Essential Thinkers

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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First American paperback edition published in 2006 by Enchanted Lion Books, 45 Main Street, Suite 519, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Copyright © 2002 Philip Stokes/Arcturus Publishing Limted 26/27 Bickels Yard, 151-153 Bermondsey Street, London SE1 3HA Glossary © 2003 Enchanted Lion Books All Rights Reserved. The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier hardcover edtion of this title for which a CIP record is on file. ISBN-13: 978-1-59270-046-2 ISBN-10: 1-59270-046-2 Printed in China Edited by Paul Whittle Cover and book design by Alex Ingr

A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3

Philip Stokes

A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3

ENCHANTED LION BOOKS New York

Contents
The Presocratics
Thales of Miletus . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Pythagoras of Samos . . . . . 10 Xenophanes of Colophon 12 Heraclitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

The Scholastics
St Anselm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 St Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . 50 John Duns Scotus . . . . . . . . . 52 William of Occam . . . . . . . . . 54

The Liberals
Adam Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Mary Wollstonecraft . . . . 108 Thomas Paine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Jeremy Bentham . . . . . . . . . 112 John Stuart Mill . . . . . . . . . . 114 Auguste Comte . . . . . . . . . . . 116

The Eleatics
Parmenides of Elea . . . . . . . 16 Zeno of Elea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

The Age of Science
Nicolaus Copernicus . . . . . . 56 Niccolò Machiavelli . . . . . . . 58 Desiderus Erasmus . . . . . . . . 60 Thomas More . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Francis Bacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Galileo Galilei . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Thomas Hobbes . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Sir Isaac Newton . . . . . . . . . . 70

The Evolutionists
Charles Darwin . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Henri Louis Bergson . . . . 120 A. N. Whitehead . . . . . . .…...

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