Premium Essay

The Importance Of Soft Power

Submitted By
Words 1099
Pages 5
The notion of power has largely been structured within realist context of boot and bullets. The emergence of new paradigms particularly Neoliberalism and Constructivism owing to changes in global engagement from selfish pursuit of state to cooperation towards mutual beneficial outcome staged serious challenge to the notion of hard power anchored in realism through the birth of soft power. The notion of power (soft power) set forth by these paradigms has begun to attract significant interest among academics and even practitioners in politics which has set a new wave of thinking and evaluation of statecraft in International relations. A number of developments in global politics have played into the increasing relevance of soft power in recent …show more content…
In addition, there has been an expansion in the actors in the international world. Due to the increase interdependence occasioned by the globalization process Non state actors such as international multinational organizational organizations, International and regional organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations have become important actors in global affairs. The net effect of this is that the allegiance domain of the state is taking a significant turn. As these organizations grow in strength, they tend to strengthen the cooperative base between their home country and host countries in both the political and economic spheres as a way to increase self-power and dominance (Milner 1988). The coming into the frame of international politics of these new players and their growing influence has enabled the growth of the global democracy which is gradually becoming an impediment to the efficacy of hard power in the current global design (Haskel 1980). In this regard, the match towards global peace and security which forms the basis for increase prosperity is given a deserving boost (Rosecrance 1999; Nye 2004b. p. …show more content…
Recent scholarship in the area of international negotiation has been instructed on the cost of war given reverence rather to cooperation and negotiation which are at the building blocks of soft power (Jervis 1988, 1993, 2002). Indeed, many have held that the availability and proliferation of nuclear weapon has presented a deterrent stage in the relationship between states and particularly the utility of hard power in the engagement between states (Mueller, 1988). In sum, the advancement in technology and its utility in the annals of military technological advancement presented an unequivocal evidence of the danger inherent in the use of hard power in the relationship between states in the international stage, hence the increase in the utility of friendship, negotiation and cooperation in the relationship between

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cola Wars: Coke and Pepsi in the 21st Century

...explains the economics of the soft drink industry and its relation with profits, taking into account all stages of the value chain of the soft drink industry. By focusing on the war between Coca-Cola and PepsiCo as market leaders in this industry – with a 90% market share in carbonated beverages – the study analyses the different stages of the value chain (concentrate producers, bottlers, retail channels, suppliers) and the impact of the modern times and globalisation on competition and interaction in the industry. Throughout this analysis, I will assess how the strategic interaction between the two players allowed the creation of a “healthy" competition, where both companies need each other in order to remain competitive. Afterwards, I will go on to analyse the way that pricing and output decisions have affected the industry’s profits. Finally, I will discuss how Coca-Cola and PepsiCo could sustain their leadership in a market increasingly dominated by non-carbonated drinks. WHY IS THE SOFT DRINK INDUSTRY SO PROFITABLE? The soft drink industry refers to all drinks which do not contain alcohol. However, the original definition referred to carbonated and non-carbonated drinks made from concentrate. In this case discussion, I will take into consideration the US market, where the three major players – PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Schweppes – represent 90% of the market, with PepsiCo and Coca-Cola holding the largest share. In the soft drink industry, the......

Words: 3841 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Depth and Frame for Corleone

...of field and framing in the ending scene of Francis Ford Coppola’s 1972 film The Godfather uses an assortment of focuses and cunning surroundings to portray the sincerity and emotional concepts which aid in the expression and dramatic power of Michael Corleone’s rise as Godfather. Application of both soft and deep focus photography combined with tight framing greatly influence the meaning and structure associated with Michael’s growth of power and allows us, the audience, to pay attention to details of the event occurring. In terms of depth of field, during the last few minutes of the ending scene, we see Michael Corleone and Kay are in the same room discussing whether or not Michael is responsible for the murder of his sister’s husband. We see his Kay ask the question if he’s guilty or not, but during the scene, as he begins his reply, we see a constant deep focus camera shot on Michael whereas a soft focus shot is almost always directed towards Kay. She is mainly drowned out of the picture as a soft focus remains almost constant on the back of her head leaving Michael as the main focal point and in a subjective point of view to Kay. These particular attentions to detail begin to show the lack of importance of Kay, and a more personal importance of Michael. By this, the audience can see a disconnection and assume that a separation into two worlds is now occurring. These focuses greatly affect the audiences’ view of a separation of Michael’s thoughts and actions towards his......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

International Purchaing

...Description of the buying process The buying process consists of stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to purchase. We are the retailers and we have to consider the all the stages in the buying process in order to purchase the soft drinks in right quantity, right time and place from the supplier. This model is important for anyone who making marketing decisions. It forces the marketer to consider the whole buying process rather than just the purchase decision (when it may be too late for the business to influence the choice). Problem recognition: Perceiving a need The buying process starts with the problem recognition. At this stage, we will recognize a problem or need. In this process, we identify the forecasts and customer orders, checking of the stocks, purchase requisitions from the internal users and requirements such as types of soft drinks, size of soft drinks. Information Search: Seeking Value After we have recognizing those needs, we begin to search for information. Under internal source of information, we request for quotations. It includes the specifications of the items to bind documentation for the suppliers. We also source internally for merchandise plan records, store records and sales person opinion. With the merchandising plan, we can forecast some accuracy what to purchase and when to have it delivered. This will greatly assist us in attaining sales and gross margin goals. We can externally source from......

Words: 1614 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Essay On Soft Power

...The hazardous nature of soft power suggests that it may take several attempts for that ritual ceremony to produce outcomes: if more and more people attend the ceremony because they are convinced that it works, then they are genuinely attracted to it, which allows soft power to affect the audience. Soft power takes thus longer time to show results than hard power. Furthermore, preferences may change. This year’s new trend might be short skirts, but next year’s might be long skirts, and the next only pants. As a result, more women may wear short skirts the first year, then long skirts, then pants. It would be then difficult to observe whether women actually are attracted to short skirts or not. Similarly, since soft power is based on preferences, policy makers must be aware of what seduces people. Attraction is the main characteristic of soft power. Either through culture, values or polices –or all –, soft...

Words: 1746 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Global Management

...currencies. The importance of this understanding should not be underestimated. Many companies have seen their profits plummet from poor decisions concerning global financing and exchange rate mechanisms. Contrarily, companies have also seen the success that can be reached by making the right decisions at the right time. This paper will analyze and discuss one particular aspect of global financing: Hard and soft currencies. Definition Understanding global financing and exchange rate mechanisms begins with the basics of hard and soft currencies. According to BusinessDictionary.com, hard currency can be defined as a “stable, convertible currency…serves as means of payment settlements because they do not suffer from sharp exchange rate fluctuations.” (What is Hard Currency?, 2011) Examples of hard currencies include the Euro, US dollar, and the Japanese Yen. In contrast to hard currencies, soft currencies can be defined as a currency that belongs to a “small, weak, or wildly fluctuating economy and…is not in favor with foreign exchange dealers.” (What is Soft Currency?, 2011) Examples of this include Mexico, Iraq and Afghanistan. Typically, underdeveloped countries are known to have soft currencies. Global Financing Operations Currency exchange rates fluctuate every day. For instance, Mexico has a current exchange rate of about 13.369 pesos per 1 U.S. dollar. For U.S. visitors and businesses, the U.S. dollar is stronger; thus the purchasing power is......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Coca Cola Industry Analysis

...Marketing Plan [pic] Table of Contents |Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………...... |4 | | | | |Detailed List of Assumptions……………………………………………………………... | | | | | |Situational Analysis……………..…………………………………………………………. | | |Company Performance.…………………………………………………………………. | | |Three Years of History as a Continuing Business..…………………………………….. | | |Market Demand…………………………………………………………………….. | | |Customer Analysis………………………………………………………………….. | | |Competition and Industry…………………………………………………. | ......

Words: 9989 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Global Financing and Exchange Rate Mechanisms of Hard and Soft Currencies

...Global Financing and Exchange Rate Mechanisms of Hard and Soft Currencies Renita McBath MGT/448 University of Phoenix December 1, 2011 Professor David Grier Global Financing and Exchange Rate Mechanisms of Hard and Soft Currencies Trading, bartering, buying, and selling are known as the act doing business. The action of doing business has been a way of life for human beings for Centuries. At some point in our history the difficulty of doing business equally became a challenge. For instance, one person would like to trade a jar of jelly to another person that owns cows. The trade is off balance because of the value of each item. The difficulty arose when trying to access a credit. At this point, currency was born. In the beginning, currency was established by villagers in the form of stones, paper, linen, and other countable items. Nowadays humans have evolved currency into unique metal and paper items that have unique values. Currently these uniquely valuable currencies are referred to as hard and soft. Further research will reveal an analysis of the use of the currencies in global financing operations as well as describing the importance of managing risks that may arise. Hard Currency Hard currency is a status associated with the material, paper, and coins that are circulated within a country and globally in an effort to buy and sell goods. Currently, hard currency is the most traded currency.......

Words: 1145 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Soft Drink Case Study

...Distribution 9 Expected Retaliation 9 Conclusion 10 Suppliers 10 Supplier concentration 10 Presence of Substitute Inputs 11 Differentiation of Inputs 12 Importance of Volume to Supplier 13 Impact of Input on Cost or Differentiation 13 Threat of Backward or Forward Integration 13 Access to Capital 14 Access to Labor 14 Summary of Suppliers 14 Buyers 15 Buyer Concentration versus Industry Concentration 15 Buyer Volume 15 Buyer Switching Cost 15 Buyer Information 16 Threat of Backward Integration 16 Pull Through 16 Brand Identity of Buyers 17 Price Sensitivity 17 Impact on Quality and Performance 17 Substitute Products 18 Relative price/performance relationship of Substitutes 18 Buyer Propensity to Substitute 18 Rivalry 18 Industry Growth Rate 20 Fixed Costs 21 Product Differentiation 21 Brand Identity 21 Informational Complexity 22 Corporate Stakes 22 Conclusion 23 Critical Success Factors 23 Prognosis 24 Bibliography 26 Appendix 27 Key Industry Ratios 27 Introduction Description The soft drink industry is concentrated with the three major players, Coca-Cola Co., PepsiCo Inc., and Cadbury Schweppes Plc., making up 90 percent of the $52 billion dollar a year domestic soft drink market (Santa, 1996). The soft drink market is a relatively mature market with annual growth of 4-5% causing intense rivalry...

Words: 4699 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Learning Organisations

...Learning Organisations Moving towards a learning organization is something done BY people, not something done TO people or FOR people by someone else. So, the role of HR has to be in encouraging, facilitating, and supporting a move towards learning organizations. HR can never accomplish this themselves. Then, if executives want to move towards a learning organization, they should direct their operating units to do so, and direct HR to move into a supportive role. If it's the other way around, where HR gets the responsibility, it never works. Knowledge management (KM) "any practice or process of creating, acquiring, capturing, sharing and using knowledge, wherever it resides, to enhance learning and performance in organisations (Scarborough 1999). Knowledge management involves converting knowledge sources by classifying related information then circulating to make the information to take place. Not all information is knowledge or all knowledge is important. According to Blackler (1995), "knowledge is multifaceted and complex, implicit and explicit, physical and mental, verbal and encoded". He also categorises knowledge in four as: embedded (technological - collective), enculturel (Values, beliefs - collective), embodied (practical knowledge - individual), and embraced (theoretical understanding - individual). Contrast on Blackler, Nonaka (1991) proposes that knowledge could be either individual or collective, cannot be both. Yet another argument comes from Scarborough and......

Words: 4209 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Conflict Management and Negotiation

...actors, the stakes and the factors involved. All theories feed into each other, and combining these theories allows for a more complete understanding of the issues involved in bargaining process and therefore helps to improve individuals negotiation skills. There are several different theories analyzing the process and outcome of bargaining process as follows:- 1. Integrative Approach Model 2. Game Theory 3. Behavioral Theory 4. Power Theory 5. Optimal Agent Independence 1. Integrative Approach Model The integrative approach divides the negotiating process into three phases: • Diagnostic • Formulation • Details In the practice of negotiation, these phases are not necessarily linear. Rather, they can be repeated and addressed many times throughout the negotiation process.  The toughness dilemma in the integrative approach calls for tough diagnosis in order to clearly elucidate the true interests of each party. In the formulation phase, negotiators should be more soft, in order to find a common, mutually acceptable solution. In the detail phase, the negotiators should again take a tough stance to assure their party receives as much benefit from the bargaining process as possible. Diagnostic Phase The Integrative Approach focuses heavily on the diagnosis of the underlying issues which have created the conflict,...

Words: 3336 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Soft Power

...503479 14 EJT0010.1177/1354066113503479European Journal of International RelationsSolomon E IR J Article The affective underpinnings of soft power European Journal of International Relations 2014, Vol. 20(3) 720­–741 © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1354066113503479 ejt.sagepub.com Ty Solomon University of Glasgow, UK Abstract The concept of soft power occupies a prominent place in International Relations, foreign policy, and security studies. Primarily developed by Joseph S. Nye, the concept is typically drawn upon to emphasize the more intangible dimensions of power in a field long dominated by overtly material (i.e. military) power. Recently, some scholars have reframed soft power — specifically the key notion of attraction — as a narrative and linguistic process. This literature, however, has downplayed some of the other deep-seated underpinnings of soft power, which this article argues lie in the dynamics of affect. Building upon the International Relations affect and aesthetics literatures, this article develops the concept of soft power as rooted in the political dynamics of emotion and introduces the concept of affective investment. The attraction of soft power stems not only from its cultural influence or narrative construction, but more fundamentally from audiences’ affective investments in the images of identity that it produces. The empirical import of......

Words: 12815 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Generational Diversity in the Workplace

...Generational Diversity in the Workplace Managerial Communications 10/14/2011 Today, the workplace environment is comprised of people, both males and females from all different cultures and generations. For the first time in U.S. history there are four different generations out in the workforce. A generation can be defined as a group of individuals born within a term years having similar ideas, goals, attitudes and experiences. It can also be defined as the average period between the birth of parents and the birth of their children. Resources differ as to when some generations start and end; a generation is usually around 20 years long. generational differences are based on broad variations in values that develop based on the contrasting environment and social dynamics each generation experiences as they come of age. In the workplace, these differences seem to be generating clashes around work-life balance, employee loyalty, authority, and other important issues.Generational differences are based on broad variations in values that develop based on the contrasting environment and social dynamics each generation experiences as they come of age. In the workplace, these differences seem to be generating clashes around work-life balance, employee loyalty, authority, interpersonal relationships and other important issues (Notter, 2007). Sometimes contradictions and problems arise when identifying the characteristics of a generation. Some studies in the 1980’s......

Words: 1445 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century

... Coca-Cola and Pepsi function in the soft drink industry as dominating players and have remained market leaders for a long time. The key competencies of Coke and Pepsi range from the product, supply chain and distribution, marketing and customer loyalty. Each of them has developed operating procedure. The supply chain forms a major component or a competency that helps these companies form a competitive advantage for themselves (Wheelen & Hunger Page Ref: 332-335). Training of human resources also forms an important element as it helps strengthen the human resource. The main objectives of the training and the requirements are to be communicated to the employees along with details about when and where it has been organized. Several arrangements for the tainting session to be conducted, including the overhead projectors and stationary are to be arranged for in the office of Pepsi and Coke which leads to the strengthening of the human resources as an organizational resource (Page Ref: 246-247) The differences between resources important for competitive advantage and those that should be disinvested from industry/positioning perspective. The most important elements in this industry include the economics, market and competitive factors. The economic factors relate to the global economics conditions as the greatly impact the demand and consumption of soft drinks. This leads to there being a need for the marketers of the soft drink industry to ensure that the......

Words: 2396 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Ecnomics

...Japan in Asia: A Hard Case for Soft Power by Thomas U. Berger Thomas Berger is an associate professor of International Relations at Boston University. he concept of ‘‘soft power’’—defined by Joe Nye as ‘‘the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than through coercion’’1— has proven a seductive one for Japan. Since the concept was popularized in the 1990s, Japanese scholars and policymakers have enthusiastically taken it up, eagerly exploring how Japan’s soft power resources could be exploited to burnish Japan’s image in the world and help reshape its environment in subtle but important ways. Some—perhaps encouraged by the new attention given to the popularity of Japanese anime and manga, and by the general buzz about ‘‘Cool Japan’’—have even described Japan as a ‘‘Soft Power Superpower.’’2 It sometimes seemed, in more overheated moments, that Pokemon and Sailor Moon would conquer the world, succeeding where the Imperial Army and Navy had failed.3 That soft power would prove attractive is unsurprising. Although Japan has considerable hard power resources, it has shown great reluctance to actually use them in the way that students of international relations would T 1 The idea was originally advanced by in Joseph Nye, Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (New York: Basic Books, 1990). He has since expanded on the concept in Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004). 2 See the very useful volume......

Words: 8400 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Power Relations in Society

...each role in social members and evaluates power relations in society, which covers government, corporations and civil society. Research method is covered a literature review which is based on quality academic journal articles, texts and research institutes’ materials. The report clarifies each member’s interaction and its power residents. This power resident and relationship can be reformed through social agenda setting. There is possibility that power-balanced society in capitalism can be diminished through its change into neoliberalism agenda. This is examined through reviewing Japan’s development in last couple of decade. Contents Table 1.0 introduction..............................................................................................3 2.0 Role and power resident.........................................................................3 2.1 The role and power resident of Government.....................................................3 2.2 The role and power resident of Corporations....................................................4 2.3 The role and power resident of Citizens...........................................................5 3.0 An Interaction of Government, Corporations and Citizens…………6 4.0 Character of social context (capitalism, neoliberalism)…………....7   4.1 A power interaction in Capitalism...................................................................7 4.2 A power interaction in......

Words: 4088 - Pages: 17