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Tourism Marketing in Developing countries: a study of Bangladesh
Contact Address: S M Nazrul Islam, PG Researcher, Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow Email: Tourism has become a very important and dynamic sector both in the world economy and particular in the developing countries. Its growth affects not only the activities directly linked to tourism but also other sectors. Tourism is already an important sector in some developing countries and will become so for others. Developing countries have been fast growing in tourism industry terms in the world over the last decade. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in a large number of developing countries. Increases in economic growth, disposable income and leisure time, political stability, and aggressive tourism campaigns, among others factors, have fuelled the significant growth of tourism. Developing countries have some common characteristics, such as extreme poverty and widespread conflict (including civil war and ethnic clashes), extensive political corruption, lack of political and social stability, human resource weakness (human assets index, nutrition, health, education and adult literacy), and economic vulnerability. Bangladesh is a developing country in Asia, holding high potentiality for tourism. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) plays an important role for the development of tourism. For a long time, Bangladesh has been an attractive destination for tourists. But at present, its position is not significant in terms of the international tourism market. The overall objective of this research is to identify the issues and challenges in tourism marketing facing Bangladesh. Key wards: tourism, developing county, marketing, and case study

1. Introduction
The role of international tourism in generating economic benefits has long been recognised in many developing countries (Jenkins, 1991; WTO, 1994). The public sector may have been reluctant in the past to contribute towards tourism development, but the situation has changed and, over the years, governments’ perspectives on tourism have not only evolved to include wider participation, but have also widened from the narrow focus on economic benefits to encompass environmental and societal concerns. Everything seems to suggest that developing countries look upon tourism


consumption as manna from heaven that can provide a solution to all their foreign exchange difficulties (Erbes, 1973: p-1). This description of tourism as ‘manna from haven’ has gained some support, in part because tourism is a highly visible activity. Although tourism development results in the provision of facilities and services, there are, however, instances when these facilities are not accessible to local residents, particularly if tourism development involves the creation of tourism enclaves. In the last two decades in particular tourism has developed, especially in developing countries by their integrated tourism planning (Buhalis, 1999; Butler, 2002; Vanhove, 2005). The specific research objectives of this study are: 1. To identify development trends in Bangladesh tourism 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourism marketing Bangladesh 3. To analyse issues in tourism marketing in Bangladesh; and 4. To identify potential strategies that can contribute to increasing the competitiveness of Bangladesh tourism. To conduct the research, a conceptual framework from a literature review was created and implemented using of a particular research methodology and methods.

2. Definition, concept, meaning, and characteristics of developing countries
The terms ‘the third world’, ‘underdeveloped countries’, ‘developing countries’, ‘poor countries’, the South’ and ‘less-developed countries (LDC’s)’ are mostly used interchangeably (Tosun and Jenkins, 1998). However, it is not an easy task to define precisely what is meant by these terms as McQueen (2002). Buchanan (1971, p.20, quoting New Left review, 1963, p. 4) describes ‘the developing country is a universe of radical scarcity. Defining and determining every dimension of men’s relationship to each other… the inadequacy means of livelihood is the first and distinguishing truth of this area’. In order to give a more clear meaning of the term, it is worth quoting Todaro (2000) at some length: The 143 African, Asian and Latin American member


countries of the United Nations often collectively refer to themselves as the ‘Third World’ or ‘developing countries’. Developing Countries, third World countries, industrialising countries,

underdeveloped countries, and less developed countries are countries which, according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest human development ratings of all countries in the world. The World Bank (2009) classified developing countries as those having per capita income of less US$ 2200. Another concept of developing is that they have a high level of illiteracy; Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and Sudan are typical examples. According to the United Nations (2009), 120 countries are described as developing countries, and they comprise less than 20% of the world’s total GNP. Pearce (1994) suggests that all those nations out side of Europe, North America, Japan and Australia have to be considered as developing countries. Most developing countries are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America, Pacific and Caribbean regions of the world. Some of these countries have fasted development rates. However, there are also countries such as India, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Ethiopia that are very poor. Thus the term ‘developing countries’ is a very broad concept. United Nations review in 2009, and defined by the UN that developing countries as countries meeting their criteria, one of which was a three-year average estimate of gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $950. According to the World Bank (2009) world economies are classified economies based on GNI per capita which is calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. The groups are: low income, $935 or less; lower middle income, $936 - $3,705; upper middle income, $3,706 - $11,455, and high income, $11,456 or more (for countries list see the appendix 2-I ). For example, per capita income of developing countries in year 2007-08 according to the World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) report as in February, 2009, such as, Pakistan $1,085 (WB); Kenya USD $680 (IMF); Afghanistan, US$457 (IMF); Ethiopia US$317 (IMF); India, 1078 (CIA); Nepal US$428 (IMF); Nigeria US$401; Sri-Lanka US$2099 (IMF); Vietnam US$1055; Burma US$287 (CIA); Cambodia US$760 (CIA); Haiti US$793, Mali US$712

(CIA); Zimbabwe US$401; and Bangladesh US$690


The least developed countries (LDCs) are a group of countries that have been identified by the United Nations (2008) as "least developed" in terms of their low gross national income (GNI), their weak human assets and their high degree of economic vulnerability. The term Least Developed Countries (LDCs) describes the world's poorest countries with following 3 criteria, such criteria are:

i. Low-income criterion: based on a three-year average estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita (under $750 for inclusion, above $900 for graduation);

ii. Human resource weakness criterion: involving a composite human assets index (HAI) based on indicators of: (a) nutrition; (b) health; (c) education; and (d) adult literacy; and

iii. Economic vulnerability criterion: based on indicators of the instability of agricultural production; the instability of exports of goods and services; the economic importance of non-traditional activities (share of manufacturing and modern services in GDP); merchandise export concentration; and the handicap of economic smallness. Therefore, India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan have the common economic features of developing countries permit us to view them in a broadly similar framework. Based on common characteristics developing countries can be classified into six categories: i) low standard levels of living; ii) low incomes, inequality, poor health, and inadequate education; iii) low levels of productivity; iv) high rates of population growth and dependency burdens, substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary-products exports; v) prevalence of imperfect markets and limited information; and vi) dependence and vulnerability in international relations (Todaro, 2000; World Bank, 2009) Immediately after liberation, the government of Bangladesh set up the Bangladesh Parjatan Sangstha (Bangladesh Tourism Organisation), with a view to developing the tourist industry in the country (Hasan, 2007). The organisation was restructured into Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC) in 1973. The corporation drew up a five-year plan within the framework of the first Five-Year Plan (1973-78) for economic and social development of the country to provide essential facilities and to develop natural


attractions for increasing the inflow of tourists and making their stay in the country entertaining. The second, third, and fourth five-year plans and two year plans were intended to implement by the past Bangladesh governments to develop tourism sector but these plans have not been implemented (BPC, 2007) properly by the government due to ministerial legacy problems (Islam, 2007; BTO, 2005). For example, if a government has to power down before implementing a tourism development plan, the next ideal government’s priority should focus on completing such partially completed projects first, but in reality, they are interested to find faults with such projects more than probing the positive aspects, and intent to formulate a new one to develop Bangladesh tourism. As a result some of the partially completed projects are let out forever. Consequently, this dreadful trend is only wasting time and money hardly developing this sector. (Alim, 2007). Tourism in its modern sense is a relatively recent phenomenon, and it began in the present Bangladesh area only during the 1960s. Tourists from abroad came to see and enjoy the beaches, the scenic beauty of the landscape covered with lavish greens and the web of rivers, tribal culture, religious rituals, historical places, forests, wild life and hill resorts (Hasan, 2006).

3. Geographical characteristics of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a developing country in South Asia, located between 20°34c to 26°38c north latitude and 88°01c to 92°42c east longitude, with an area of 147,570 square km and a population of 140 million. It is bordered on the west, north, and east by India, on the southeast by Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the south (Environment and Bangladesh, undated). Though it is a small country, it has many diverse attractions for nature lovers as well as being rich in culture and heritage. The territorial waters of Bangladesh extend 12 nautical miles, and the exclusive economic zone of the country is 200 nautical miles. There is a large marshy jungle coastline on the Bay of Bengal popularly known as the Sundarbans - one of the largest mangrove forests in the world, the home of the Royal Bengal Tiger. Bangladesh is located in the Ganges delta which is densely populated and it is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra (Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their tributaries as they flow down from the Himalayas, creating the largest riverine delta in the world. To the south is a


highly irregular deltaic coastline of about 600 km, fissured by many rivers and streams flowing into the Bay of Bengal.

4. Development and Role of Tourism marketing Organisation in Bangladesh
During the Pakistan period of rule, there was a tourism department (later called Tourism Cell) with an office in West Pakistan. This department was assigned promotion, development and regulation of the tourism sector in Pakistan. A private sector corporation came into operation at the end of 1970. After independence, the socio-economic and political climate prevailing in the country was not encouraging for the private sector to participate in economic activities of wider magnitude. Therefore, it became imperative for the government to come forward by promote tourism in Bangladesh (Talukder, 1984). Soon after the independence of Bangladesh, the government of the newborn state realised the importance of tourism in its economic and social life. Therefore, the government decided to reorganise the tourism sector (Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism, 2004) by combining both the tourism department and the private corporation into one organisation, bringing it under government responsibility for better coordination, promotion, development and marketing (Hossain, 2006). Consequently, the government established the National Tourism Organisation (NTO) in the name of Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation under Presidential Order No. 143, declared in November 27, 1972. BPC began in January 1973 with limited assets of the former “Pakistan Tourism Corporation” and TK.10 million ($US147, 059) sanctioned by the government. The Corporation was entrusted with the dual responsibility of developing tourism infrastructure and promoting Bangladesh as a tourist destination. Other responsibilities of the Corporation included regulation and operation of tourism activities in the country. Thus, Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation came into being as the NTO in Bangladesh (Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism, 2004). As such, the structure of the tourism sector in Bangladesh is predominantly managed by the public sector. The public sector has played a pioneering role in the development and promotion of tourism in the country. Government involvement in the tourism sector is channelled through BPC (Hossain, 2006), which is under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism. As a semiautonomous organisation it enjoys wide power and authority, including the right to


acquire and dispose of property; construct and run hotels, restaurants and other tourists facilities; operate duty free shop (DFSs), transportation and car rental; establish training institutes; and invest its funds as it deems proper (Rahman, 2004). Due to neglect by successive governments, BPC totally failed to achieve the objectives for which it was created. Had there been no private sector tour operators in the country things would have been even more precarious (Hossain, 2006; The Independent, 2003). They have kept the hope of tourism alive, almost without government support. Private sector involvement in tourism in Bangladesh is still not adequate however, and the Bangladesh government has taken remedial measures to encouraging the private sector to play a positive role in the development and diversification of tourist facilities to promote domestic and international tourism in the country (Rahman, 2004). A large proportion of investments have been made in hotel businesses and tour operations. Private sector investors now are as showing a keen interest to participate in the tourism sector (Rahman, 2005; Hossain, 2006). Tour operators have a significant role to play in tourism business. Over 40 private tour operators have already been engaged in tourism marketing in Bangladesh. Some of them conduct only domestic (inbound) tours while others offer both domestic and outbound tours (Bangladesh Monitor, 2007). Thirty two such private tour operators are members of an association named “Tours Operator Association of Bangladesh (TOAB)”, formed to carry out their activities more efficiently, to lobby the BPC and the government for the realization of justified rights (Siddiqi, 2006), and to promote the country’s tourism together. Travel agencies in both the destination and the tourist generating countries also play important roles in the promotion and development of tourism in a country (Hossain, 2006). There are 235 travel agencies in Bangladesh; most of them are members of the Association of Travel Agents of Bangladesh (ATAB) (Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism, 2006). These travel agencies are licensed by the Registration Authority under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism and controlled by the same authority under the Travel Agencies Registration and control ordinance of 1977, which says that the travel agencies are involve themselves in travel arrangements only (Jobber, 1986; Hossain, 2006).


5. Bangladesh tourism marketing products and tourist attractions
The world thinks of Bangladesh as poor, flood-ravaged, and more of a disaster zone than a travel destination. In some respects, the world is right but hiding behind these images is a country with a rich history, a strange beauty, and some interesting attractions but it is not, however, a destination for everyone (Roaming around Bangladesh, undated) (Hossain, 2006). Bangladesh is a country with rich traditions, natural beauty, beaches, forests, lakes, hills, wild lives, archaeological attractions, monuments, handicrafts, sanctuaries, religious festivals, cultural heritage, tribal culture and architecture, incredible greenery, mighty rivers and attractive river cruises, sunny beaches, colourful tribal life and attractive cultural functions that offer great tourist attractions (Haque, 2005; Hossain and Nazmin, 2006). Tourism involves travelling for pleasure, enjoy and education. It is also a business of attracting tourists and providing for their accommodation and entertainment. In many countries, tourism is an industry for earning revenue and foreign exchange (Hossain, 2007). The many businesses that grow concurrently with the development of tourism include airlines, shipping, hotels and restaurants, finance companies, tour operators, travel agents, car rental firms, caterers and retail establishments and together, they contribute significantly to the overall development of a country's economy and to its cultural diversification and adaptation (Islam, 2009). The Moorish traveller Ibn Batuta who visited Bengal in the fourteenth century described Bengal as the wealthiest and cheapest land of the world and stated that it was known as ‘a hell full of bounties’ In the seventeenth century French traveller Francois Bernie observed and stated “Egypt has been represented in every age as the finest and most fruitful country in the world, and even our modern writers deny that there is any other land of peculiarly favoured by nature; but the knowledge I have acquired of Bengal during two visits paid to that kingdom inclines me to believe that pre-eminence ascribed to Egypt is rather due to Bengal” (Ministry of Information, Govt. of Bangladesh as cited in Hossain, 1999: 85, unpublished thesis). Bangladesh has the world’s longest 120 km unbroken sea beach (Hossain, 2006) sloping here down to the blue water of the Bay of Bengal in Cox’s Bazar, Parki beach, and Kuakata. Such a long sea beach covering miles of golden sands, soaring cliffs,


surfing waves, all of these make Cox’s Bazar the tourist capital of Bangladesh. The tourists can enjoy the charming beauty of the sunset behind the waves of the sea (Hossain, 2006). Its appeal makes Cox’s Bazar one of the most attractive tourist spots in the world. In addition to that, there are other beaches like Inani beach in Ukhia, Cox’s Bazar, St. Martin Island, and Patengha beach which are also attractive to foreign as well as local tourists (MoCAT, 2006; Hossain, 2006). In Bangladesh, there are some attractive hilly regions which also are considered beautiful tourism spots and attract a large number of tourists. These hilly regions show significant differences from the rest of the country because the indigenous inhabitants belong to different ethnic minorities who have a distinctive lifestyle from the majority of the population (Hasan, 2005).

6. Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh
The following table 1.1 shows the tourist arrivals in Bangladesh in different years and the rate of growth of the same: Table 1.1 Tourist Arrivals in Bangladesh
Year Tourist Arrivals ‘000’ Number 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 113242 110475 126785 140122 156231 165887 182420 171961 172781 199211 207199 207246 244509 271270 312575 343590 (-) 2 (+) 15 (+) 11 (+) 12 (+) 6 (+) 10 (-) 6 (+) 0.5 (+) 15 (+) 4 (+) .02 (+) 18 (+) 11 (+)15 (+)10 Growth Rate (%)


2007 2008 Average Growth Rate

397410 468951

(+)16 (+18) +9%

Source: Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), 2009 The above table 1.1 shows that the number of tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has increased to 397,410 in 2007 from 113,242 in 1991 which shows an average annual growth rate of 9 percent. The tourist arrivals increased in 2003 by 18 percent and 16 percent in 2007 over the preceding year. In general, the statistics show a very good and positive trend. This rate can be considered very high for those countries that have already matured in the market, but for a new market entry, like Bangladesh, the above growth rate is not very impressive. By using the above data the projected number of tourist arrivals for the year 2010 and 2020 can be calculated with the help of regression analysis where, the model: y = mx + b Here, x is independent variable (year) and y is dependent variable (total number of tourist arrivals)

Slope = m =

n(∑ xy ) − (∑ x)(∑ y ) n( ∑ x 2 ) − ( ∑ x ) 2

Intercept = b =

∑ y − m( ∑ x ) n By interpreting and solving this we get the value m = 15268.69 and b = -30314883and then the model stands as: y = 15268.69 (x) -30314883 and the projected tourist arrivals are 375,186 and 527,873 for the year 2010 and 2020 respectively subject to the present trend remaining unchanged. The BPC forecast that Bangladesh will receive 0.9 million tourists in 2020 seems very unrealistic.

7. Bangladesh Tourism Marketing Strategy


The most important challenge for destination marketing therefore is to bring all individual partners together to cooperate rather than compete and to pool resources towards developing an integrated marketing mix and delivery system (Buhalis & Cooper, 1998; Buhalis, 2000). Bangladesh, as a vacation destination, has many facets. It is endowed with almost all the natural potentials that attract tourist (Shahid, 2004). These include: Cox’s Bazaar, the longest unbroken clean and sandy beach in the world; Sundarbans, the home of the majestic Royal Bengal tigers as mentioned earlier, Dhaka, the capital known as the city of mosques and muslin; Rangamati, the heart of the panoramic lake district; Sylhet, land of fascinating hills and tea gardens; Chittagong, the largest port city of the country and known as the city of shrines; Mainamati, Mahasthangarh and Paharpur, archaeological treasures of Hindu and Buddhist rule in the country from 300 BC to 1200 AD (Hossain and Hossain, 2002). Above all, riverine beauty, colourful tribal culture and simple village life are the main factors for attracting visitors (Hasan, 2005). These kind of things are need to be explored by the tourism marketing promotion and need to formulate tourism marketing strategic plan either by the Bangladesh government organisation (public sector) or the private sectors. Therefore, the objectives of the tourism marketing strategy in Bangladesh are now outlined (MoCAT, 2006; BTO, 2006): i. To consolidate Bangladesh’s position as a tourist destination in the established generating markets at regional and international levels by utilizing different marketing tools such as websites; ii. To target new and potential markets by identifying and monitoring changing designs and needs for various market types such as China, Japan, East European and South America, and South Asian countries (MoCAT, 2006; Hossain, 2006); iii. To enhance Bangladesh’s competitive position in the intercontinental destination market by mobilizing effective promotional measures supported by attractive proposals and appealing tourism products. The Bangladesh government promotes Sundarban and Cox’s Bazar, St. Martin Island (these are the listed as international tourism heritage) and the Fort William, and House of Ahasan Monzil, Sonargaon (which is a key factor in leading to the marketing Bangladesh, regionally and


internationally) as preferred tourism destination areas. However, the Bangladeshi government decided to; diversify Bangladeshi’s tourism products: to meet the demands of the general public; to increase its tourist’s market share in a competitive region; to strive to realise the country’s potential in terms of, MICE, sport and adventure; to promote Bangladeshi’s scenic beauty, diverse wildlife, eco-tourism and diversity of cultures and heritage; promote it in terms of its unique selling points as an all season destination (UNSCO, 2002; MoCAT, 2006; BTO, 2006; Hossain, 2006); and iv. To pay special attention (in terms of promotion and product diversification strategies in particular) to tourist arrivals from Europe, South Asia, USA, Gulf Cooperation Council Countries, East Asia and the Pacific Rim, Australia and New Zealand and others. BTO opened new regional offices in these countries to support and enhance the value of Bangladesh as a tourism destination (MoCAT, 2006).

8. Methodology 8.1 Philosophical Perspectives
All research (whether quantitative or qualitative) is based on underlying assumptions about what forms 'valid' research and which research methods are suitable (Hopkins, 2002c; Saunders, 2001; Yin, 2003; Fuchs and Weirmair, 2003; Baskerville and Myers, 2004; Mazanec, 2005; Fallon and Schofield, 2006b). In order to conduct and/or evaluate qualitative research, it is important to know what these (sometimes hidden) assumptions are. The most relevant philosophical assumptions are those which relate to the underlying epistemology of the research. Epistemology refers to assumptions about knowledge and how it can be obtained (Hathaway, 1995). Orlikowski and Baroudi (1991), following Chua (1986), suggest three categories of research philosophy, positivist, interpretive and critical. In social research these differences are not always precise. Qualitative research can be positivist, interpretive, or critical. However, these three approaches are philosophically different. There is considerable disagreement as to whether these research "models" or underlying epistemologies are necessarily opposed or can be accommodated within one study.


The research paradigm been selected for this study is an interpretivist paradigm; and therefore, the following ontological and epistemological positions are adopted: Ontological position: subjective (subject reality, differing opinions on the nature of reality, knowledge of reality); and epistemological position: Interpretive paradigm (how knowledge can be acquired of that reality)

Epistemology A theory of Knowledge -ResearchArea of Application

Ontology A Theory of Reality

Methodology A theory of inquiry

Figure 1.1 Source: Own work Figure 1.1 shows that ontology is constructing a reality of research theory and epistemology is acquiring the knowledge for the specific research, while methodology is analysing the relevance of data and information for this area of research. In order to achieve the research objectives (figure 1.2), this research is divided into two parts, one is exploratory research, and the other causal research in marketing in tourism. As little is known about marketing in tourism in Bangladesh, an exploratory study is appropriate to accomplish the objectives. Exploratory research is conducted when not much is known about the situation at hand or when little information is available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the past (Sekaran, 2000). Exploratory research, therefore, is useful for generating new ideas, factors or hypothesis, as well as developing techniques for measuring and locating future data. This exploratory research will also adopt a qualitative approach, because this approach is useful to uncover what lies behind the phenomenon about which little is known, which is compatible with the rationale for exploratory studies (Strauss and 13

Corbin, 1990). Exploratory research is used principally to gain a deeper understanding of something. However, considering the objectives of this research is to generate variables related to tourism marketing to be used in the research, a qualitative approach is more appropriate as an initial study than a quantitative one (Sekaran, 2000). According to Churchill (1999), exploratory studies are; literature search, survey, analysis of the case, and focus group. This research will conduct an analysis of a case study. The reasons for selecting this method will be discussed in the next section. To summarize, exploratory research will provide an opportunity to formulate and develop hypotheses for a more precise investigation in the secondary stage of the research with regard to the competitiveness of tourism marketing. The exploratory research will be incorporated in building detailed and relevant questionnaires for the secondary stage of research. After identifying the first objective, this research will move on to the remaining objectives. These relate to the identification of different variables and relationships among the variables and this research will be a case-effect relationship or hypotheses testing study, which normally adopts a quantitative approach. According to Sekaran (2000), studies that engage in hypothesis testing usually explain (i) the nature of certain relationships or (ii) identify establish differences among the variables or (iii) the independence of two or more factors in a situation. All three are relevant to these research objectives. Multivariate data analysis will be used for the causal study in this research because various dependent and independent variable are involved with regard to effectiveness measures of tourism marketing as a promotional tool (marketing mix) in Bangladesh. Causal Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. The research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and allows market researchers to predict hypothetical scenarios upon which an agency can base its business plan. Causal research is a way of seeing how actions taken now will affect a business in the future. Hypothesis testing will be one of the parts of this research and for this reason a descriptive approach will also be partly employed to present not only the characteristics of respondent groups, but also their general perception about the effectiveness and competitiveness of tourism marketing in Bangladesh


Causal research Multivariate data analysis (hypothesis testing)

Exploratory research Case study analysis

Quantitative data for this research


Qualitative data for this research

Reaching objectives of the research

Figure 1.2 Source: Author own work The above figure 1.2 shows that this research incorporates a triangulation technique (Barnnen 2003; Denzin, 1989). Triangulation can be used when data are obtained from a number of sources and individuals using a variety of methods with a particular emphasis on the function of confirmation and completeness (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000; Arksey and Knight, 1999). With regards to the triangulation, this research will be used two different methods, one is analysis of case study that will be exploratory research and the other is multivariate analysis which will be causal research. Both will be combined to accomplish research objectives. Different data sources, including government reports, photos, articles, newspaper articles, meetings minutes and interview’s will be collected and analysed. However, there are diverse debates on triangulation with regard to its usefulness and effectiveness. Triangulation is expected to reduce the risk that research conclusions can reflect the systematic biases or limitations of specific methods and allows researchers to gain a better assessment of the validity and generality of their explanations (Maxwell, 1996). Triangulation is also suggested as a powerful solution to the problem of relying too much on any single data source (Patton, 1990). However, triangulation is also criticised for having constraints and drawbacks that may affect the effectiveness of the strategy. In general, mixed research methods are considered as one of the three paradigms in which quantitative and qualitative techniques or other paradigm characteristics are


confined in one overall study. The two major types of mixed research are distinguished as mixed method and mixed model research (Palmerino, 1999; Hopkins, 2003). Mixed model research is that in which the researcher mixes both qualitative and quantitative research approaches within a stage of the study or across two stages of the research process. As such, a researcher might conduct a survey and use a questionnaire that is composed of multiple closed-ended or quantitative type items as well as several open-ended or qualitative type items. A researcher might also collect qualitative data but then quantify this (Palmerino, 1999). When different approaches are used to focus on the same phenomenon and they provide the same result, they have validation which means they have superior evidence as the result. Other important reasons for doing mixed research are to complement one set of results with another, to expand a set of results, or to discover something that would have been missed if only a qualitative or a quantitative approach had been used.

8.2 Data Collection and Analysis
The data collection technique chosen for this research is in-depth face-to-face interviews. The interview is an appropriate technique by which to gather information and data from a questionnaire. The main advantage of an interview is that the researcher can provide clarification to questions if needed during the interview session. This can lead to an increase in the quality, accuracy, and the amount of data obtained. The interviews were conducted in Bengali as well as English, depending on the needs of the person being interviewed.

8.3 Data Collection
This study utilized a self-administered survey method. Once the final measurement scales and the survey questionnaire had been developed, the survey package, including a cover letter and survey questionnaire, was distributed to the selected tourism stakeholders in Dhaka, Bangladesh. As well, a departing foreign tourist


survey was conducted at the Zia International Airport, Bangladesh using a survey questionnaire.

8.4 Study Population and sampling design
The population can be defined as the entire group under study as specified by the objectives of the research (Crick-Furman & Prentice, 2000). The objectives of this study are to investigate tourism stakeholders’ perceptions and attitudes toward tourism promotional effectiveness and its development, and the population of this study are tourism stakeholders and departing foreign tourists. Specifically, the stakeholder target population includes members or groups that are government officials, tourism authorities, local tourism agencies, tourism related operators, and tourism planning and development companies in the capital city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The sample of tourism stakeholders for this study was collected by a judgement sampling method from the identified sampling frame. The major source of the sampling frame was the Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh (TOAB) homepage, which was used by the researcher to produce a list of possible respondents their addresses, and other details. This information source contains over 150 tourism stakeholders. A second source, the internet homepage of the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation ( provided directories and resources about tourism stakeholders. It provided foreign and local/regional visitor information, destination marketing organizations, and local and state tourism attractions and sites. Once tourism stakeholders were identified, a set of criteria was applied, and it was determined whether or not individuals would be included in the sampling frame for this study. Different categories of population were selected based on the research objectives and specific criteria (see next section). These population are (1) Secretary of the MoCAT (2) Chairman of the BPC; (3) Owners of the private tour operators (only TOAB members); 4) Foreign tourists visiting country; (5) Director of Marketing and Sales, Biman Bangladesh Airlines; and (6) Owners of the Travel Agencies (only member of ATAB). These are the major role players in the marketing activities of the tourism marketing industry in Bangladesh 17

9. Conclusions
To get hold of a great opportunity in the tourism industry opening up before in the near future, Bangladesh's tourism sector must start taking all the preparations from this moment. At the same time it must not also ignore the increasing prospect of the domestic market of this sector. As mentioned earlier, it is not enough that the country possesses a potential for becoming a covetable tourist destination. To turn that possibility into reality, marketing is a pre-condition. Today, promotional activities through the internet and other electronic media including TV can be utilised with reasonable costs. Bangladesh Government has taken necessary measures to encourage the private sector to play positive role in the development and diversification of tourist facilities to promote domestic and international tourism in the country. It has declared a National Tourism Policy, recognizing tourism as an industry and a thrust sector in the latest Industrial Policy and it taking appropriate measures to offer incentives to both the local and foreign investors. A national Tourism Council has been set up to develop Bangladesh tourism. SPSS and R-programme are using for the field data analysis. Mixed methods and interpretive paradigm have been selected for this research.

1. IMF: International Monetary Fund 2. CIA: Central Intelligence Agency 3. WB: World Banks 4. LDCs: Least Developing Countries 5. DCs: Developing Countries 6. BTO: Bangladesh Tourism Organisation 7. UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 8. WTO: World Tourism Organisation

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