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African American Women and Contraceptive Use

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Submitted By tetriot
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Introduction
From its origin, HIV/AIDS has been defined as a sexually transmitted disease associated primarily with white homosexual men. In fact, African Americans are the racial/ethnic group that are mostly influenced by HIV/AIDs. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, by the end of 2008, an estimated 240,627 blacks with and AIDs diagnosis has died in the United States (CDC, 2012). Contrary to the evident statistics affecting the African American population as a whole, there remains a small amount of research studies, dedicated towards HIV/AIDs healthcare promotion and prevention strategies specifically designed for the African American women. However, there is a large proportion of African American women affected by HIV/AIDs. In 2009, black women accounts for 30% of the new estimations of HIV infections among blacks. The rate for HIV infections as compared to other populations is 15 times more than white women, and three times as high for Latina women (CDC, 2012). This is confirmed by social media, primarily directed at African American males. In regards to the African American women, personal beliefs, cultural practices, and social norms act as a backdrop in determining the risk behavior of acquiring HIV/AIDs. This study serves to address the need for prevention strategies among single African American women of 18-22 years of age in college from the middle socioeconomic class. The subjects for the study are voluntary and motivated to learn with no developmental barriers noted. In particular, the study will investigate the use of sexual barriers among the college women as a preventive measure against HIV/AIDs and their overall knowledge of protective barriers and risk behaviors.
Model
The Health Belief Model is centered upon a client’s belief in his or her own personal susceptibility and severity of a health condition as significant denominators that influence the motivation of health-conscious behaviors (Rankin, Stallings, 1996). Exploring the definition of individual healthcare beliefs is important to acknowledge in order to encourage effective healthcare behaviors in the prevention of HIV/AIDs. The Health Belief Model assists in the understanding of patient motivation in the adaptation of behaviors that do not place the clients at risk. Although there are various variables to address, the emotional, cultural and social meanings attached to sexual behavior are one of the firsthand factors in the higher prevalence and increasing incidence rates of HIV, AIDs, and other STDs among African American women (Foreman, 2003). The patient education process is propagated through firsthand understanding of the reasoning and thought processes concerned with the risk behavior. This way, the clients will be able to understand how personal preferences can directly lead to increased risks of acquiring HIV/AIDs. Utilizing the Health Belief Model, the purpose of this study is to target African American females of 18-22 years of age in a college setting to investigate their healthcare beliefs and actions concerning the usage of protective sexual barriers. Henceforth, a group of twenty volunteers will be selected to participate in a health promotion/disease prevention seminar with an emphasis upon condom usage.
Audience
The focus of this educational program is to investigate current healthcare practices in relation to contraceptive barriers and to inform and educate African American female students of the variables and risk behaviors leading to HIV/AIDs. HIV/AIDs prevention programs are sparse in the university or college campus environment, with their focus usually on teenagers, uneducated black women in poverty with high unemployment, or youth living in low-income neighborhoods (Alleyne, Wodarski, 2009). The little amount of information that is available is restricted to basic information supplied by nonspecific pamphlets in the student health center. For this purpose, a partnership with the public health administrators on campus will allow the investigation of relevant healthcare beliefs and behaviors, and emphasize educational reform in terms of utilizing protective sexual barriers.
Objectives
Cognitive (Knowledge) * After reading an informational pamphlet on HIV/AIDs, the students will list effective sexual contraceptive barriers * After watching a video on the risk behaviors specific to African American women, the students will identify risk behaviors pertinent to culture and ethnicity.
Affective (Attitude) * After watching a video pertaining to African American women as a risk population for HIV/AIDs, the students will express their opinion on African American women as an at-risk group in relation to HIV/AIDs. * After reading a profile of an African American female college student who had a new case of HIV/AIDs, the students will state how their own attitudes can lead to risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDs.
Psychomotor (Skills) * After reading a basic campus-acquired brochure on HIV/AIDs, students will separate into groups of 3-4 people, and create a flier of five points, specific to African American women. * After sharing their brochures with others, students will compare and contrast the points made in the fliers
Risk Behaviors
Firstly, it is most important to evaluate the factors involved in the acquisition of HIV/AIDs. Among the common social variables, such as deficient knowledge, barriers in the access of information, there is one main criteria, which has a direct link with the HIV/AIDs risk behaviors. Low rates of condom use indicate that heterosexual African American women may not perceive themselves as at risk for acquiring HIV/AIDs (McNair, Prather, 2004). Various variables attribute to inadequate condom use in sexual practices concerning African women. This may include inconvenience, fear of reprisal, a negative perception of condom usage, and the generated belief that it does not constitute as a risk behavior. Moreover, the real concern is not deficient knowledge in relation to sexual contraceptives. It pertains to a refusal to acknowledge the risks of not using an effective contraceptive barrier. Furthermore, the sex-ratio imbalance in the African American community heightens the difficulty in negotiating condom usage with male sexual partners (McNair, Prather, 2004). According to Cornelius, Okundaye, and Manning (2000), only one third of African American women aged 14-44 years reported that their partners always used condoms (McNair, Prather, 2004). Not enough healthcare resources are available to the African American women. Condom samples are primarily provided to men as a preventive measure to protect their partner and themselves. Therefore, the decision lies in the hands of the dominant male. The imbalance of males and females results in lower levels of interpersonal power, consequently due to more options available to men. Unfortunately, the female to male relationship plays a role in dictating sexual behavioral patterns. Therefore, the reasoning as well as the decision to use or not to use sexual contraceptives should be assessed.
Instruction Strategies
In reality, college-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs are sparse in number. Existing HIV/AIDS prevention programs are not designed for African American women within the university or college campus environment. Most HIV/AIDS prevention programs target teenagers, uneducated black women in poverty with high unemployment, or youth living in low-income neighborhoods (Alleyne, Wodarski, 2009). The strategic use of educational media as appropriate allows for a more effective understanding of the required subject, allowing the students in our educational approach to facilitate better learning processes. The instructional media is differentiated by its effectiveness in small, medium and large groups. The preferred method of learning is also pertinent, and must examine generation differences, and comprehension of technological media. In the case of the African American college students, it is beneficial to incorporate technology into teaching formulations as well as include separate reading material to allow for different learning methods. With all types of media, it is necessary to include discussion as a means to connect all the information together and to reinforce key points. Media that will be included consist of an educational video, informational pamphlet, campus-acquired brochure, and a case study on HIV/AIDs. Educational videos promote learning when carefully selected, introduced, and integrated into patient teaching. The informational pamphlet or brochure is regarded as the most popular teaching tool, as it offers an individualized teaching plan as relevant to the individual. All materials with exception of the campus-acquired brochure will be specific to the group of African American female college students to further learning based upon cultural and social needs.

Teaching Outline * Introduction of program purposes and layout * Run educational video on HIV/AIDs with supplemental pamphlet * Provide time for discussion, questions, and answers * Provide case scenario of African American women with new case of HIV/AIDs * Divide class into groups of 3-4 persons per group * Distribute campus-acquired brochures to allow groups to create five main points that are culturally sensitive * Provide survey for evaluation

Evaluation Strategies
Evaluation strategies are used to check the effectiveness of a teaching program. Measured learning outcomes are emphasized by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations as a necessary step in measuring learned behaviors (CDC, 2012). Measuring learning outcomes can be regularly accomplished in any setting. Common evaluation methods used are questionnaires, interviews, and feedback. All methods assess expectations, opinions, and the degree of confidence in new knowledge and self-efficacy (Rankin, Stalling, 1996). After the teaching, the learners should be assessed if they have acquired the skills, knowledge, and attitudes as defined in the objectives. Questionnaires are regularly conducted to assess the fulfillment of the program objectives. Questionnaires will be based upon the Likert scale, which asks participants to rate questions based upon the extent that they agree or disagree with the question (Edmondson, 2005). Based upon a numerical scale, attitudes will correspond with the following: 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=not sure, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree. This format enables certain social responses to be grouped comparatively. Feedback is also a communicative mechanism, which may not be specifically measured. Instead, it opens a perspective on the personal opinion and involves the sharing of perceptions. Feedback is constructive in nature, and enables the teaching program to improve on certain points in the future. Feedback may either be verbal or written as part of the questionnaire. Through the following strategies described, the objectives of the program will be measured for its effectiveness.
Evaluation Form * Do you currently believe that your ethnic population is an at-risk population for the development of HIV/AIDs? * Has this program educated you in regards to sexual contraceptives and their usage? * Are the utilized media effective for the teaching objectives? * Has this program convinced you to use sexual contraceptives more readily, if not already adopted? * Do you currently always use sexual contraceptive barriers with your partner? * Are you in an exclusive relationship? * Do you believe that the information supplied was relevant to your ethnic population?
Aspects to Evaluate
The aspects to evaluate serve as an integral part of the educational program. A strong evaluation approach ensures that the aspects covered are relevant to the evidence presented in the educational study (CDC, 2011). Aspects are the individual criteria, which dictate the success of an educational approach. Aspects to evaluate can be grouped into the following categories: planning and preparation, the educational environment, instruction, educational material, and professional responsibilities (Santiago, Benavides, 2009). Planning and preparation constitutes the knowledge of content and the effectiveness of the presentations, clarity of instructional goals, easily comprehensible instruction, and purposeful activities. The educational environment is evaluated based upon the maintenance of respect and rapport, upholding classroom regulations and procedures, organization of physical space, and the management of student behavior. Instruction is assessed by the following qualities: clear and accurate communication, the utilization of questioning and discussion techniques, engagement of the students in learning activities, and easy responsiveness/feedback to students. The educational media used will be evaluated for their straightforward message, easy accessibility, and ability to engage the audience. Furthermore, evaluation methods will be assessed for the ability to capture accurate and relevant information needed to evaluate the program’s effectiveness. In conclusion, the aspects for evaluation describe the steps to examining the program’s efficacy for future studies.
Conclusion
The purpose of this study is to examine and review the healthcare behaviors of African Ameican women in college in regards to using sexual contraceptive barriers. Healthcare attitudes and the will to change current sexual practices will be reviewed through questionnaires and feedback. The study will review the effectiveness of the teaching method and media involved. The subjects involved are only a partition of a large ethnic group and may not distinguish total healthcare attitudes of the group. However, with this educational study, we are better able to understand the attitudes/beliefs associated with sexual behavior in African American women, and attempt to change some of the risk behaviors involved in the acquisition of HIV/AIDs.

Objective/Domain | Content Outline | Instructional Strategy | Instructional Media/Resources | Method of Evaluation | CognitionAfter reading an informational pamphlet on HIV/AIDs, the students will list effective sexual contraceptive barriersAfter watching a video on the risk behaviors specific to African American women, the students will identify risk behaviors pertinent to culture and ethnicity. | Run educational video on HIV/AIDs with supplemental pamphletRun educational video on HIV/AIDs with supplemental pamphlet | Questioning and discussion techniquesQuestioning and discussion techniques | Informational pamphlet on HIV/AIDSEducational video on HIV/AIDS | Likert Scale/feedback mechanismLikert Scale/feedback mechanism | Affective After watching a video pertaining to African American women as a risk population for HIV/AIDs, the students will express their opinion on African American women as an at-risk group in relation to HIV/AIDs.After reading a profile of an African American female college student who had a new case of HIV/AIDs, the students will state how their own attitudes can lead to risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDs. | Run educational video on HIV/AIDs with supplemental pamphletProvide case scenario of African American women with new case of HIV/AIDs | Questioning and discussion techniquesGroup discussion and feedback from peers/instructor | Educational video on HIV/AIDSCase study | Likert Scale/feedback mechanismLikert Scale/feedback mechanism | Psychomotor After reading a basic campus-acquired brochure on HIV/AIDs, students will separate into groups of 3-4 people, and create a flier of five points, specific to African American women.After sharing their brochures with others, students will compare and contrast the points made in the fliers. | Distribute campus-acquired brochures to allow groups to create five main points that are culturally sensitiveDistribute campus-acquired brochures to allow groups to create five main points that are culturally sensitive | Group discussion and feedback from instructor/peersGroup discussion and feedback from instructor/peers | Campus-acquired brochureCampus-acquired brochure | Likert Scale/feedback mechanismLikert Scale/feedback mechanism |

References
Alleyne, B. & Wodarski, J. (2009). Psychosocial factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS risk behavior among young black college women. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 19, 142-158. doi: 10.1080/10911350802687117
Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). A framework for program evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/eval/framework/index.htm
Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). HIV in African Americans. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/index.htm
Edmondson, D.R. (2005). Likert scales: a history. Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing. Retrieved from http://faculty.quinnipiac.edu/charm/CHARM%20proceedings/CHARM%20article%20archive%20pdf%20format/Volume%2012%202005/127%20edmondson.pdf
Foreman, F.E. (2003). Intimate risk: sexual risk behavior among African American college women. Journal of Black Studies. 33(5), 637-653. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180980
McNair, L.D. & Prather, C.M. (2004). African American women and AIDS: factors influencing risk. Journal of Black Psychology. 30, 106-118. doi: 10.1177/0095798403261414
Rankin, S.H., Stallings, K.D., & London, F. (1996). Patient Education in Health and Illness. Lippincott Philadelphia, PA: Williams and Wilkins.
Santiago, P. & Benavides, F. (2009). Teacher evaluation: a conceptual framework and examples of country practices. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/24/44568106.pdf

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African American Women Under Slavery

...African American Women Under Slavery This paper discusses the experiences of African American Women under slavery during the Slave Trade, their exploitation, the secrecy, the variety of tasks and positions of slave women, slave and ex-slave narratives, and significant contributions to history. Also, this paper presents the hardships African American women faced and the challenges they overcame to become equal with men in today’s society. Slavery was a destructive experience for African Americans especially women. Black women suffered doubly during the slave era. Slave Trade For most women who endured it, the experience of the Slave Trade was one of being outnumbered by men. Roughly one African woman was carried across the Atlantic for every two men. The captains of slave ships were usually instructed to buy as high a proportion of men as they could, because men could be sold for more in the Americas. Women thus arrived in the American colonies as a minority. For some reason, women did not stay a minority. Slave records found that most plantations, even during the period of the slave trade, there were relatively equal numbers of men and women. Slaveholders showed little interest in women as mothers. Their willingness to pay more for men than women, despite the fact than children born to enslaved women would also be the slaveowners’ property and would thus increase their wealth. Women who did have children, therefore, always struggled with the impossible......

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