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Hegemony was a concept developed from Karl Marx’s ideas by the Italian neo-Marxist Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). Marx had originally argued that the capitalist society would become ever more polarized between working class and the ruling class, however during the 20th Century neo-Marxists realised that this was not happening and it soon became evident that society was becoming more complex rather than polarized and in fact there was now more classes and intermediate groups within society than before so neo-Marxists began to rethink how capitalist societies functioned. Gramsci was a key thinker in the debate about class and power and developed the concept of ‘Hegemony’ in his famous Prison Notebooks after being imprisoned by Mussolini’s fascist government, for being a leader in the Italian Communist party. Gramsci’s idea of the concept of Hegemony has come to be central when discussing sociologically the complexity of the modern society.

Gramsci’s concept of Hegemony is the way in which ‘one class dominates another through consent rather than force.’(Macionis & Plummer, 1997) For Gramsci the state equals political society and civil society. He stated that the ruling class must gain the consent of the working class and that no government could rule by force alone for very long. He believed that there was a process where in which a dominant group wins over a subordinated/ less dominant group through its ideas, forming political alliances with other groups and working ideologically in order to control and dominate society. He called this process Hegemony and believed that in order to ensure that this process works, then the interests and ideas of the subordinated groups have to be considered, their interests noted and recognition and concessions given to them. He believed that this was important in maintaining the smooth running of the state as…...

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...class, which another term for this is called hegemony. The other theorists knew this to, but Gramsci also thought that the state wasn’t the only political institution. He saw the state divided into two sections, political and civil societies. The civil side ruled through the consent of the ruling class and the political side ruled through the force. To try and change the original norms, or hegemony, the proletarian class needed to gain control of the means of production. In order to do so as Gramsci implied, “this ‘war of attack’ could only succeed with a prior ‘war of position’ in the form of struggle over ideas and beliefs, to create a new hegemony” ("Gramsci and Hegemony."). After reading and discussing many factors of capitalism and the structure of society, Karl Marx and the other theorists, all seem to believe there are social issues, inequality and a solution to change the relation of production. To change the production, would mean equality all throughout our system, which many years later, still isn’t the case today. The world will forever be a place filled with unhappy people, disputing about the means of society. Orum, Anthony M., and John G. Dale. "Chapter 2: On the Economy and Politics." Political Sociology: Power and Participation in the Modern World. 5th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. Print. "Gramsci and Hegemony." Understanding Power for Social Change Powercubenet IDS at Sussex University Gramsci and Hegemony Comments. Web. 17 Sept. 2015....

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