Free Essay

American Holidays


Submitted By crismonroe
Words 11778
Pages 48
American Holidays

The following are holidays that we celebrate in the United States:

New Years Eve and New Years Day
New Years Day is the first day of the year, January 1st. it is a celebration of the old year and the new one to come. People make New Years Resolutions each New Years and promise themselves that they will keep this resolution until next year.

New Years Eve is a major social event. Clubs everywhere are packed with party-goers who stay out all night and go nuts at midnight. At midnight it is a tradition to make lots of noise. The traditional New Years Ball is dropped every year in Times Square in New York City at 12 o’clock. This event can be seen all over the world on television.

Valentine’s Day
Saint Valentine’s Day is a day that is set aside to promote the idea of “love”. It is celebrated on February 14th. People send greeting cards or gifts to loved one and friends to shoe them that they care.

Easter is a major Christian holiday that commemorates the resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is celebrated on Sunday between March 22 and April 25. The 40 days leading up to Easter are observed as Lent. Besides the religious aspects of Easter, people also celebrate spring or the sign of the new life. Flowers are seen everywhere. There are often Easter Parades such as the one in New York City where people dress up in their new spring clothes. Children receive Easter baskets filled with candy Easter eggs, chocolate bunnies and jelly beans! The dying of egg with food color is also an Easter tradition in many American families

Memorial Day
Memorial Day is a legal holiday that takes place every year on the last Monday in may. Memorial Day is in honor of the nation’s armed forces who were killed defending their country in war. Memorial Day was originally called Decoration Day. It is celebrated with parades, memorial speeches and ceremonies, and the decoration of graves with flower and flags. Memorial Day is a indication or reminder that summer is on its way. Many small tows in America celebrate Memorial Day in their own special way. In our town, we have a small fair with barbequed chicken, rides for the children and a special fireworks display. Memorial Day is also the traditional day for people to open up their swimming pools!

Independence Day
Independence Day (Fourth of July) is celebrated every year in the U.S. on July 4th. It commemorates the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The first Independence Day was celebrated in Philadelphia on July 8, 1776. this is when the declaration was read aloud parades, patriotic speeches, fireworks and pageant are also ways of celebrating today. Many families celebrate the Fourth of July by having picnics and going to the beach. You will also find fireworks being displayed in many towns and cities across America on the Fourth of July!

Labor Day
Labor Day is a legal holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. The celebration of Labor Day is in honor of the working class. Parades are held throughout the cities and towns of the United States. Generally, Labor Day is the last day of summer celebrations. It is a signal to students across the country that school is ready to begin again!

Arbor Day
Arbor Day in Latin, arbor means “tree”. In the United States Arbor day is a tree-planting day to beautify your towns or to teach about protecting our forests, but in some states it is a legal holiday.

Halloween is celebrated on October 31st. “the observances connected with Halloween are thought to have originated among the ancient Druids, who believed that on that evening, Saman, the lord of the dead, called forth hosts of evil spirits.” (Encarta 96) In the United States you will find many children dressed in costumes on Halloween. They walk from door to door collecting candy. The chant “trick or treat” is heard throughout the neighborhood. There is really no significance for most people in the US associates with Halloween, other than it is fun dress in costumes, go to parties, play spooky music, and collect candy!

Veterans Day
Veterans Day used to be called Armistice Day. It is a holiday observed every year in the United States to honor all the men and women who served with the U.S. armed forces during the wars. It is observed either on November 11th or on the fourth Monday of October. Americans display an American Flag outside their homes Banks, offices and school are usually closed.

Thanksgiving Day was first celebrated in colonial times in the New England. When the Pilgrims landed their ships at Plymouth Rock in the year 1621, they needed the help of the neighboring Native Americans to learn how to plant crops and grow food. After they had completed their first harvest, the Pilgrims had a feast with the Indians (Native Americans) to celebrate their friendships. This was called “The First Thanksgiving.”

Thanksgiving is still celebrated every year on the fourth Thursday of November, usually with a feast of turkey, stuffing, corn, mashed potatoes and other foods. A favorite side-dish of many families is cranberry sauce and cranberry relish. Thanksgiving is a time for each person to think of what and who they are thankful for.

Christmas is a Christian holiday that celebrates the birth of Christ. There are many traditions associated with Christmas that individual families brought with them when they came to the United Sates. Americans bring evergreen trees trimmed with lights and ornament into their homes. “The use of a Christmas tree began early in the 17th century, in Strasbourg, France, spreading from there through Germany and then into northern Europe. In 1841 Albert, prince consort of Queen Victoria, introduced the Christmas tree custom to Great Britain; from there it accompanied immigrants to the United Sates”. (Encarta ’96) Besides the many religious ceremonies and songs celebrated throughout the United Sates, many American children wait excitedly for Santa Claus to arrive on Christmas Eve and leave presents under the Christmas tree. Christmas has become known as a time for friendship, giving and cheer. Many Americans wish this goodwill could continue throughout the entire year!

|Postal |Traditional |State |Capital |Most Populous City |Flag |
|AL |Ala. |Alabama |Montgomery |Birmingham | |
|AK |Alaska |Alaska |Juneau |Anchorage | |
|AZ |Ariz. |Arizona |Phoenix |Phoenix | |
|AR |Ark. |Arkansas |Little Rock |Little Rock | |
|CA |Cal. or Calif. |California |Sacramento |Los Angeles | |
|CO |Colo. |Colorado |Denver |Denver | |
|CT |Conn. |Connecticut |Hartford |Bridgeport | |
|DE |Del. |Delaware |Dover |Wilmington | |
|FL |Fla. |Florida |Tallahassee |Jacksonville | |
|GA |Ga. |Georgia |Atlanta |Atlanta | |
|HI |Hawaii |Hawaii |Honolulu |Honolulu | |
|ID |Idaho |Idaho |Boise |Boise | |
|RI |R.I. |Rhode Island |Providence |Providence | |
|SC |S.C. |South Carolina |Columbia |Columbia | |
|SD |S.D. or S.Dak. |South Dakota |Pierre |Sioux Falls | |
|TN |Tenn. |Tennessee |Nashville |Memphis | |
|TX |Tex. or Texas |Texas |Austin |Houston | |
|UT |Utah |Utah |Salt Lake City |Salt Lake City | |
|VT |Vt. |Vermont |Montpelier |Burlington | |
|VA |Va. |Virginia |Richmond |Virginia Beach | |
|WA |Wash |Washington |Olympia |Seattle | |
|WV |W.Va. |West Virginia |Charleston |Charleston | |
|WI |Wis. or Wisc. |Wisconsin |Madison |Milwaukee | |
|WY |Wyo. |Wyoming |Cheyenne |Cheyenne | |

|MT |Mont. |Montana |Helena |Billings | |
|NE |Neb. |Nebraska |Lincoln |Omaha | |
|NV |Nev. |Nevada |Carson City |Las Vegas | |
|NH |N.H. |New Hampshire |Concord |Manchester | |
|NJ |N.J. |New Jersey |Trenton |Newark | |
|NM |N.M. |New Mexico |Santa Fe |Albuquerque | |
|NY |N.Y. |New York |Albany |New York City | |
|NC |N.C. |North Carolina |Raleigh |Charlotte | |
|ND |N.D., N.Dak., or No. Dak. |North Dakota |Bismarck |Fargo | |
|OH |Ohio |Ohio |Columbus |Columbus | |
|OK |Okla. |Oklahoma |Oklahoma City |Oklahoma City | |
|OR |Ore. or Oreg. |Oregon |Salem |Portland | |
|PA |Penn. or Penna. |Pennsylvania |Harrisburg |Philadelphia | |

|IL |Ill. |Illinois |Springfield |Chicago | |
|IN |Ind. |Indiana |Indianapolis |Indianapolis | |
|IA |Iowa |Iowa |Des Moines |Des Moines | |
|KS |Kan. or Kans. |Kansas |Topeka |Wichita | |
|KY |Ky. |Kentucky |Frankfort |Louisville | |
|LA |La. |Louisiana |Baton Rouge |New Orleans * | |
|ME |Maine |Maine |Augusta |Portland | |
|MD |Md. |Maryland |Annapolis |Baltimore | |
|MA |Mass. |Massachusetts |Boston |Boston | |
|MI |Mich. |Michigan |Lansing |Detroit | |
|MN |Minn. |Minnesota |Saint Paul |Minneapolis | |
|MS |Miss. |Mississippi |Jackson |Jackson | |
|MO |Mo. |Missouri |Jefferson City |Kansas City | |


1. Washington 2. Oregon 3. California 4. Idaho 5. Nevada 6. Montana 7. Wyoming 8. Utah 9. Arizona 10. North Dakota 11. South Dakota 12. Nebraska 13. Colorado 14. Kansas 15. New Mexico 16. Oklahoma 17. Texas 18. Minnesota 19. Iowa 20. Missouri 21. Arkansas 22. Louisiana 23. Michigan’ 24. Wisconsin 25. Illinois

26. Indiana 27. Ohio 28. Kentucky 29. Tennessee 30. Mississippi 31. Alabama 32. New York 33. Pennsylvania 34. West Virginia 35. Virginia 36. North Carolina 37. South Carolina 38. Georgia 39. Florida 40. Maine 41. Vermont 42. New Hampshire 43. Massachusetts 44. Connecticut 45. Rhode Island 46. New Jersey 47. Delaware 48. Maryland 49. Alaska 50. Hawaii


1. New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day-1st January

2. Valentine’s Day-14th February

3. Easter-Sunday between 22 March 22 & 25 April

4. Memorial Day-last Monday in May

5. Independence Day-4th July

6. Labor Day-First Monday in September

7. Arbor Day-early Jan/Feb or in May

8. Halloween-31st October

9. Veteran’s Day-(Armistice Day) either 11th November or on the fourth Monday of October

10. Thanksgiving Day-Fourth Thursday of November

11. Christmas 25th December


| already |As much as possible, avoid using already at the end of the sentence. |
| |This is an expression of exasperation. i.e Quit already! You’ve been bugging me |
| |the whole day. |
| aircon |Air-condition; air-conditioning/ AC |
| Avail the item |Take advantage of/avail of |
| back fighter |backbiter |
| batch |Class(Use class/team/group for people and batch for things, i.e. a batch of |
| |accounts |
| bottomless |refillable |
| chit |Bill/check |
| Come again? |Could you repeat that please? Pardon me, could you say that one more time |
| |please? Excuse me, what was that again?(Informal) |
| Connected with (a company) |Working with (a company) |
| Cope up with |Cope with |
| CR |Restroom, toilet, bathroom, john |
| Don’t shout/yell to me. |Don’t shout/yell at me |
| Eat-all-you-can restaurant |All-you-can-eat restaurant |
| Every now and then |often |
| Fall in line |Stand in line or stand on line |
| Fetch someone |Pick up someone |
| For a while |Hold on a moment, please. Please hold. |
| Furniture’s |Furniture |
| Fill up the form |Fill in/ fill out the form |
| Good in (doing something) |Good at |
| Go down |Get off(a vehicle); opposite: Get on |
| If it ever happens |If ever happens |
| It’s near to the church |It’s near the church. |
| |It’s close to the church |
| It’s so traffic |There’s a lot traffic |
| malling |Go to the mall. Shop at the mall |
| I’ll go ahead |I will see you there; See you tomorrow; Good night; I’ll see you back at the |
| |office. For I’ll go ahead, you can say this for as long as there is something |
| |you intend to do after saying it i.e. I’ll go ahead and buy that car. You go |
| |ahead and take your early lunch. |
| I will be the one who do that |I’ll do that |



Asking how someone is How are you? How’s you family? (The family) How’ are you doing? (doing today) Are you doing OK? How your feeling? (How you feelin?) How have you been? (How you been?)

Agreeing Yes Yeah (informal) Yep (informal) Yup (informal) Right! You’re right! Right you are! Right on! Right o! Uh-huh! Sure You got it! You bet!

That is true. (That’s true) Ain’t that the truth? That’s for certain That’s for sure Well said. I couldn’t agree with you more. I have no problem with that. You took the words right out of my mouth.

Expressing acceptance It’s fine. (I think it’s fine) it’s ideal. It’s good enough. This is perfect It’ll do. That suits me to a T. It’s fabulous That’s it. It’s A-11 It couldn’t be better

Stating that you understand I hear you. I hear you, man. I see what you’re sayin! I can see that. I got you Gotcha! I follow you Read you loud and clear Point well taken! I dig it (slang)

Disagreeing No Nope No way Not a chance Uh-uh I don’t think so

|1 |staffs |staff |
|2 |avail the item |avail of the item/take advantage of the sale item |
|3 |batch |class |
|4 |chit |bill/check |
|5 |Come again? |Could you repeat that, please? |
|6 |cope up with |cope with |
|7 |CR/toilet cope with |bathroom/restroom loo |
|8 |Discuss about the proposal |Discuss the proposal |
|9 |shout to/yell to |Shout at/yell at |
|10 |eat all you can restaurant |all-you-can-eat- restaurant/buffet |
|11 |every now and then |Often |
|12 |Equipments |Equipment |
|13 |fill up the form |fill in/fill out the form |
|14 |For a while |Hold on a moment, please. |
|15 |furniture’s |furniture |
|16 |If ever it happens |If it ever happens |
|17 |It's near to the church |It’s near the church/It’s close to the church |
|18 |It's so traffic |There’s a lot of traffic |
|19 |I will be the one who do that |I’ll do that |
|20 |jewelries |jewelry |
|21 |Officemate |Colleague/co-worker |
|22 |Open/close(an appliance) |Turn on/off (an appliances) |
|23 |Open/close(power) |Switch on/off (power) |
|24 |pass the paper to… |Hands in the paper to. . . |
|25 |She has two trainings today. |She has two training sessions today. |
|26 |Thank you for information’s. |Thank you for the information |
|27 |stuffs |stuff |
|28 |Would you like to add some extra cheeses? |Would you like extra cheese |

Script of Clip 6


Linda: By late October of ’41, London was really under a hailstorm of German bombs called the blitz. And life in the America was energized with the knowledge of what was inevitable. Young men were disappearing late at night and signing up for the draft. Glen Miller was pumping out dance music while there was still time to dance. And Ed Leland has cast his eyes on my direction. For us like the war, it was just a matter of time.

(Laughter… Conversation in German)

Ed: I can’t speak Ger..(laugh) I can’t get the accent.

Linda: It made you laugh.

Ed: Yes, you … do that better

Lind: Hard thing to do. . . . make you laugh.

Ed: Serious times, Linda

Linda: Uh-huh! All the more reason. Charlie Chaplin says a day without laughter is the day wasted.

Ed: You believe that?

Linda: Yeah! I try to laugh . . . once a day . . . just in case. Do you like Charlie Chaplin?

Ed: To be quite honest I have never seen him.

Linda: You’re kidding.

Ed: No!

Linda: So what are you doing tonight? (Laughs)

Ed: Tonight? I have tickets for the opera.

Script of Clip7

(Music; I’ll Be Seeing You. . . )

Linda: Six months into the war and Europe still belong to Hitler and Mousolini. American boys were being lost by the thousands on Pacific shore with names like Corregidor and Bataan and the name Ed Leland has disappeared from the face of the earth. When spring came to Washington, he was all I thought about because I believe that wherever he was, the force of my love for him will keep him safe . . . keep him alive.

Man: Excuse me. I noticed a look like a familiar face. Do you like to dance?

Linda: (shakes head) No. . . .

Man: Sure?

(Music continues)

Script of Clip8

Ed: Linda! ‘Cause you are secretary . . . you are not a spy

Linda: Because I’m a secretary . . .

Ed: You’re not suited to it Linda. You have no formal training whatsoever. . .

Linda: I’m not suited to it. . you can speak German

Ed: You can’t notice, huh? Since the first time I met you everything that is in your mind comes sploosh out in your mouth . . . makes you very dangerous.

Linda: it’s more my word than it is yours!

Ed: it id a ridiculous thing to say!

Linda: I’m a Jew.

Ed: You know what Hitler’s doin’ with Jews? You could have. . . Jews

Linda: Of course I do. I have relatives hiding.

Ed: I doubt!

Linda: That they’re still hiding?

Ed: You know what’s happen?

Linda: Meaning?

Ed: Meaning. . I’m not gonna let you commit suicide.

Linda: I will I quit if you don’t let me go.

Ed: I will miss you!!

Linda: I will. . gooddamnit!!

I quit!!!

(Bell . . . knocks)

Ed: Linda!!
Script of clip 9

(German. . . . . accent)

Announcer: Excuse me…

Linda: (speaking in German)

Announcer: Might I interrupt? You were just speaking in German.

Linda: Sorry. I remember. .uh. . it in German.

Announcer: Could you remember it in English please?

Linda: Sure.

Script of Clip 10

Girl: What is that?

Linda: My family. We heard they’re hiding in Berlin.

Girl: You’re Jewish?

Linda: Half.

Girl: My God! You’ve got guts!

Linda My father calls it chutzpah!!


|avail the item |take advantage of |
|backfighter |Backbiter |
|batch |Class |
|chit |Bill/check |
|come again |Could repeat that please? |
|cope up with |Cope with |
|CR |Bathroom, restroom, loo |
|Eat all you can restaurant |All-you-can-eat restaurant/buffet |
|Every now and then |Often |
|For a while |Hold for a moment, please |
|furnitures |Furniture |
|Fill up the form |Fill in/fill out the form |
|If it ever happens |If ever happens |
|It’s so traffic |There is a lot of traffic. |
|I will be the one to do that |I’ll do that |
|Officemate |Colleague, co-worker |
|Open/Close (electric apparatuses) |Turn on/off; Switch on/off |
|Pass the phone to me. |Hand me the phone. |
|Pass the paper to me. |Hand in/ Submit the paper |
|Ref |Fridge |
|Reply back |Reply |
|Has two trainings |Has two training sessions |
|Informations |Information |
|Jewelries |Jewelry |
|Stuffs |Stuff |
|Equipments |Equipment |
|Advices |Advice |
|Push through a meeting |The meeting will take place |

Conversation Questions
Clothes & Fashion

A part of Conversation Questions for the ESL Classroom.

• About how much money do you spend on clothes a year? • Do you like to shopping for new clothes? • Do you often buy new clothes? • Do you sometimes wear a hat? • Do you think it is important to wear fashionable clothes? • Do you think it is important to be in a fashion?) • Do you wear jewelry? o If so, what kind of jewelry do you wear? o How often do you wear jewelry? • Do you wear the same color clothes now that you wore ten years a go? • Do you wear the same size clothes this year as you wore last year? • Do you think people feel different when they wear different clothes? • Have ever made your own clothes? o If so, what did you make? o Do you often make your own clothes? • How many pairs of gloves do you have? • What are some of the strangest fashions you have seen? • What colors do you think look good on your mother? • What did you wear yesterday? • What do you think of body piercing? o Do you have pierced ears? o Do you know anyone with a pierced nose? o Would you ever pierce your tongue? • What do you think of people who dye their hair green? • What do you of women who wear high heel shoes? o Do you think high heel shoes are bad for a person’s health? • What fashions that you see today do you think will be out of fashion with in two years? • What is your shoe size? • What kind of clothes are in fashion now? • What kind of clothes do you usually wear? • What’s the most expensive piece of clothing you have ever bought? • What’s your favorite color for shoes? • When was the last time you got dressed up? o Why? o How often do you get dressed up? o Do you like to get dressed up? • Where are some good stores to buy clothes in this area? • Where do you usually buy clothes? • Would you like to be a fashion model? • Questions on Styles Clothing and Fashion-based Stereotypes o What would you think of a woman who cut off all her hair and went around bald as a fashion statement? o What do you think of a man who is bald for fashion’s sake? o What do you think of women who wear short mini-skirt? o What do you think of people who always and only wear black? ▪ Do you have tattoo? ▪ Do you know someone with a tattoo? o What do you think of people with body piercings?
Pumping [n., thrusting, as in the sexual act]. This has been popularized by the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB) in referring to objectionable sex scenes.
Salvage [v., n., summary execution]. This usage is particularly misleading since salvage means save or secure something for complete loss or destruction.
Text [v. texted, texting; to send a text message via a cell phone], as in He texted me last night about his problem so I’m texting him back. This began in the late ‘90s when cell phone became text-capable. Sending text messages has become so popular that the Philippines has become the text-messaging capital of the world, according to the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC).
Trending [v., use the trend in a process to influence the results], usually in the construction make a trending; used in Filipino with the prefix “mag-.”

Some Filipinisms are neoterisms, i.e., new forms for meanings already indicated by other word or phrases. Thought this type of Filipinism is not in international dictionaries of English, is that not clash with similar or related English words, and does not confuse readers as much as neosemanticisms. aggrupation [n., an assembly or grouping], as in this movement is an aggrupation of religious groups and NGOs. The listed English word is aggroupment. backgrounder [n., background to a plan or proposal], as in The following paragraphs constitute the backgrounder to the proposed Philippine position in the negotiations. Actually, the term background is accurate and sufficient for the same meaning. fiscalizer [n. (political) critic], as in Coming from the minority party, I expect my role in the senate to be that of a fiscalizer. This most probably derives from our use of fiscal for the public presecutor, a carry-over from one of the meanings of the Spanish fiscal. The OED lists the verb fiscalize, but this means “to cause the collection of revenue” and is thus not the source for our Filipinism. masteral [adj., pertaining to a master’s degree], as in Her masteral thesis is unrelated to her teaching career. The listed word is master’s, though masteral does parallel doctoral quite well, and is being used by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports, as well as the Commission on Higher Education. passporting [adj., pertaining to the processing of passports], as in incomplete documents and other required materials cause the majority of pass porting problems. This term is used at the Department of Foreign Affairs. postpone s.t. to a later date [cf. move s.t. to a later date]. The dictionary listing is postpone until a later date, or postpone for a given time period, e.g., postpone until February 15, postpone for three months. presidentiable or presidentiable [adj., n., of presidential caliber; with good chances of getting elected president]. Popularized by the newspapers during the 1992 presidential race, this derivation has also spawned senatoriable. rallyist [n., participant in a public rally or demonstration]. Philippine newspapers in English use this term, as in Rallyists convene at Chino Rocess (formerly Merado) Bridge near Malacanyang to dramatize their protest on [sic] the expanded Value Added Tax law. The term listed in dictionaries is rallier. routinary [adj]. the dictionary entry is routine fir both noun and adjective.

acrossed across It is easy to confuse “across” with “crossed” but better to keep them separate affidavid affidavit Even if your lawyer’s name is “David,” he issues affidavits.
Old-timer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease While it is a disease of old-timers, it is named for the German neurologist, Dr. Alois Alzheiner.
Antartic Antarctic Just think of an arc of ants (an ant arc) and that should help you keep the [c] in the pronunciation of this word.
Artic Arctic Another hard-to-see [c] – but it is there. aks ask This mispronunciation has been around for so long (over 1,000 years) that linguist Mark Aronoff thinks we should cherish it as a part of our linguistic heritage. Most of us would give the axe to “aks.” athelete, athlete Two syllables are enough for “athlete” atheletic athletic

barbituate barbiturate Don’t forget this word contains three others: bar+bit+u+rate bob wire barbed wire No, this word wasn’t named for anyone named “Bob.” it should be “barbed wire,” although the suffix –ed, meaning “having,” is fading away in the U.S. bidness business The change of [s] to [d] before [n] is spreading throughout the US and when the unaccented f[T] drops from this word the [s] finds itself in the same environment as in “isn’t” and “wasn’t.” a blessing in the skies a blessing in disguise This phrase is no blessing if it comes from the skies. This phrase is no blessing if it comes from the skies. (Pronounce it correctly and help maintain the disguise.)

Calvary cavalry It isn’t clear why we say, “mind your Ps and Qs” when we have more difficulty keeping up with our Ls and Rs. Had not been so tragic. cannidate candidate You aren’t being canny to drop the [d] in this word. Remember, it is the same as “candy date.’ (This should help guys remember how to prepare for dates,too.) card shark cardsharp Cardsharps probably won’t eat you alive, though they are adept at cutting your purse strings.
Carpool tunnel syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome This one is mispronounced (and misspelled) several Different ways; we just picked the funniest. Carpal means “pertaining to the wrist.” caucaphony cacophony There is no great cacophony [kae’kaffeni] to the ears than word. The Caucases The Caucasus Although there are more than one mountain in this chain, their name is not plural noun.

chester drawers chest of drawers The drawers of Chester is a typical way of looking at these chest down South bit it misses the point. chomp at the bit champ at the bit “Chomp” has probably replaced “champ” in the U.S. but we thought you might like to be reminded that the vowel should be [ǽ] not [o]. close clothes The [th] is a very soft sound likely to be verlooked. Show your linguistic sensitivity and always pronounce it. coronet cornet Playing a crown (coronet) will make you about as popular as wearing a trumpet (coronet) on your head – reason enough to keep these two words straight.

Dialate dilate The [i] in this word is so long there is time for another vowel but don’t succumb to the temptation. diptheria diphtheria The “ph” in this word is pronounced [f], not [p]. doggy dog world dog-eat-dog world The world is even worse than you think if you think it merely a “doggy-dog world.” Sorry to be the bearer of such bad news. drownd drown You add the [d] only to the past tense and past participle.

elec’toral e’lectoral The accent is on the second, not the third, syllable and there is no [i] in it – not “electorial.” (By the way, the same applies to “mayoral” and “pastoral.”) excape escape. The good news is, if you say “excape,” you’ve mastered the prefix ex- because its meaning does fit this word. The bad news is, you don’t use this prefix on “escape.” expresso espresso While I can’t express my love for espresso enough, this word was borrowed from Italian well after the Latin prefix ex- had developed into es-. excetera et cetera Latin for “and” (et) “the rest” (cetera) are actually two words that probably should be written separately. expecially especially Things especial are usually not expected, so don’t confuse these words.


accuse (someone) ___ doing something addicted ___ (something) afraid ___ (someone or something) angry ___/ ___ (something) apologized ____ (something) bored ____ (something) differ ____ (something else) fluent ___ (a language) satisfied _____ (something)

When the English tongue we speak
Why is “break” not rhymed with “freak”?
Will you tell me why it’s true?
We say “sew” but likewise “new”?
“Beard” by no means rhymes with “heard”
“Cord” is not all like “word”;
“Cow” is “cow”, but “low” is “low”;
Shoe is never rhymed with “foe”.
And since “pay” goes well with “say”,
Why not “paid” with “said”, I pray?
So, in short, it seems to me
Sounds and letters disagree.

If you want to say something about your health and happiness, say:

Fine I’m fine I’m cool (slang)
Keepin’ cool (slang) Dandy (informal
Great Couldn’t be better
Happy as a clam All right
Can’t complain I have nothing to complain about

Self employed people pay the entire 15.3% although they are allowed to deduct one-half of this amount from their total income when they file income taxes. Above this payroll taxes presumably pay into the Social Trust Fund and Medicare Trust Funds that they will then draw on when the worker grows older.

The expression was used frequently by southern politicians in the early 1960s in connection with civil rights protests by minorities and as an excuse to use physical force against them. Liberals would mock the southern accented way of saying it, “lawnawduh”.

Just like your own language, conversational American English has a very smooth, fluid sound. Imagine that you walking along a dry riverbed with your eyes closed. Every time you come to a rock, you trip over it, stop, continue and trip over the next rock. This is how the average foreigner speaks English. It is slow, awkward, and even painful. Now imagine that you are a great river rushing thorough that same riverbed-rocks are no problem, are they? You just slide over and around them without ever breaking your smooth flow.

Americans are known for their ability to establish communication with almost everybody. They have developed the skill of immediately building rapport with a co-worker, a salesperson, an acquaintance or an eRep.

eRep: Thank you for calling Xbox how may I help you today?

Cust: Hi, I’d like to know when will they deliver my package? I’ve been waiting for almost two weeks now. I’d appreciate it if you can give me any news.

eRep: I can help you that. But before we proceed, can I get your name and account number?

Cust: My name is Joan Rollins, account number is 093384792-498376.

eRep: Thank you for that Ms. Rollins. Moving forward, you said you’d like to enquire regarding you undelivered package?

Cust: Yes.

eRep: Can I put you on hold for a while? I need to check your account.

Cust: For a while? How long? I’ve been calling your center since this morning and the last agent I talked with also said that I’d be on hold for “a while” and it practically took me forever waiting, that I decided to hang up. Can you at least tell me exactly how long will you put me on hold?

Generally, Americans have the capacity to manage one’s own affairs, make one’s own judgments, and provide for oneself, one’s group or organization, independence, self-determination, and self-sufficiency. They believe that they are responsible for their own food, shelter, water, and other necessities at the event.

Americans are generally known for their belief in a convenient and fast-paced life. Inventions have been made to cater to their concept of convenience, to save time to more important matters.

Westerners are known to have developed the ability to consider everything in their own peripheral environment under them. Things that deeply matter automatically fall under their own discretion, and can affect their will and eventual decisions.

Americans are often received as rich, yuppie and opportunists, but in really, they are also like the rest of us-trying to make ends meet. They deal with difficulty on a daily basis. That is why most of them try to develop skills on putting up a business that will help them earn and somehow assist them in paying the bills.

Americans like to get to the point quickly and appreciate insightful understanding.

An eRep who understands are reinforces a meaningful customer service with phrases such us “I can certainly take care of that for you; this will just take a moment… Would you mind if I put you on hold?” will receive a much more favorable response than to phrases like, “That might be difficult…. I’ve never done that,” or “I don’t know how.”

Americans love the idea of being at par with one another over individual liberty and freedom. It explain how diverse groups of people, holding different and sometimes conflicting personal ambitions, evolved into a society that valued both liberty and fairness.

There is common term in English this days-political correctness, or PC for short-that is actually simple good manners and common sense. If you are well brought up, this will not even be an issue for you. If for some reason, you absolutely need to refer to race, don’t do it in a derogatory manner. Don’t refer to woman as inferior. Handicapped people are people too. Poor people have the same basic rights as rich people. The only difference between old people and young people is age. No religion is any better than any other. People of non-mainstream gender orientations didn’t ask to be that way and shouldn’t pay a penalty.

The Ten Commandments of American Culture

from The ABCs of American Culture

These “commandments” have no religious or moral authority like the “Ten Commandments” of the Bible, of course. However, if you break any of these “cultural commandments,” most Americans will think you do not fit in very well. We may not understand you and may even criticize you or insult you.

The situation will be very similar to what you have probably seen Americans do in your country. We do not bother to learn the basis “cultural commandments” in your country. Soon we break them. The local people are offended and we Americans cannot understand why. In this article, you may learn some ways to avoid that problem while you are working with Americans.

Commandment 1. You can’t argue with success. (Be a success.)

Success is probably the most praised thing in American life. It relates to so many other characteristics of American life-individualisms, freedom, goal-setting, progress, experimenting, social mobility, making money, pragmatism, (doing what works), and optimism (expecting good things to happen).

Americans want to “make a success of themselves.” This is the “American Dream” which has attracted millions of immigrants and been taught to generations of American children. Every-one wants to be a success at something. If you do not think that way, you are considered s failure.

It is almost impossible to criticize success. For example, if an employee does something without properly consulting his supervisor, and as a result the company gets a big contract with a new customer, the employee will get much more praise than blame. The success of getting the new contract is more important than the failure to consult a superior.

Sometimes people will even say cheating is justified if it brings success. Other people however, may argue with success of that kind.

Commandment 2. Live and let live. (Be tolerant.)

Americans love freedom and privacy. In a way that means we love to be left alone. We don’t want anyone interfering in our affairs, giving us advice, or trying to run our lives. We want people to “stay off our backs,” “stay out of our way,” and “mind their own business.”

Perhaps Live and let live should be listed as the first commandment of American culture, even more important than success. It means that no one should object to anyone else’s way of living. If you like opera and I like country music, that is fine. If you want to get married and I want to live with someone without legalizing it, that is fine, too. Neither of us should try to influence the other or object to the way the other lives.

If we are not tolerant of other people, we may damage their self-esteem (their own view of their value as human beings). To attack someone’s self-esteem is to break one of the most basic rules of American life.

Commandment 3. Time files when you’re having fun.(Have lots of fun.)

Americans try to have as much fun as possible. Much of our fun comes through various kinds of entertainment, especially TV. But we also try to turn other activities into fun. Shopping is fun, Eating is fun, and in case it is not enough fun, we will put a playground inside the fast-food restaurant so the kids can have fun playing while the grown-ups have fun sitting and eating. Learning to read can be turned into fun, as the Sesame Street TV programs show. People try to get a job which is fun (though not many succeed). Having fun is the major preoccupation of youth, retired people, and many of those in between.

In most situations Americans time are very time-conscious. We know how long will it be till our next appointment, how long till this work day is over, and how long it will take to drive home. However, we forget to watch the clock when we are having fun. That is why “time files,” that is, time seems to go by very quickly.

Commandment 4. Shop till you drop. (Enjoy the fruits of your success.)

Many Americans shop as a form of recreation. Even if we are not shopping for anything in particular, we simply enjoy looking at all the options. We love the whole process of choosing what to buy and where to buy it. It is a major topic of social conversation. If you want to impress an American friend, convince him or her that you are a “smart shopper.”

The saying, Shop till you drop, is never used seriously as a command yet it holds a serious meaning. We are the perhaps the ultimate consumer society (and what better way to show off the fruits of our success); this saying describes us so well that it could be our national motto.

Commandment 5. Just do it.

We are people of action. We do not like too much planning. That seems indecisive and perhaps a waste of time. We do not like rules and regulations that prevent action. We strongly dislike authority structures where people are expected to inform several other people before they do anything. We get an idea and we want to just do it.

Action is seen as the key to success. Action is more valuable than planning, checking regulations, or informing people.

Commandment 6. No pain, no gain. (Get tough. Don’t whine.)

Americans are always seeking to gain something or improve something. We expect to have to work to achieve our goals. Success usually involves pain and sacrifice. It will not happen by itself.

If someone often complains about hard something is, we call that person a “wimp.” We look down on such people. The ones we admire are the ones who know what they want and do not mind the pain it takes to get it. They follow the Sixth Commandment, “Get though.”

Commandment 7. Enough is enough. (Stand up for your rights.)

Human rights and dignity are so basic to American thinking that we assume everyone else must think the same way. This proverb implies the command, ”Stand up for your rights.” In the American Revolution, America as nation said to Britain, Enough id enough, that is, “You have ruled us for long enough. You will not us any more.”

As we saw in Commandment 2, Live and let live, American do not want people interfering in their lives. When we sense interference, we push it way.

Commandment 8. Time is money. (Don’t waste time.)

We Americans are very time-conscious and very money-conscious. Many of us get paid by the hour for the work we do. We give the employer our time in order to get money.

The idea that time is money has gotten into our minds deeply that it affects our whole lives. Wasting time is as bad as wasting money, so we schedule everything and we hurry everywhere. By email, fax or phone Americans expect a quick response. Know that your US customers or counterpart doesn’t intend to be rude when they don’t chat; they are simply busy people, juggling family, work, study and fun. We often signal the end of a phone conversation or a meeting by saying, “well, I don’t want to take up any more of your time.”

If you really want to annoy an American, sit down and talk as if you have nothing else to do for the rest of the day. You will be breaking the Eight Commandment of American culture, “Don’t waste time.”

Commandment 9. Rules are made to be broken. (Think for yourself.)

We obey rules most of the time, but we see rules as someone else’s idea of how we should do things. We think the rule might have been appropriate in some other situation but it might not be appropriate for our situation now. Therefore we break it and do what we think is a better idea. This proverb implies the commandment, “Think for yourself in every situation. Do not just obey rules.”

Though Americans say, Rules are made to be broken, we never say, “Laws are made to be broken. “ Laws are official legal “rules” and we proudly claim that in America, “No one is above the law.”

Commandment 10. God helps those who help themselves (Work hard.)

In a list of “Ten Commandments,” one might expect that God would be mentioned in the first commandment rather than the last one. But in American culture, God actually does come at the end of the list. For most Americans, God is much less a concern than success, money and tome. (There are many Americans who put God at the top of their personal list of priorities, but they are a minority within American culture.)

God helps those help themselves could mean that God blesses people who work hard or it could mean, “God doesn’t really help anyone. Your success depends on you, not God.” Either way, the proverb points to the same commandment, “Whether you believe in God or not, work as hard as you can.” It is better to be independent than to depend on others.

• You don’t expect to hear socialism seriously defended. Communism, fuhgeddaboudit. • Between “black” and “white” there are no other races. Someone with one black and one white parent looks black to you. • You think most problems could be solved if only people would put aside their prejudices and work together. • You take a strong court system for granted, even if you don’t use it. You know that if you went into the business and had problems with a customer, partner, or supplier, you could take them to court. • You’d respect someone who speaks French, German, or Japanese—but you very likely don’t yourself speak them well enough to communicate with a monolingual foreigner. You’re a bit more ambivalent about Spanish; you think the schools should teach kids English. • It’s not all that necessary to learn foreign languages anyway. You can travel the continent using nothing but English—and get by pretty well in the rest of the world, too. • You think a tax level of 30% is scandalously high. • School is free through high school (at least, it’s an option, even if you went to private school); college isn’t, unless you get a scholarship. • College is (normally, and excluding graduate study) four years long.

Every body knows that

• Mustard comes in jars. Shaving cream comes in cans. Milk comes in plstic jugs or cardboard boxes, and occasionally in bottles. • The date comes second: 11/22/63. (And you know what happened on that date.) • The decimal point is a dot. Certainly not a comma. • A billion is a thousand times a million. • World War II was a just war, and (granted all the suffering of course) ended all right. It was a time when the country came together and did what was right. And instead of insisting on vengeance, the US very generously rebuilt Europe instead, with the Marshall Plan. • You expect marriages to be made for love, not arranged by third parties. Getting married by a judge is an option, but not a requirement; most marriages happen in church. You have a best man and a maid or matron of honor at the wedding—a friend or a sibling. And, naturally, a man gets only one wife at a time. • If a man has sex with another man, he’s homosexual. • Once you introduced to someone (well, besides the president and other lofty figures), you can call them by their first name. • If you’re a woman, you don’t go to the beach topless. • A hotel room has a private bath. • You’d rather a film be subtitled than dubbed (if you go to foreign films at all.) • You seriously expect to be able to transact business, or deal with the government, without paying bribes. • If a politician has been cheating on his wife, you would question his ability to govern. • Just about any store will take your credit card. • A company can fire just about anybody it wants, unless is discriminates by doing so. • You like your bacon crisp (unless it’s Canadian bacon, of course). • Labor Day is the fall.
Contributions to world civilization

• You’ve probably seen Star Wars, ET, Home Alone, Casablanca, and Snow White. If you’re under forty, add Blazing Saddles, Terminator, Jaws, and 2001; otherwise, add Gone with the wind, A Night at the Opera, Psycho, and Citizen Kane. • You know the Beatles, the Ro lling Stones, Bob Dylan, Elvis, Chuck Berry. Michael Jackson, Simon & Garfunkel, Linda Ronstadt. If not, you know Frank Sinatra, Al Jolson, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, and Kate Smith. • You count on excellent medical treatment. You know you’re not going to die of cholera or other Third World diseases. You expect very strong measures to be taken to save very ill babies or people in their eighties. You think dying at 65 would be a tragedy. • You went over US history, and some European, in school, N\not much Russian, Chinese, or Latin America. You couldn’t name ten US interventions in Latin America. • You expect the military to fight wars, not get involved in politics. You may not be able to name the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. • Your country has never been conquered by a foreign nation. • You’re used to a wide variety of choices for almost anything you buy. • You still measure things in feet, pounds, and gallons. • You are not a farmer. • Comics basically come in two varieties: newspaper comics and magazines; the latter pretty much all feature superheroes. • The people who appear on the most popular talk show are almost entertainers, politicians, or rather strange individuals. Certainly, not, say, authors. • You drive on the right side of the road. You stop at red lights even if nobody’s around. If you’re a pedestrian and cars stopped at a red light, you will fearlessly cross the street of front of them. • You think of Canada as a pleasant, peaceful, but rather dull country, which has suddenly developed an inexplicable problem in Quebec. You probably couldn’t explain why the Canadians didn’t join the other British colonies in rebelling against King George. • You consider the Volkswagen Beetle a small car. • The police are armed, but not with submachine gun. • If a woman is plumper than the average, it doesn’t improve her looks. • The biggest meal of the day is in the evening. • The nationality people most often make jokes about is the Poles. • There’s parts of the definitely want to avoid at night.

Outside the Beltway

• You feel that your kinds of people aren’t being listened to enough in Washington. • You wouldn’t expect both inflation and unemployment to be very high (say, over 15%) at the same time. • You don’t care very much what family someone comes from. • The normal thing, when a couple dies, is for their estate to be divided equally between their children. • You think of opera and ballet as rather elite entertainments. It’s likely you don’t see that many plays, either. • Christmas is in the winter. Unless you’re Jewish, you spend it with your family, give presents, and put up a tree. • You may think the church is too powerful, or the state is; but you are used to not having a state church and don’t think that it would be a good idea. • You’d be hard pressed to name the capitals or the leaders of all the nations of Europe. • You aren’t familiar with Mafalda, Lucky Luke, Corto Maltese, Milo Manara, Guido Crepax, Gotlib, or Moebius. • You’ve left a message at the beep. • Taxis are generally operated by foreigners, who are often deplorably ignorant about the city. • You are distrustful of welfare and unemployment payments—you think people should earn a living and not take handouts. But you would not be in favor of eliminating Social Security and Medicare. • If you want to be a doctor, you need to get a bachelor’s first. • There sure are a lot of lawyers.

Space and time

• If you have an appointment, you’ll mutter an excuse if you’re five minutes late, and apologize profusely if it’s ten minutes. An hour late is almost inexcusable. • If you’re talking to someone, you get uncomfortable if they approach closer than about two feet. • About the only things you expect to bargain for are houses, cars, and antiques. Haggling is largely a matter of finding the hidden point that’s the buyer’s minimum. • Once you’re past college, you very rarely simply show up at someone’s place. People have to invite each other over-especially if a meal is involved. • When you negotiate, you are polite, of course, but it’s only good business to play hardball’. Some foreigners pay excessive attention to status, or sat what they mean, and that’s exasperating.

If you have a business appointment or interview with someone, you expect to have that person to yourself, and the business shouldn’t take more than an hour or so.
US Leaders

Bill Clinton After leaving office, former President Bill Clinton didn’t exactly ride off into the sunset. He set up shop in New York City took several speaking engagements. He also got to ride an elephant on an April 2001 visit to India.

Susan Helms On March 11, 2001, U.S astronaut Susan Helms took a record-breaking spacewalk. It lasted 8 hours and 56 minutes, beating the old record by 30 minutes! Helms in the first woman to live aboard the International Space Station.

Condoleezza Rice Condoleezza Rice is a key player on President George Bush’s team. As National Security Adviser, she helps the president make important decisions about how to deal with other countries. Rice is the first woman ever in this top job.

Ann Bancroft On February 11, 2001, Ann Bancroft of U.S. and Liv Ameson of Norway became the first women to cross Antarctica on skis. The two bold explorers spent three months trekking across the ice. How did they survive the dangerous and grueling expedition? Physical strength on takes you so far, “says Bancroft,” it’s the power from within that energizes you to get through.

Pets in the U.S. You can find a pet in about 60% of U.S. homes! Almost 4 in 10 U.S. homes include at least one dog. Just over 3 in 10 include at least one cat. In addition, millions of Americans share their homes with fish, “pockets pets” like guinea pigs and hamsters, reptiles and other animal companions.

Most popular Pet Names Did you know your funny friend was destined to be a “Max” the moment you looked into his soulful eyes? You’re not alone. The American Society for the Prevention of cruelty to Animals (A.S.P.C.A.) has done a veterinarian survey, reviewing hundreds of thousands of pet names to find out which ones are most popular in the U.S. today.
Here’s a look at the top ten: 1. Max 6. Shadow 2. Sam 7. Kitty 3. Lady 8. Molly 4. Bear 9. Buddy 5. Smokey 10. Brandy

Top 5 Dog Breeds 1. Labrador retriever 2. Golden retriever 3. German Shepherd 4. Dachshund 5. Beagle

Libraries The Library of Congress in Washington D.C., is the largest library in the world. It has more than 24 million books in its collection!

1. Library of the congress - 24 million 2. National Library of China - 20 million

3. National Library of Canada - 16 million 4. Deutcshe Bibliothek, Germany - 15.9 million 5. British Library - 15 million

Panama’s Canal “This is one of the great works of the world” said President Roosevelt when he visited Panama in 1906.Tthe Canal is 50 miles long and runs from northwest to southeast. It cost $387 million to build and was one of the projects in U.S. history. It involved building what was then the largest dam and largest human-made lake in the world.

Most visited National Monuments President Theodore Roosevelt named Devils Tower in Wyoming the first national monument in 1906. Today they are more than 60. Every year millions flock to these sites. Take a look at the most popular:

Location Visitors per year 1. Statue of Liberty, New York 5,200,633 2. Castle Clinton, New York 4,390,268 3. Cabrillo National Monument, California 1,095,638 4. Muir Woods National Monument, California 860,378 5. Montezuma Castle, Arizona 853,821

Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty sits on her own island in New York Harbor. In 1886 the French gave the 152-foot-high, steel-reinforced copper Lady Liberty to the U.S.

San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge Completed in 1937, is one of the most recognizable structures in U.S.

Native American Dance Is often ceremonial or religious, calling on the spirits for help in farming or hunting, or giving thanks for rain or victory in war.

Hip Hop Was developed by teenagers in New York City’s South Bronx in the 1070s. It brings together rhythmic movement, cool music and urban style.

Destructive Avalanches An avalanche is any quick movement of snow, ice, mud or rock down a mountain or slope. Avalanche can reach speeds of more than 200 miles per hour!

Where: Washington State When: 1910

The worst snowslide in U.S. history occurred in the Cascade Mountains in Wellington, Washington, when 118 people were trapped in a snowbound train. An Avalanche then swept them to their deaths in a gorge 150 feet below the tracks.

Largest Freshwater Lake Lake Superior, U.S./Canada 31,700 square miles (82,130 sq km)

Madame C.J. Walker The first U.S. business woman to earn millions.

Speaking of Home About 14% of Americans speak a non-English language at home. It’s estimated that besides English, more than 300 languages are spoken in the U.S. today! Here’s a look at the 20 most common:

1. Spanish 2. French 3. German 4. Italian 5. Chinese 6. Tagalog 7. Polish 8. Korean 9. Vietnamese 10. Portuguese 11. Japanese 12. Greek 13. Arabic 14. Hindi 15. Russian 16. Yiddish 17. Thai 18. Persian 19. French Creole 20. American

American Sign Language (ASL) Was developed at the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut, which was founded in 1817. Teachers at the school created ASL by combining French Sign Language with several American visual languages. It includes signs, gesture, facial expressions and the hand alphabet. Today, ASL is the fourth most used language in the U.S.

U.S. Paper Money

$1 Washington ONE between the front and back of the great seal of U.S.

$2 (1976) Jefferson Montecillo

$2 (1998) Jefferson The signing of the Declaration of Independence

$5 LincoIn LinccoIn Memorial

$10 Hamilton U.S. Treasury Building

$20 (1998) Jackson White House

$50 (1997) Grant U.S. Capitol

$100 (1996) Franklin Independence Hall in Philadelphia Pennsylvania

$500 McKinley Ornate FIVE HUNDRED

$1,000 Cleveland Ornate ONE THOUSAND

$5,000 Madison Ornate FIVE THOUSAND

$10,000 Chase Ornate TEN THOUSAND

$100,000 Wilson Ornate ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND
U.S. Coins

Cent Lincoln Lincoln Memorial

Nickel Jefferson Monticello

Dime F.D. Roosevelt Torch, olive branch, oak Branch

Quarter Washington Eagle

Half0dollar Kennedy Presidential coat of arms

Dollar Sacagawea Eagle in flight And her infant son

Movies and Box-Office Hits 1. Titanic 1997 2. Star Wars 1977 3. Star Wars: Episode One ‘The Phantom Menace 1999 4. E.T. the Extra Terrestrial 1982 5. Jurassic Park 1993 6. Forrest Gump 1994 7. The Lion King 1994 8. Return of the Jedi 1983 9. Independence Day 1996 10. The sixth Sense 1999 11. The Empire Strikes Back 1980 12. Home Alone 1990 13. Jaws 1975 14. Batman 1989 15. Men in Black 1997

American Film Institute’s Greatest

Screen Legends

The American Film Institute defines an American screen legend as “an actor or a team of actors with a significant screen presence in American feature-length films whose screen debut occurred in or before 1950 but whose screen debut occurred after 1950 but whose death was marked completed body of work.”

1. Humphrey Bogart
2. Cary Grant
3. James Stewart
4. Marlin Brando
5. Fred Astaire
6. Henry Fonda
7. Clark Gable
8. James Cagney
9. Spencer Tracy
10. Charlie Chapin

1. Katharine Hepburn
2. Bette Davis
3. Audrey Hepburn
4. Ingrid Bergman
5. Greta Garbo
6. Marilyn Monroe
7. Elizabeth Taylor
8. Judy Garland
9. Marlene Dietrich
10. Joan Crawford

Youngest President in U.S. History 1. Theodore Roosevelt 42 2. John F. Kennedy 42 3. Bill Clinton 46 4. Ulysses S. Grant 46 5. Grover Cleveland 47

Religion in the U.S. The U.S. has more religious groups than any other country in the world. Here are rough estimates of the five major faiths in the U.S.

Christians 151M
Jews 5.6M
Muslims 4.1M
Buddhists 2.4M
Hindus 1M

Sports President George W. Bush is the first former Little League Baseball player to be elected to the country’s highest office. Little League Baseball is the world’s largest organized kids’ sports program. Nearly 3 million children play on teams in every U.S. state and 103 other countries on six continents.

Baseball It is believed that baseball is based on an old English game called rounders. The first baseball games in U.S. occurred in the 1840s.

Football Originally a game played by colleges, professional football gained popularity in the U.S. in the 1920s.

The World Cup The world’s biggest soccer tournament is called World Cup. Its played by every four years by teams made up of each country’s best players. The U.S. won the last women’s World Cup in 1999 while France was the winner of the last men’s World’s Cup in 1998.

Racing The National Association for Stock Car Racing’s (NASCAR) Winston Cup Series is the most popular auto racing series in the U.S… The biggest Winston Cup race of the year is the Daytona 500 and it’s also the first race of the year. The biggest and oldest race held in the U.S. is the Indianapolis 500.

The U.S. Flag In 1777 the Continental Congress decided that the flag would have 13 red and white stripes, for the 13 colonies, and 13 white stars on a blue background. A new star has been added fro every new state. Today the flag has 50 stars.

The great Seal of the U.S. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson began designing the great seal in 1776. the Great Seal is printed on the back of the one-dollar bill and is used on certain government documents, such as foreign treaties. The bald eagle, our national bird, is the center of the seal. It holds a banner in it’s beak. The motto says E pluribus unum, which is Latin for “out of many, one.” This refers to the eh colonies that united to make a nation. In one claw, the eagle holds an olive branch for peace; in the other claw, arrows for war.

Many things in the Great Seal add up to 13, for the 13 colonies:
13 letters in the motto
13 stripes
13 stars
13 olives
13 olives leaves
13 arrows

Top 5 Tornado States (based on average number of tornadoes per year, 1950 to 1998)

Texas (152)
Oklahoma (52)
Kansas (48)
Florida (49)
Nebraska (38)

Ulysses S. Grant On February 9, 1870, this U.S. President started the National Weather Service. A Civil War hero, he was also one of the youngest leaders ever to take the oath of office.

Frank Llyod Wright This man is considered to be one of the greatest American architects. Born in 1867, he is known for his low horizontal homes (called Prairie Style) and his simple, natural designs. HE also created many famous public buildings, including the Guggeheim Museum in New York City.

Steven Spielberg Award winning director brought T. rex to life in Jurassic Park (1193) and the Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997). By age 12 had made his first movie and later went on to create Jaws, E.T. the Extra Terrestrial, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Schindlre’s List and Saving Private Ryan.

Charles F. Ritchter This American Scientist helped create a reliable scale for measuring earthquakes. Introduced in 1935, the system ranks quakes from 0-9 depending on how strong they are at the center.

Chester A. Arthur This president born in 1929 and nicknamed “Elegant Arthur” owned 80 pairs of pants. (He was born the 21st U.S. President)

Thomas Jefferson This famous American statesman was a member of the very first presidential Cabinet. In 1789, George Washington named him Secretary of State. He later become Vice President, then President in 1801, serving two terms. He is best known as the author of Declaration of independence.

Sacagawea This Native American woman guided explorers Lewis and Clark across the American West in 1804. A Shoshone tribeswoman, she is pictured with her infant son, Jean Baptiste, on the gold colored U.S. dollar coin.

Teddy Roosevelt In 1906 this man became the first American and the first U.S. President to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. He won for helping end a war between Russia and Japan. Before his term in office, U.S. Presidents weren’t sp active in international events.

Presidential Pets

George W. Bush has two cats named India and Ernie, and two dogs named Spot and Barney. The First Families have had all kinds of pets-an alligator, a sheep, a pig, a rat, a raccoon, even a cow. Dogs are definitely the Commander-in-Chief’s best friend. More than 50 pooches have lived in the white house.


Students should not be concerned about any differences between British and American English.

When recording cassettes for students and teachers, I use actors with both American and English voices. They provide a variety of differences in pronunciation and intonation which it is useful to get used to.

But if you ask me if there are structural differences between American English and British English, then I have to tell you, “No, not that you would notice.”

Of course, you get these variations of vocabulary that people make much of, and some are listed here. But I would say there is a greater difference between the class and regional dialects within each country than there is between the educated speech of San Francisco and London.

The real problem is to understand a Southerner from the Louisiana bayou country, or a Liverpudlian from Toxteth, or a Glaswegian.

There is the odd word that can cause difficulties. Years ago, teaching a class of teenagers in Montreal, I learnt quickly that what the English call a rubber, the North Americans call an eraser. A rubber in North America is a colloquialism for a condom. Asking a student if I might borrow his rubber was an invitation to loud laughter and coarse comment.

Another student was always late. I asked her if she couldn’t get someone to knock her up in the mornings. Collapse of class. In England, it means to wake someone up, but in North America, to get a girl pregnant.

But, I repeat, the differences, the real differences, between British and American English are slight, and the one borrows from the other constantly. Americans are perhaps more inventive, however. Recently, we have had “zipperwatch”, a man marvelous word to describe a reporter who is assigned to check on the sex-life of a politician; more recently, “bimbo”, an attractive girl of limited intellect.

A few, largely time-worn, examples of British/American vocabulary differences (the British version is given first):

Caretaker/janitor, Council school/public school, public school/private school, dust cart/garbage truck, ex-serviceman/veterinarian, lift/elevator, fanlight/transom, holiday/vacation, pram/baby carriage, pig breeding/hog raising, queue/line-up, scribbling-block/scratch-pad, tap/faucet, veranda/porch, time/lumber.

Many of the errors in usage covered in the dictionary which follow are result of a lack of awareness of the difference between written and spoken English.

Here are some examples of how vocabulary changes in each level of usage:

Formal Informal Popular

Comprehend understand get it

Intoxicated drunk wasted

Exhausted tired bagged

Dejected sad bummed

A major problem with popular English is that is vocabulary is either too limited or too specialized (not all professors are up to date with the latest slang, and the slang used by one group may be scorned by another). Slang also changes rapidly. The third column in this list will look rather dated in a few years (if it isn’t already), while the words in the first two columns have been around since Shakespeare.

The student must always be aware of what kind of work she or he is doing. The style must be appropriate to the subject, the situation and the intended audience. These issues are also important when you decided on your audience or when your professor lowers your grade for using colloquial language.

How to tell if you’re American

Not long ago, one of those earnest-freshman puppydogs on the Net declared that there was “no such thing as American culture,” Right, Fish have also been known to doubt the existence of water.

The following is a first crack at an sensitive definition of ‘American culture’—things shared by the vast majority (let’s say 90%) of native-born Americans. Many of these won’t sound ‘cultural’ at all to Americans; they’ll sound like just descriptions of the way things are. But each of one of them would be contested in one or more non-American cultures.

If you’re American

o You believe deep down in the First Amendment, guaranteed by the government and perhaps by God. o You’re familiar with David Letterman, Mary Tyler Moore, Saturday Night Live, Bewitched, the Flintstones, Sesame Street, Mr. Rogers, Bob Newhart, Bill Cosby, Bugs Bunny, Road Runner, Donald Duck, the Fonz, Archie Bunker, Star Trek, the Honeymooners, the Addams Family, the Three Stooges, and Beetle Bailey. o You know how baseball, basketball, and American football are played. If you’re male, you can argue intricate points about their rules. On the other hand (and unless you’re under about 20), you don’t care that much for soccer. o You count yourself fortunate if you get three weeks of vacation a year.

If you died tonight… • You’re fairly likely to believe in God; if not, you’ve certainly been approached by people asking whether you know that you’re going to Heaven. • You think of McDonald’s, Burger King, KFC etc. as cheap food. • You probably own a telephone and a T.V. Your place is heated in the winter and has its own bathroom. You do your laundry in a machine. You don’t kill your own food. You don’t have a dirt floor. You eat at a table, sitting on chairs. • You don’t consider insects, dogs, cats, monkeys, or guinea pigs to be food. • A bathroom may not

----------------------- 1. You can’t argue wit success. (Results count.) 2. Live and let live. (Be tolerant.) 3. Time files when you’re having fun. (Have lots of fun.) 4. Shop till you drop. (Enjoy the fruits of you success.) 5. Just do it. (Action is the key to success.) 6. No pain, no gain. (Get tough.) 7. h0$Ûh0$ÛCJH*[pic]aJh0$Ûh0$ÛCJaJh?¼h9&É5?CJ$OJQJaJ$h?¼Enough is enough. (Stand up for your rights.) 8. Time is money. (Don’t waste time.) 9. Rules are made to be broken. (Think for yourself.) 10. God helps those who help themselves. (Work hard.)

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