Answer Questions 1-10. Fill out the answers on the worksheets for Questions 1-9 and use Microsoft Word for Question 10.

Submission Requirements
Completed worksheets
1 page, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 7 Exercise 1: Project Proposal Feedback

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will evaluate a project proposal.

Assignment Requirements Evaluate the proposal of one of your peers. Thoughtfully and thoroughly, complete the Project Proposal Feedback Form (SC4730.U7.HO2).

Required Resources * Project Proposal Feedback Form (SC4730.U7.HO2).

Submission Requirements
1 completed project proposal feedback form

Unit 8 Problem Set 1: Trophic Ecology of Humans: The Best Guess Breakfast Interview Applied Problem Set

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will discuss some of the potential effects of global climate change.

Assignment Requirements Complete Problem Set 16 on pp. 213-216 of the Lab Manual. Answer Questions 1-8.

Submission Requirements
Completed worksheets
2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 9 Exercise 1: Virtual Field Trip: Coal Fired Power Plant

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will evaluate a project proposal.

Assignment Requirements
Watch the virtual field trip video, BP Oil Spill. Create a sketch the shows the steps in generating electricity from coal. Include inputs and outputs in your diagram. Be sure to include any waste/pollution that is an output, and any equipment used to mitigate that waste/pollution.

Required Resources * Interactive media: * BP Oil Spill The student media site is accessible at: http://mywiley.info/ITTESSTU

Submission Requirements
Hand drawn diagram

Unit 10 Exercise 1: Winds

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will interpret and graph descriptive statistics.

Assignment Requirements
Follow the directions on the worksheets. * Fill out the table of cities with barometric pressure, wind direction, and speed by using the links provided within the last page of the PDF, and print this out. * Print out the blank map of the US. * Print out the Activity Sheet. * Draw an arrow to denote the wind direction at each city. Make the length of the arrow correspond to the wind speed measured, using a scale of 1 mm = 1 mph. * Analyze the maps to see the connection between the isobars and the wind direction and speed. * Answer the questions on the Activity Sheet.

Required Resources * Winds (SC2730.U10.HO2) Worksheets also available at: http://esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/wind/windactivity.pdf * Isobaric Map (SC2730.U1.HO3) also available at: http://www.atmos.illinois.edu/weather/tree/viewer.pl?current/sfcslp/N Submission Requirements
Completed activity sheet

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Project

Unit 6 Project Part 1: Project Proposal

Purpose
In this independent project, you will practice environmental science. The goal is to design a solution to an environmental problem that is relevant to your local area, and then contrast the local solution with solutions that would work in other parts of the country.

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes * Apply methods of modern science to real environmental issues. * Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research various topics related to environmental science.

Required Resources * ITT Tech Virtual Library

Project Logistics 1. The project will include a data collection component. 2. The project will require use of ITT Tech Virtual Library and local observations. 3. The project will have milestone deliverables and then culminate with a final paper.

Important points about the project include:

* Your solution should be local in scope, even if the environmental issue is global. For example, a project could reduce carbon dioxide emissions from a local building, which addresses the global problem of climate change. * You should plan to do some research taking measurements in the field to support your proposed solutions. These measurements could take many forms. They could be traditional environmental measurements: for example, how much runoff is generated from a parking lot after a major storm. Or they could be more social: how do environmental attitudes affect recycling rates? In order to keep this in line with the scientific method, attitudes alone are not sufficient unless they are tied into data associated with area programs and recycling statistics at site(s), for example. * You will use the data collected to test one hypothesis that is necessary for your solution. Following the scientific method, formulate a hypothesis. For example, one might propose that homeowners switch from old-fashioned incandescent light bulbs to compact fluorescent light bulbs. The hypothesis is that the switch would save consumers at least 5% on their electric bills, which would offset the mercury released into the environment from these bulbs. The test of the hypothesis would require obtaining some residential electric bills and also surveying how many traditional light bulbs are used in those residences. * Consider how your solution could be implemented in a different part of the country. For example, if you proposed installing solar panels on a building near Phoenix, would this still be an economically viable solution in Chicago?
The first deliverable for the project, due next week, will be a 400-word project proposal. In the project proposal, outline: * The environmental problem that is being addressed * The proposed local solution to that problem * The hypothesis that the solution relies on * The experimental protocol and data collection that will test the hypothesis * Data analysis and draw conclusions * How the proposed solution would work in a different geographical region

Deliverables
400-word proposal, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

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Unit 7 Project Part 2: Project Sources

Purpose
In this part of the project, you will collect sources of information pertaining to your project.

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes * Apply methods of modern science to real environmental issues. * Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research various topics related to environmental science.

Required Resources * ITT Tech Virtual Library

Project Logistics
For this part of the project: * Identify and list 10 sources of information for your proposed local solution. * 5 of these sources must be from the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. These should be legitimate scientific journals, and within these journals the sources must be research articles, not opinion pieces or perspectives on research. * For the 5 sources that are not peer-reviewed, you can use websites, government reports, and newspaper articles. Of the websites used, 2 websites must be either .gov or .edu, and 2 must be the web versions of conventional (print) media (for example, Time magazine, the New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal). * For each source, write 3 sentences briefly summarizing the content of the source and how it will relate to their project.

Deliverables
3-5 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 8 Project Part 3: Project Data Collection

Purpose
In this part of the project, you will collect data and use that data to test your hypothesis.

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes * Apply methods of modern science to real environmental issues. * Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research various topics related to environmental science.

Required Resources * ITT Tech Virtual Library

Project Logistics 1. Take some measurements in the field to support your proposed solution to the problem you identified for your course project. These measurements could take many forms. They could be traditional environmental measurements: for example, how much runoff is generated from a parking lot after a major storm? Or they could be more social: how do environmental attitudes affect recycling rates? In order to keep this in line with the scientific method, attitudes alone are not sufficient, unless they are tied into data associated with area programs and recycling statistics at site(s), for example. 2. Use the data collected to test one hypothesis that is necessary for your solution. 3. Describe the data collection methods, submit the data collected, identify your hypothesis, and explain how the data supported or did not support the hypothesis. Will you formulate a new hypothesis? If so, identify that.

Deliverables
3-5 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

*

Unit 9 Project Part 4: Project Applications

Purpose
In this part of the project, you will consider how your solutions could be implemented in a different part of the country.

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes * Apply methods of modern science to real environmental issues. * Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research various topics related to environmental science.

Required Resources * ITT Tech Virtual Library

Project Logistics 1. Describe how your proposed solution can be applicable to other areas of the country or world. 2. Using the ITT Tech Virtual Library, identify how similar solutions have been implemented and the results of that implementation. 3. Use 3-4 sources.

Deliverables
2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced; cite all sources

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Laboratory Assignments

Unit 1 Lab 1: Environmental Awareness

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will evaluate environmental conditions and research the environmental attributes of the local area. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Wagner Lab Manual, Lab 1 Recommended Procedures In this lab assignment, you will answer questions about your home and state.
How many times a day do you eat meat? How much land use is associated with the type of meat and amount of meat you consume?
Research Questions:

1. What are the top three animals and plants on both the threatened and endangered species list for the United States of America? When was the endangered species act put into law? Which division of the US government is responsible for this document? Select one section or subsection that you were surprised to read about and indicate why. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/laws/esa.pdf.

2. What would a lawn look like in 1, 5, 25, and 50 years if it were never mowed again?

3. Produce a bar chart illustrating the temperature in your state over the course of a year. Month should be on the X-axis. Why? Be sure to make up a title, label both axis, and include units.

4. Make a graph plotting distance traveled vs. type of transportation for a week or a month, depending on how often you travel. Type of transportation should be on the X axis. Now make a pie chart showing the percentage of each type of transportation. Be sure the wedges of the pie are reflective of that percent.

5. Calculate your ecological footprint using Internet resources. A suggested site for this is: http://www.myfootprint.org/.

Deliverables Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced; Cite all sources used in APA format.

Unit 2 Lab 1: Science and the Popular Media

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will explain how risk assessment helps us manage potential health risks. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * ITT Tech Virtual Library * Wagner Lab Manual Recommended Procedures Refer to Lab 2 on p. 19 of the lab manual. * Generate a list of current and recent environmental controversies. * Select one of the controversies to research in the popular media by finding two newspaper articles (at least one of these has to be a local/regional newspaper and the other needs to be a national newspaper, such as the Wall Street Journal or New York Times). * Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to assist you in your search. * Evaluate the positive and negative contributions of the media coverage and submit a report answering Questions 1-10 given in the lab manual on p. 21. Deliverables
2-4 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 3 Lab 1: Experimental Design: Range of Tolerance

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will describe the factors that contribute to an organism’s ecological niche. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Wagner Lab Manual

Recommended Procedures Refer to Lab 7 on pp. 43-46 of the lab manual. 1. Define the following terms: * Realized Niche * Fundamental Niche * Principle of Competitive Exclusion * Resource Partitioning * Interspecific Competition * Intraspecific Competition * Limiting factor * Habitat * Range of Tolerance

2. Research Gause’s book, The Struggle for Existence using the Internet. A recommended site is: http://www.ggause.com/Contgau.htm. Review Gause’s experiment with Protozoa in Chapter V: Competition for Common Food in Protozoa. Note his graphs showing population sizes when the organisms were grown separately and how the populations changed when grown in mixed cultures.

In your own words, describe what happened with the population sizes in the mixed culture. Use Figure 7.1 in the lab manual on p. 44. to guide your thought process. Be sure to use the terms you defined in your response.

Using Figure 7.2 in the lab manual on p. 45, The Scientific Method, as a reference tool, dissect Gause’s study and correlate each step of the scientific method with Gause’s study. When done, you should have: * Gause’s observation (Why did he do the experiment? What did he notice happening in nature? (Hint: Peruse Chapter 1: The Problem, if you need help). * Gause’s hypothesis (what inferences did he make based on his observation? What question does he want to answer?) * Experiment and experimental design (How did Gause attempt to prove or disprove his hypothesis? What did he do in order to test the hypothesis and generate data?) * Data Collection (What did Gause learn from his experiment? What tangible information did he gather?) * Draw Conclusions (What does the data mean? How did he interpret the data? How did he explain his research findings?) * Support or Reject initial hypothesis (Does Gause’s data support the aforementioned hypothesis?) Deliverables
2-4 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced

Unit 4 Lab 1: Indoor Air Quality Inspection

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will relate, in general terms, the adverse health effects of air pollutants. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Microsoft Excel * Wagner Lab Manual Recommended Procedures
Refer to Lab 18 on pp. 95-100 of the lab manual.

* Using Figure 18.1 in the lab manual, Indoor Air Pollution, construct a chart showing the pollutants and their sources. This will serve as a study tool.

* Refer to the percentages of the major air components. They are listed in the lab manual in Lab 18. Visually express these percentages as a pie chart. You can use Excel to produce this chart: * Type the air component into the first column A (i.e.: in cell A1 type in “Nitrogen” (without the quotation marks), A2 type “oxygen” and so on. * In column B type the associated percentage of volume for each (do not put % sign). * Highlight the items you typed in. * Select insert * Select Pie chart

Select a design and choose a color scheme and chart layout. Title the chart.

* The United States Environmental Protection Agency has a website devoted exclusively to indoor air quality: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/. Use this site as a starting point. Select one of the following and write a two-page paper on indoor air pollution and: * Asthma * Radon * Mold and Moisture * Carbon Monoxide

* Complete Question 11 on p. 100 in the lab manual. Fill in Table 18.3 as you go through your day. Reference the chart you prepared from Figure 18.1. Use the formula provided in Question 11 to calculate the amount of time spent indoors in a 24 hour timeframe: (Tin (hour) ÷ 24 hours) X 100 = % Indoors. Deliverables
2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced
Pie chart
Table

Unit 5 Lab 1: Global Climate Change and Automobiles

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will estimate greenhouse gas emissions of automobiles within a community. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Microsoft Excel * Wagner Lab Manual * Clipboard Recommended Procedures
Complete Lab 17 on pp. 89-94 of the lab manual.

Conduct basic measurements and calculations to estimate the area impact of vehicles used by your school community (students, staff and faculty) and the contribution of vehicle-based pollution from your county, state, and the nation. To do this, you will estimate the annual average emissions produced by an average car at the school.

Complete the informal lab write-up (1-4) on p. 93 of the lab manual. Deliverables Microsoft Excel file (.xls or .xlsx) for Tasks 1-6 2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced for the informal lab write-up

Unit 6 Lab 1: Virtual Field Trip: Sewage Treatment Plant

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will estimate greenhouse gas emissions of automobiles within a community. Required Setup and Resources
Internet access
Microsoft Excel
Wagner Lab Manual Recommended Procedures
Complete Lab 14 on pp. 77-79 of the lab manual.

Answer the questions 1-15 in Lab 14. Deliverables 4-5 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced for the informal lab write-up

Unit 7 Lab 1: Soil Characterization

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will estimate greenhouse gas emissions of automobiles within a community. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Microsoft Excel * Wagner Lab Manual Recommended Procedures
Refer to Lab 19 on p. 101 of the lab manual.

Use an online site of a soil sample in a location of relevance (home town, campus, favorite vacation spot). Use the following website from the National Cooperative Soil Survey, supported by the United States Department of Agriculture: http://ncsslabdatamart.sc.egov.usda.gov/. * Click on characterization data * Select the country, state, and county * Press execute query * Check off those that apply or are of interest to you * Continue * Primary characterization data * Get report * The following site, “General Description for National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Data,” can be used for general information: http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/description.html.

Answer the following questions: 1) Which soil horizons are in your selected area? 2) What is the size of each particle? Percent of total soil mass? 3) What is the depth of each horizon? 4) What is the dominant vegetation type in your selected area? 5) What animals are supported in this area? 6) Based on the USDA zoning, what is the zone of your area? Please also include the average temperatures in both F and C. 7) Go online and determine the latitude and longitude (up to four places) for your area. 8) What does PSDA stand for?

Complete the following: * Reproduce Figure 19.2 in the lab manual and shade in the area that corresponds to your soil analysis. * Describe the characterization of your soil in as much detail as possible. Pay note to the highlighted words in the Soil Characterization lab in the lab manual, and incorporate as many terms as possible. Be sure to include a copy of your generated report and Figure 19.2 (with your shaded area). Deliverables 3-4 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced. Completed Figure 19.2

Unit 8 Lab 1: Life Cycle Analysis

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will identify the life cycle of a consumer product. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Wagner Lab Manual Recommended Procedures
Complete Lab 5 on pp. 33-36 of the lab manual. You will select a consumer product (such as a wood picture frame, squid, dark chocolate or any other product of your choice). Depict and document the principles of life cycle analysis of the chosen product. The poster should include * a description of the product, quantity produced, sources of raw materials, where the product is manufactured, the primary markets and main alternatives; * a clear illustration of the conceptual life cycle of the product; * the methods used to collect valid and reliable information; * a depiction of the inputs and outputs for each stage; * likely energy source and raw materials; * numerical data where feasible; * likely emissions, types and amounts of pollutants and wastes; and * a citation of works that contains a minimum of 5 sources. Make sure your poster is graphically appealing and the font size is adequate. Deliverables Posterboard

Unit 9 Lab 1: Landfill Planning and Placement

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will estimate plan for the placement of a landfill. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Wagner Lab Manual Recommended Procedures
Complete Lab 20, Questions 1-2, on pp. 109-114 of the lab manual.

Complete the informal lab write-up (1-4) on p. 114 of the lab manual.

Deliverables 2-3 pages, Microsoft Word, 12-pt Times New Roman font, double-spaced for the informal lab write-up

Unit 10 Lab 1: Life Cycle Analysis Presentation

Course Objectives and Learning Outcomes
In this assignment, you will present the lifecycle of a consumer product. Required Setup and Resources * Internet access * Poster board from Unit 8 Lab 1: Life Cycle Analysis Recommended Procedures Present the poster board you created in the Unit 8 Lab 1. You have 3-5 minutes. Highlight in your presentation: * The description of the product, quantity produced, sources of raw materials, where the product is manufactured, the primary markets, and main alternatives; * An explanation of the conceptual life cycle of the product; * The methods used to collect valid and reliable information; * A depiction of the inputs and outputs for each stage; * Likely energy source and raw materials; * Numerical data where feasible; and * Likely emissions, types, and amounts of pollutants and wastes.

Make sure your poster is graphically appealing and the font size is adequate. Deliverables Oral presentation

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...11108944 Name: ASHWINI KUMAR Roll No. : RE3R02B32 PART- A 1. Ans :- (a) unary and ternary operator Unary operator:- It pecedes an operand . The operand (the value on which the operator operates ) of the unary operator must have arithmetic or pointer type and the result is the value of the argument. Example:- If a=5 then +a means 5 If a=0 then +a means 0. If a=-4 then +a means -4. Ternary operator:- It precedes an operand. The operand of the unary operator must have arithmetic type and the result is the negation of the operand’s value. Example:- If a=5 then –a means -5 If a=0 then –a means 0 If a=-4 then –a means 4. (b) Assignment and equalto operator Assignment operator:- Equal to operator: An assignment operator assigns value In this we put the To a variable. value as it is. Example – Example- a*=5 means a=5*5. Int a; a=5 means a is initialized with 5 if(a==5) { return true; } return false; (c) Expression and statement Expression:- An expression is any valid combination of operators , constants , and variables. Example:- ...

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#### Book Report

...Selection statements Selection is used to select which statements are to be performed next based on a condition being true or false. Relational expressions In the solution of many problems, different actions must be taken depending on the value of the data. The if statement in C I used to implement such s decision structure in its simplest form – that of selecting a statement to be executed only if a condition is satisfied. Syntax: if(condtion) statement executed if condition is true When an executing program encounters the if statement, the condition is evaluated to determine its numerical value, which is then interpreted as either true or false. If the condition evaluates to any non-0 value (positive or negative), the condition is considered as a “true” condition and the statement following the if is executed; otherwise this statement is not executed. Relational Operators In C Relational operator | Meaning | Example | < | Less than | age < 30 | > | Greater than | height > 6.2 | <= | Less than or equal to | taxable <= 200000 | >= | Greater than or equal to | temp >= 98.6 | == | Equal to | grade == 100 | != | Not equal to | number !=250 | In creating relational expressions, the relational operators must be typed exactly as given in the above table. Thus, although the following relational expressions are all valid: age > 40 length <= 50 temp >= 98.6 3 < 4 flag == done day != 5 The following are invalid: length =< 50 ...

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#### Study Habits

...STUDY HABITS OF SECOND YEAR BS-AVTECH STUDENTS OF PATTS COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICS S.Y 2013-2014 An Undergraduate Research Presented to The Languages Department of PATTS College of Aeronautics In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the course ENGL 211 – Technical Report Writing By Guevarra, Giorgio Martin C Guevarra, Lorenzo Miguel Jang, Jose, Yosalina, Leo Xander March 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher would like to express our thanks to the lord. Our God for his guidance towards everything we do In life, including this study that we had made, and for being an inspiration for us all to do our best in life. We give our thanks to Ms. Karen M. Millano, our adviser for ENGL 211, for carefully and patiently guiding us so that we may finish the thesis research, and for supporting us and believing in us, that we can accomplish our task finishing the thesis. To the respondents of this study, we express our gratitude because without them, this thesis research would not have been completed, we thank them for allowing us to conduct a survey during their spare time, and their patience and integrity in answering the survey. To our parents, for their support and everlasting patience and understanding for us. And lastly to our classmates, since they have been with us since the beginning of the semester and they had been our companions in everything we do for the subject ENGL 211. ABSTRACT STUDY HABITS OF...

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#### Engeenering

...SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING YEAR 3 MECHATRONICS ASSIGNMENT LAB REPORT Reading an Analogue Voltage from a Potentiometer to turn a Motor on and off with reading of 40 Assignment 2 Owais Jahanzeb BENG Mechanical Engineering with buissness Lecturer: Dr. Tom Shenton Aim & Objectives The aim of this lab is to develop a functioning program for the PICDEM board to read an analogue signal from a potentiometer and turning a motor on or off if the signal exceeds a certain limit. The program should depict the function that it should turn the motor ON and OFF if the potentiometer reading is less than or equal to 40. The practical uses of such program can be seen in automotive , injection moulding machines, wood processing machines, modern temperature controlled plants, speed control torque operations. Developing Program 1 Figure 1. The schematic circuit & PICDEM board configuration for Program Figure 1. The schematic circuit & PICDEM board configuration for Program The objective of program is to read the correspondent voltage analogous to the potentiometer position and switch the motor on if the reading is over 40 and switch it off if the reading is less than or equal to 40, the value can be adjusted by twisting the screw clockwise and anticlockwise. The program works by implementing the following code. PIC program for Test of potentiometer with value less equal to 40 with comments: include <p16f917.inc> extern DisplayDigit1, DisplayDigit2...

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#### Andy Owes Bill a Debt.

...Law Written Assignment 3 Case Study 1 Parks, a 7-foot, 265-pound center for the San Diego Slick, objected when his contract was assigned from the ABC Corporation to the XYZ Corporation, the team’s new owner. The change of owners did not cause a change in the composition of the team although a new coach was hired. Parks’s compensation and his responsibilities remained the same. Was this contract assignable? Facts of the Case: 1) Parks contract was assigned from the ABC Corporation to XYZ Corporation. 2) Parks compensation and his responsibilities remained the same. Issues: 1) The reason why we are in court today is to identify if Park’s contract was assignable. Rules of the Law: 1) Personal Service Contract – The parties agree that a personal service contract may be assigned. This allows the trade of an athlete from one team to another team. 2) Notice of Assignment – Assignee is under a duty to notify the obligor that the assignment has been made and performance must be rendered to the assignee. 3) Anti-Assignment Clause – Prohibits the assignment of rights under the contract. 4) Approval Clause – requires that the obligor approves any assignment of contract. Analysis & Conclusion: Since we do not have all the facts we can assume the following: 1) Parks contract did include the Personal service contract. 2) Notice of assignment was made by XYZ Corporation. 3) Parks contract did NOT include Anti-Assignment Clause. ...

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#### Management Accounting

...Management Accounting Individual Assignment 1. Variable manufacturing cost per unit = (323,000,000-160,000,000-24,000,000-100,000,000) 850,000 = \$45.88 per unit Fixed manufacturing cost per unit = \$100,000,000 850,000units = \$117.65 per unit Total manufacturing cost per unit= 45.88+117.65 = \$163.53per unit 2. Fixed overhead rate= \$100,000,000 800,000units =\$125 per unit Production volume variance= (850,000 X 125)-(800,000 X 125) =\$106,250,000-\$100,000,000 = \$6,250,000 Favourable 3. Absorption costing. | \$ | \$ | SalesLess: Cost of goods soldOpening inventoryProduction(850,000 X (255+125))(-)Ending inventory(30,000 X 405)Gross MarginAdjustments for production variance(850,000-800,000)x125Operating Income | 0323,000,000(11,400,000) | 450,000,000(311,600,000) | | | | | | 138,400,0006,250,000F | | | 144,650,000 | Income Statement for the year ended 31December 2012 4. Variable Costing Income Statement for the year ended 31 December 2012 | \$ | \$ | SalesOpening inventoryProduction(850,000 X 255)(-)Ending inventoryContribution MarginFixed factory overheadOperating income | 0216,750,000(7650,000) | 450,000,000(209,100,000) | | | 240,900,000(100,000,000) | | | 140,900, 000 | 5. Based on the calculations of absorption costing and variable costing for the year 2012,it would be better to calculate and measure using the absorption costing...

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#### Eopp

...Reflection assignment In this assignment I will be using the Gibbs Reflective Model, reference, to reflect on an incident that occurred in placement that demonstrates an understanding of the Outcome : 3.1: Demonstrate that they respect diversity and individual preferences and value differences, regardless of their own personal views. To do this I will first, briefly describe the event, supporting my outline with relevant information. I will then explore the event, and discuss why it is important and how it relates to the learning outcome. I will also be discussing why materials such as law and guidelines say this is important. I will then proceed to analyse the incident by breaking it down and picking out the main features of the experience, discussing why they are important, whilst linking the main points together. I will attempt to think about opposing arguments to what I have explored, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the arguments. Finally I will be using SMART goals, to create an action plan for future development. Explain incident with evidence Whilst on a shift, we had an elderly patient arrive on the ward. The patient suffered from a Frank Haematuria, Colovesciular fistula as well as incontinence. It was suggested that the patient received surgery to have this corrected, but the patient refused surgery, stating that at his age he did not want to go through with it, and wanted to put a DNAR in place. I along with the other nurses respected his choice...

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#### Sfds

...ASSIGNMENT - 3 Answers 1 Answer 2 Answer 3 4. For what types of workloads does SJF deliver the same turnaround times as FIFO? ANSWER: - In the above case if the jobs are same in size or the jobs periodically applied (i.e. first shortest job then later second shortest job and continues) then the turnaround time of SJF is same as FIFO. 5. For what types of workloads and quantum lengths does SJF deliver the same response times as RR? ANSWER: - The response time delivered by SJF is equal to the response time of RR but this happens only when all the jobs arrived are at the point when the planning quantum of RR is bigger than the bigger occupation to be administrations in order of increasing size. 6. What happens to response time with SJF as job lengths increase? Can you use the simulator to demonstrate the trend? ANSWER: - If you suppose the length of the job increases then average response time varies (increases).If every job is sorted in increasing job order than the last job response time will be equal to the sum of current job and previous (n-1) jobs. In this way if the size of the job increases the response time will also increases for all larger jobs. 7. What happens to response time with RR as quantum lengths increase? Can you write an equation that gives the worst-case response time, given N jobs? ANSWER: - In the case of RR, the response time increases as the quantum lengths increases. This happens because the waiting time of a process for its turn to...

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#### Week 5 Assignment

...Janell Taylor 10/23/12 Implicit Test I found the test to be very interesting and I don’t like timed tests because I need time to think about my answer to be sure and confident about my choice. I don’t agree with the results because they said I made too many errors and I don’t understand that because that was just one part where I was making too many errors. It has helped me out in those areas of different topics, but I just wish I had more time. I guess I would say that the answers wasn’t valid enough for me because it didn’t really give me a score because I made too many errors, so I don’t agree with that too much. I believe prejudice is difficult to measure because I don’t agree with it and don’t like the fact that it’s very big and can get worse if we don’t come together to get in one accord to help each other and make the world better to live in dealing with different people and feelings. I think measuring prejudice can be a tough thing to deal with and handle because of the many people that are prejudice, which are hurting and harming many situations and people that’s trying to make it while being equal to everyone regardless of what. I would have to take the test over to get a better score because I felt that wasn’t fair because I made too many errors to get a...

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#### Pay for Eprformance

...Pre course assignment 2: Performance Related Pay The assignment is to write a paper about Performance Related Pay (2000 words) Performance Related Pay is receiving a great deal of attention. On the one hand (collective) labour agreements are increasingly including arrangements that relate to pay-forperformance, at the same time there is also strong resistance. Trade unions have never been enthusiastic proponents subject to certain conditions, but opinions are also divided in employers' circles. Pay-for-performance is even named as a root cause for the crisis of the financial sector and for the collapse of some companies. A number of companies have recently announced that they will abolish or change their pay- for-performance systems. When organizations have performance related pay systems in place, (front line) managers usually play an important role. They make pay decisions, or provide information for these decisions. The paper is also a preparation for a class debate about pay for performance in the fourth lecture. The debate will be about the statement: “The introduction of individual pay for performance contributes to an improvement in a company's (financial) performance” The paper will be written from one of three starting points: 1. You are against the statement: all arguments you discuss should underpin that the statement is false 2. You are in favour of the statement: all arguments you bring forward should underpin that the statements is true 3. You are undecided: find...

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#### Should People Be Treated Equally in Society

...Should All People Be Treated Equally in a Society? Egalitarianism (from French égal, meaning "equal") - or, rarely, equalitarianism - is a trend of thought that favors equality for particular categories of, or for all, living entities ("Egalitarianism"). Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status. Equity is probably one of the most fundamental values common to all people in a society. Equity can be elusive; however, it is usually defined in terms of how equals are treated by government policies and the legal system, and how we decide who these equals are. The concept of equality is multifaceted; the literature on theories of equality is immense and the application of these theories is complex. My definition of equality is the state or quality of being equal. Should people be truly treated equally? Can it ever be possible to achieve true equality even if we wanted to? No. It’s just not in our nature nor is it fair to the citizens around us. It hides people’s true talents, will cause chaos without the government, and it isn’t fair financially. Besides, no one, no country, or nothing’s perfect. We shouldn’t or can’t force everyone into thinking they’re equal and should be treated the same, it’s just never going to happen. In the novel Animal Farm (Orwell), Orwell writes about a world where animals overthrow the oppressive farmer Mr. Jones and try to construct a society based on the founding principal that all animals are equal...

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