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Effects of Contra st Abstract



ation but Begin with the most import ant inform Include only information that appear

do not repeat the paper title. or five

s in the paper itself. State only four s, and/or fi ndings. Cite previous

of the most import ant points, theorie


ISBN 1-4114-0234-0

9 781411 402348

relevant to your study. Defi ne all units

abbrev iations and special terms,

except for

words. of measu rement. Do not exceed 120



Effects of Contra st on Reaction Time

in a Semantic Categorization Task or

John Q. Author and Susan G. Coauth Univer sity of the West Sara P. Thirdauthor Univer sity of the East

Effects of Contra st Effects of Contra Categorization Task st on Reaction Time in a Semantic in an indented (0.5” or five to seven d paragr aph that provides an introdu


The text of the paper starts here,

-space spaces), left-justified, and double tion to the subject of the paper. The



ction should begin one double space

uction” label is necessary. below the paper’s title. No “Introd The introduction continues here ...

APA-MLA 3.0.indd 1

t Eins In 19





Effects of Contrast Method Participa nts total number Describe the selection process for subjects, the chosen, and the number in each subgroup or sample Materials ... of subjects 4


.. 19

s of Contra st


Describe specialized equipment by giving the and location of the commercial supplier . . . Procedure Include

model number and the name

6 of 32 trials 5 cm. 3 women, 6 men, 11 dogs, 9 bees 8% of those interviewed $5 Chapter 4, Table 7 “Twelve trials revealed . . .” 0.78 mm, p=.78 1950s


t the paper title.

ate only four or five previous research

se all instruca step-by-step summary of the experiment. Paraphra nt . . .

Cr A

tions unless the details are crucial to the experime

terms, except for

N=180, n=15

In the equation 3x + y = z, we see that . . .


. . . and this is the end of the Method section. Results

s of Contra st


The Results section immediately follows the

Method section. Typically,

gorization Task five to seven

h... you will want to start with an introductory paragrap Semantic Categorization Data Use headings within the Results section to identify ... Reaction time data. For clarity and organizat indented, italicized subheadi ngs like this one ion, you may want to use different sets of data


vides an introduc-

“. . . biolgical [sic]”

in one double space


to introduce paragraphs . . .

[italics added] Horner (1967) found that “Children raised in stable two-parent families . . .” (p. 438). He found that “Children raised . . . ” (Horner, 1967, p. 438). Horner (1967) found the following: Children raised . . . [assuming quotation is 40 or more words long]. (p. 438)

Connors, J. L. (1999). Digestion in healthy infants. Scientific Mothering, 14, 246– 278. Linney, M. B., & Palmer, G. (1987). Steroid use in professional cycling. Sports Medicine, 72, 89–123. Resnick, L. K., Friedman, H. R., Klein, W., Hermann, J. S., Ng, A., Zucker, M., et al. (1992). The cognitive behavior of patients undergoing chemotherapy. The Journal of Cancer Studies, 73, 645–787.

the photoelectric effect (Einstein, 1906) Einstein’s description of the photoelectric effect (1906) In 1906, Einstein published a paper on the photoelectric effect.

Barrett, Waters, and Tang (1997) found . . . Barrett et al. (1997) found . . . Barrett et al. found . . . . . . (Barrett, Waters, & Tang, 1997)

Norris, G. H., & Canting, L. L. (1965). Culture and class in Hungary. Bloomington, IN: Hashford Press. Pregnancy and poverty: The crisis in North American cities. (1979). Chicago: Crampton and Sons. Crawford, A. F., & Gregor, T. B. (Eds.). (1980). Urban development in America. Los Angeles: Smith-Folley. Gonzalez, M. Y. (1996). The discovery of the neutron (Rev. ed). New York: Academic Press.

Zuckerman et al. (1987) found . . . Zuckerman et al. found . . .

Einstein, Rush, et al. (1950) and Einstein, Bohr, et al. (1950) found . . .

Gonzalez, M. Y. (1997). The discovery of the neutron (3rd. ed). New York: Academic Press. Lancashire, K. S. (2000). Peer pressure in adolescent interaction (Vols. 1–3). Houston, TX: Scribe Press. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

. . . the book Pregnancy and Poverty (1979) . . . the study on health care (“America suffers,” 1997) (Anonymous, 1956)

Galvin, E. G. (1988). Les jeux d’enfants [Children’s games]. Paris: Danton & Marceaux.
. . . as has been shown (Hewlett 1989, 1993, 1994)

Galvin, E. G. (1990). Children’s games (T. C. Thomas & Y. H. Serron, Trans.). New York: Academic Press. (Original work published 1988)
. . . seminal papers in physics (Einstein, 1905a, 1905b; Oppenheimer and Bohr, 1940; Teller, 1951)

Harris, T. F. (1955) Dictionary of ornithology (3rd ed., Vols. 2-3). Princeton, NJ: Dashford. Crofton’s dictionary of colloquial English (4th ed.). (1993). Kansas City, MO: Crofton Press.

6 of 32 trials
. . . studies suggest (Strickley, 1997; see also Blake, 1995; Masters, 1986)

en, 11 dogs, 9 bees 8% of $5 “Twelve trials revealed . . .”

Crowley et al., 1923a, 1923b, 1923c A. J. Einstein and Wilson (1905) and J. C. Einstein and Hartley (1961) found . . .

Nguyen, C. F. (1983). Marital Communication. In E. R. Bailey & H. A. McArthur (Eds.), Essays on marriage (pp.43–98). London: Sociological Press. Clarke, E., & Anderson, B. (1997). Heart disease and sodium intake. In E. J. Huang and M. V. Egan (Eds.), Cardiac arrest: The risk factors (pp. 100–123). New York: Doone. Piaget, F. (1978). Hypersensitivity in toddlers. In E. I. Erickson (Ed.), Developmental psychology: Vols. 1–2. Infancy to early childhood. Amsterdam: Deutsche Press. Hawley, L. L. (1993). Multiple personality disorders. In E. H. Stafford (Series Ed.) & J. L. Durst (Vol. Ed.), Child development: Vol. 2. Social disorders (2nd ed. pp. 72–80. Pittsburgh, PA: Moore Press. Hailey, T. G. (1990). Quantum mechanics. In The new encylopaedia Britannica (Vol. 5, pp. 100–126). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.


(Plato, trans. 2001)

(Freud, 1901/1961)

(J. M. Hamilton, personal communication, December 17, 2003)

Jones’s study (as cited in Adamson, 1994)

Horace, G. (in press). The testosterone effect. Journal of Gender and Sexual Studies.

(Horace, in press)

Smith, P., & Dobbs, L. S. (2001, January 8). The use of aloe in healing. Today’s Medicine, 17, 32–34. Retrieved April 16, 2001, from http:// O’Neill, S. K., & Brown, F. (2000). Geriatric health care in Canada. Retrieved January 3, 2002, from canadiansurvey.htm

“. . . biolgical [sic]”

-parent families . . .” (p. 438). 38).

more words long]. (p. 438)

3/1/04 1:06:27 PM

Olivetti, G. F. (1993). Title of monograph. Title of Series, 5 (2, Serial No. 128).

Olivetti, G. F. (1993). Title of monograph. Title of Series, 5 (2, Pt. 2). Olivetti, G. F. (1993). Title of monograph [Monograph]. Title of Series, 5, 126–238.


Waters, S. C. (1989). Title of dissertation or thesis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University, Location. Chiang, E. (2001). Title of dissertation or thesis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 5, 230A.


(UMI No. 10000)
Table 1 Table 2 As shown in Table 3, the rate of change . . .


Jones, J. Y., & Siegel, B. (2001, October). Gender discrepancies: The benefits of single-sex education (University of Chicago Research Report No. 34). Chicago: University of Chicago, Center for Educational Psychology.
Note. Values enclosed in parentheses indicate . . .

Taylo orrha In sev

Grey, L. H. (2001). A man for all seasons. [Review of the motion picture Mr. Riley]. Cinema Today, 5, 120–156.
** p < .05

ran quic school. .

* p < .10,

Joffe, C. (Producer), & Allen, W. (Director). (1979). Manhattan [Motion picture]. United States: United Artists Pictures. Brooks, J. L. (Executive Producer). (1989) The Simpsons [Television series]. Los Angeles: 20th Century Fox Television. Charles, L. (Writer), & Cherones, T. (Director). (1994). The marine biologist [Television series episode]. In J. Seinfeld (Producer), Seinfeld. New York: NBC Television. Pratt, C. (Executive Producer). (2003, November 16). Face the nation [Television broadcast]. New York: CBS Television. Dylan, B. (1965). Like a rolling stone. On Highway 61 revisited [record]. New York: Columbia Records. Perry, L. (2002). Beautiful [Recorded by C. Aguilera]. On Stripped [CD]. New York: RCA Records.
Level 5: CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING Level 1: Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Level 2: Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Level 3: Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading Level 4: Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

“[Pre Marjo

On wel


The sample was composed of (a) students who scored over 700 on the SAT math, (b) students who scored between 580 and 700, and (c) students who scored lower than 580.

“A m

Figure 1 Figure 2

As shown in Figure 5, the correlation between . . . The population data (see Figure 8) suggest . . .

Dr. Belfour predicted the following: 1. Patients following a rigorous exercise program . . . 2. Patients following a moderate exercise program . . . 3. Patients who were inactive would . . .

The Soc ent

Bosworth 1 Peter Bosworth

In acc

Rodriguez 12

Professor Henderson Histor y 404 17 December 2003 The Investiture Conflict and the Medieval Catholic Church thirteenth of . . .

In h the

s that raged during the The political and theolog ical debate centur y over the ordination of priests

In dif

can best be understood in terms

Sev eig

APA-MLA 3.0.indd 2

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

“As political pressure on Mendenthal increases, the likelihood that he will accomplish his promised reforms decreases” (“Missouri Governor’s Popularity Slipping” 23).

Table 1

Fig. 1

Table 1

Fig. 2
Alcohol-related accidents are down 9% this year (Department of Transportation 32).

(Dickens 241; book 4, ch. 9)

“Ruin hath taught me thus to ruminate, / That time shall come and take my love away.”
(Shakespeare, Hamlet 1.23.218–219) (Keats 14–16) (Keats lines 14–16)

Table 1 Table 2 As shown in Table 3,

. . . as in Keats’s “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”: Much have I travell’d in the realms of gold, And many goodly states and kingdoms seen; Round many western islands have I been Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold. (1–4)

April is the cruelest month, breeding Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing Memory and desire, stirring Dull roots with spring rain. (1–4) (Peiffer 1–2, 18–19)


lues enclosed in parentheses

Taylor notes that “Rooseveld [sic] remained in office until his death from a cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945.” In several instances, Jones refers to Lincoln as “the Great Emancipater” (sic). “Doug ran quickly to school.” “Doug ran . . . to school.” ran quickly to school. He ate lunch. Then he went home.” school. . . . Then he went home.” “Doug “Doug ran quickly to

Ta Op

(Gates 131). (“New York City” 23)


* p < .10,
“[President-elect] Roberta Ford opened the NRA meeting with a bang.” Marjorie wrote that she “care[d] little for green beans.”
(K. Smythe 13) (L. Smythe 912)


Wa Ra

(Shakespeare Society 21)

Jo Bl

EADING case Heading wercase Heading de Heading ing ending with a period.
One writer contends that “all men may be created equal, but not all men live equally well” (Howard 421).

The American Association for Market-Correction Theory in a Sociohistorical Context has speculated that “no three-decade span will ever be free from a significant period of stock deflation” (36).


. . . was, as Harrison said, “fortuitously timed” (qtd. in Blanchett 104)

Ke --Le ---

Howard insists that “all men may be created equal, but not all men live equally well” (421).

(Jarvis 2: 451)

Ne “S
“A man who knows where the fish eat may soon eat fish himself” (Rogers and Llewellyn 15).
(KJV, Acts 13.13–52) (Revelation 16.16)

700 on the SAT math, (b) stuwho scored lower than 580.

The Platonic theory of forms, though expressed in Plato’s writings in the dialogue of Socrates, had nothing to do with the older philosopher, and “probably would have been entirely unfamiliar to him during his life” (Cheng et al. 301).

El Mo St

Wa Ri

(Bloom 57)


(García Márquez 202)

Bosworth 1

(“Geology Graduate

In her theory, she is interested less in notions of beauty than in notions of “linguistic accuracy” (Martin, Language 143).

Programs Listing,” 2) (“Heisman Winner,” par. 3)

Fe Kl

In her later work, Martin contrasts the idea of beauty she developed in The Goblin on the Bloom with an idea of “linguistic accuracy” (Language 143).

Fe Am

olic Church

ing the thirteenth

In Language and Structure, Martin advocates an ideal of “linguistic accuracy” quite different from her earlier ideal of beauty (143).

tood in terms of . . .

Several writers have commented on the precipitous decline in street crime in the last eight months (Johnson 23; Branford 142; Eleheum 9; Kirchner 14).

Le (19 Re Ya

l accomplish g” 23).
Work s Cited Henderson, Jonat han. Proce sses of Consciousness Enco

Simmons 17

Flout, Frederick. “The Art of Pantomime.” Art Today 46 (1998): 89–113. Abstract. Index to Art Writing 17 (2000): item RG387.

ded in Semiotic Sign-

Martin, Jennifer. A Vision of Architecture. 3rd ed. Missoula, MT: Crystal River, 2002.

ation 32).

Structuralist Theory of End of the Line: A PostRowling, Mont ague K. The Big Jack River Press, 1991. Railroads. Waynesville, KY: 2003 . der/itc_dat a/sem iotics.html

Sequences: A Political

rd UP, 1987. Approach. New York: Oxfo

Bagshot, Basil. World Cheeses. 16 vols. London: Smith-Morlocke, 1902.

Gogol, Henri. Introduction. The Poetry of Walt Whitman. Ed. Karen Tress. Philadelphia: Border Press, 1978. vii–xxiii.

ats 14–16)

Rev. of And Then There Were None, by Agatha Christie. Hitchcock Press 7 December 1939: 45.

Satchel, Marcus. “Shakespeare’s Women.” Shakespearean Times 26.7 (1982): 34–41. Bronstein, Deliah. “Cooking Tips.” Gourmet Food 17 (1990): 22–24.

“Masterful Suspense.” Rev. of And Then There Were None, by Agatha Christie. Hitchcock Press 7 December 1939: 45. Walsh, Darren. “Masterful Suspense.” Rev. of And Then There Were None, by Agatha Christie. Hitchcock Press 7 December 1939: 45.


Tang, Heather. “Mosquito Alert.” New York Times 27 May 1992, late ed.: C8+. Oppenheimer, Wallace. “Swing, Daddy, Swing.” The Atlantic Monthly June 1999: 21–30. “Tax Fraud.” Editorial. New York Times 5 August 1987, late ed.: A21. Dreary, Gregory. Letter. Science Press Dec. 1967: 11.
Vendela, Terri. “The Semiotics of Slang.” Diss. Harvard U, 1988. Frieman, Garry. Achieving Perfection Through Thought. Diss. College of William and Mary, 1994. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1994. 9546344.

Rogers, Karl. To Run with the Night. New York: Oxford UP, 1961. Watson, Michael and Samantha Willis. Chemistry and Chemists. New York: Random House, 1982. Johnson, Sam, Frank Klimt, and Wayne Newberry. Quantum Theory and Cats. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 2000. Kramer, Devin, et al. Microwave Cooking and You. Boston: Chef’s Press, 1992.
The Gap. 2 January 2004., Inc. 2 January 2004. . Berry, Brandon. “Dodgers Strike Out on New Stadium Deal.” 17 December 2001. 20 December 2001 .

y 21)

ical Context ficant period

timed” (qtd.

Kelley, Randolph. My Time in Eden. Los Angeles: El Dorado Press, 1990. ---. You Can So Go Home Again. Los Angeles: El Dorado Press, 1972. Lewis, Karl. Without Sleep. Millburn, NJ: Delta Press, 1965. ---, ed. Studies of Sleep Patterns. Detroit: Clifford and Sons, 1967.

Ellerbe, Hyman. “Abraham Lincoln.” Encyclopedia of Political Leaders. Ed. Lavar O’Denby. 4 vols. New York: Random House, 1977. “Prolegomena.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.

Never No Lament. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan UP, 1920. “Spying in Middle America.” Time 7 Nov. 1954: 27–38.

ation 16.16)

Oklahoma. Dept. of Transportation. Oklahoma Highway Guide. Oklahoma City: State Publishing Office, 1979.

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. Ed. Phillippa Howitzer. New York: Overlook Press, 1981. Montoni, Antonio. Poems in Italian. Trans. Daniel Owens. Overlook, CO: Mountain Stream, 1976. Wamberg, Cora and Fredrick Baynes Jackson, eds. Under the Ninth Seal. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.

Cong. Rec. 8 April 1999: 4129–4131.

Kirk, Virgil. English 101 Lecture. Clark Hall, Randolph College, Valhalla, NY. 12 Sept. 2000.

Wafer, Harold, trans. Gilgamesh. Weston, CA: Weston Publishers, 1969.
Tan, Amy. Personal interview. 28 May 1999. Cunningham, Michael. Telephone interview. 6 July 2003. Bush, George W. Interview. New York Times 2 Feb. 2001, late ed: A1+. Bush, George W. Interview. Politics Today. By Richard Rosen. Detroit, MI: Percy Press, 2000. Bush, George W. Interview with Terence Hanover. Political Speak. Natl. Public Radio. QTUR, Chicago. 2 Feb. 2001. Bush, George W. Interview. A Family Tradition. Dir. Thomas Grey. Videocassette. Meteor, 2001.

American Metaphysics Association. On Metaphysics. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2001.

gy Graduate

Fevbre, Jacques. “The Ice Cadet.” New American Short Stories. Ed. Wallace Klemperer. New York: Storyville, 1985. 1001–1007.

Fevbre, Jacques. “The Ice Cadet.” The New Yorker 2 June 1984: 26–31. Rpt. in New American Short Stories. Ed. Wallace Klemperer. New York: Storyville, 1985. 1001–1007.

Leone, Harriet. “Magic and Myth in Matriarchal Societies.” Anthropology 53 (1980): 32–56. Anthropological Abstracts 73 (1981): item 5634. Reikoff, Carol. “Prisoners in Need: Toward a More Rehabilitative Approach.” Diss. Yale U, 1990. DAI 37 (1991): 2340B.

The Games [Les jeux]. Screenplay by Marie Danielle. Dir. Jacques Riveau. Perf. Claire Tarot, Georges Armand. Miramax, 1967.

3/1/04 1:06:46 PM


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...Introduction This paper will outline my finding after reading the case “Sick Leave”. The background of the case tells of four foreign exchange students working in Japan at the Board of Education. Three of the workers became sick and had to call off for two consecutive days. The workers were informed when they returned to work; they were required to return to work with a doctor’s note certifying they were in fact sick. When Kelly returned to work she gave her boss the note. Later that evening the accountant visits Kelly desk to have her sign her leave slip. The leave slip was not completed properly by the accountant; Kelly quickly noticed she was being charged vacation days instead of sick. Kelly bought this error to her supervisor Mr. Higashi’s attention and he stated it was not an error because they are doing things the Japanese way since they are in Japan. Kelly became furious because she knew what her contract stated and that she was entitled to both vacation and sick leave days. She produced a copy of the contract to her boss and he hurried to a meeting. Kelly sat at her desk and contemplated her next move. She talked to the other foreign workers and said she was going to call the company who hired them. I will give suggestions for Kelly to properly negotiate her reasons for being granted the use of her sick leave instead of being charged vacation leave. I relate my suggestions to framing and to effective communications in the workplace. I will outline the...

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...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Microfinance industry is now affected by strong competition : “ commercial banks have begun to target MFIs’ traditional customers , new MFIs have continued to be created in microfinance industry, the microfinance clientele is becoming more sophisticated concerning the quality of service they require or expect”( Daubert 2002) . These factors may negatively affect the MFIs. In fact, the microfinance industry is losing customers because of both the aggressive competition and MFIs’ weakness to satisfy their clients (Urguizo 2006). This simple description shows why MFIs are concerned about customer satisfaction and retention. It justifies also why they must “pay attention to understand their customers’ preferences and priorities” (IFAD 2007) to survive in a competitive environment. The microfinance industry is quite slowly in becoming more “market oriented” and it seems that customer satisfaction is one of the important tools to run a business and to achieve the mission statement (on sustainability and outreach) in this sector. Customer satisfaction is an evaluative process, it is defined as “… a judgment that a product of service feature, or the product or service itself, provided (or is providing) a pleasurable level of consumption related fulfillment, including levels of under or over fulfillment” (Oliver 1997, 13) cited by ( Swaid 2007; Hom 2002). Customer satisfaction is “captured as positive feeling (satisfaction)...

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